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adipose aging

L Mo-Suwan, E McNeil, P Sangsupawanich, U Chittchang, C Choprapawon
AIM: The association between adiposity rebound and insulin resistance in middle childhood has seldom been studied. We examined the effect of body mass index (BMI) velocity and early adiposity rebound on the insulin resistance of prepubertal children. METHODS: BMI data from a longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort in Thailand were used. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from 12-hour fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin at 8...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Flávio Andrade Francisco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Kelly Valério Prates, Vander Silva Alves, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ananda Malta, Elaine Vieira, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Audrei Pavanello, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Rodrigo Mello Gomes
PURPOSE: Environmental and nutritional disorders during perinatal period cause metabolic dysfunction in the progeny and impair human health. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are primarily produced during metabolism of excess blood glucose, which is observed in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs, which disturbs the metabolism. This work aimed to investigate whether the maternal MG treatment during lactation programs the progeny to metabolic dysfunction later in life...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Annelies De Decker, Bart De Clercq, Sandra Verbeken, C K Wells Jonathan, Caroline Braet, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Isabelle Sioen
'Reward sensitivity' explains inter-individual differences in the motivation to obtain rewards when reward cues are perceived. This psychobiological trait has been linked to higher consumption of palatable food when exposed to palatable food cues. The current study aims to examine if reward sensitivity explains differences in patterns of fat and lean tissue accretion over time in children. A longitudinal observational study with measurement waves in 2011 (baseline), 2012, 2013, and 2015 was conducted. The sample was a population-based Flemish cohort of children (n = 446, 50% boys and 5...
October 14, 2016: Appetite
B Patro-Gołąb, B M Zalewski, M Kołodziej, S Kouwenhoven, L Poston, K M Godfrey, B Koletzko, J B van Goudoever, H Szajewska
This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (, provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity, overweight and adiposity. Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up until September 2015. Forty systematic reviews were included. A consistent association of breastfeeding with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood was found (the odds decreased by 13% based on high-quality studies), but residual confounding cannot be excluded...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Kara M Whitaker, Andrew O Odegaard, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of each other and potential confounders. METHODS: Analysis of 3,010 African American and Caucasian men and women, aged 42-59 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 2010-2011...
October 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Guillermo C Rivera-Gonzalez, Brett A Shook, Johanna Andrae, Brandon Holtrup, Katherine Bollag, Christer Betsholtz, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Valerie Horsley
Tissue growth and maintenance requires stem cell populations that self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate. Maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) requires the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte stem cells (ASCs) to form postmitotic, lipid-filled mature adipocytes. Here we use the dynamic adipogenic program that occurs during hair growth to uncover an unrecognized regulator of ASC self-renewal and proliferation, PDGFA, which activates AKT signaling to drive and maintain the adipogenic program in the skin...
October 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Joana F Sacramento, Maria J Ribeiro, Tiago Rodrigues, Elena Olea, Bernardete F Melo, Maria P Guarino, Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Cristiana R Ferreira, Joana Coelho, Ana Obeso, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Sílvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We recently described that carotid body (CB) over-activation is involved in the aetiology of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we have demonstrated that CB activity is increased in animal models of insulin resistance, and that carotid sinus nerve (CSN) resection prevents the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension induced by high-energy diets. Here, we tested whether the functional abolition of CB by CSN transection would reverse pre-established insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome...
October 16, 2016: Diabetologia
William C Roberts, Vera S Won, Anupama Vasudevan, Joseph M Guileyardo
The causes of death and heart weights at death appear to be quite different in the USA today than in the first few decades of the last century. We determined the causes of death and heart weights at necropsy in 231 adults and compared the heart weights to those reported in several studies in the first half of the 20th century. Of the 231 patients, 91 (39%) died of a cardiovascular (CV) condition, and 140 (61%), of a non-CV condition. Of the 91 fatal CV disease cases, 48 had fatal coronary artery disease (CAD); of the remaining 183 cases without fatal CAD, 25 had narrowing >75% of 1 or more major epicardial coronary arteries...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sutanu Dutta Chowdhury, Brian H Wrotniak, Tusharkanti Ghosh
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index and motor competence in Santal children 5-12 years old. A total of 816 Santal children were studied. Children's adiposity status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) for age z-score based on World Health Organization reference data. Motor competence was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Competence (BOT-2). There was no significant difference in mean BMI z-score between Santal boys (0.13 ± 0.07) and girls (-0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Naval K Vikram, Ahmad Nawid Latifi, Anoop Misra, Kalpana Luthra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Randeep Guleria, Ravindra M Pandey
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the discriminatory ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in identifying the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Asian Indians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 509 subjects (278 males and 231 females) aged 20-60 years from New Delhi, India. Measurements included complete clinical examination, blood pressure, weight, height, WC, BMI, WHR and WHtR, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Ari J Elliot, Nicholas A Turiano, Benjamin P Chapman
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic health disparities research may benefit from further consideration of dispositional factors potentially modifying risk associated with low socioeconomic status, including that indexed by systemic inflammation. PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate interactions of SES and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits in predicting circulating concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Lawrence Doi, Andrew James Williams, John Frank
BACKGROUND: Adiposity rebound is considered critical to the development of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how growth has changed in comparison to the UK 1990 BMI growth reference curves between the ages 4-8 years and identify any marked deviations in growth. We also examined potential maternal and child risk/protective factors associated with the altered growth patterns. METHODS: We used data from birth cohort 1 of the Growing Up in Scotland study...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Meredith G Mock, Eric T Trexler, Kristin S Ondrak
OBJECTIVES: Traditional evaluations of metabolic health may overlook underlying dysfunction in individuals who show no signs of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic health in overweight and obese adults using traditional and non-traditional cardiometabolic variables. A secondary purpose was to evaluate differences between overweight/obese and male/female cohorts, respectively. METHODS: Forty-nine overweight and obese adults (Mean ± SD; Age=35...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Xin-Yu Liu, Deng-Bao Yang, Yan-Chao Xu, Marianne O L Gronning, Fang Zhang, De-Hua Wang, John R Speakman
Brandt's voles have an annual cycle of body weight and adiposity. These changes can be induced in the laboratory by manipulation of photoperiod. In the present study, male captive bred Brandt's voles aged 35 days were acclimated to a short day (SD) photoperiod (8L:16D) for 70 days. A subgroup of individuals (n=16) were implanted with transmitters to monitor physical activity and body temperature. They were then randomly allocated into long day (LD=16L:8D) (n=19: 8 with transmitters) and SD (n=18: 8 with transmitters) groups for an additional 70 days...
September 30, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Thang S Han, Elon Correa, Michael E J Lean, David M Lee, Terrence W O'Neill, György Bartfai, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Krzysztof Kula, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Martin K Rutter, Dirk Vanderschueren, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Frederick C W Wu, Felipe F Casanueva
Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
Thomas S Voss, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Ulla Kampmann, Steen B Pedersen, Thomas S Nielsen, Mogens Johannsen, Mads V Svart, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of this study were to determine the role of lipolysis in hypoglycaemia and define the underlying intracellular mechanisms. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers were randomised to treatment order of three different treatments (crossover design). Treatments were: (1) saline control; (2) hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH; i.v. bolus of 0.1 U/kg insulin); and (3) hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemia (HE; i.v. bolus of 0.1 U/kg insulin and 20% glucose)...
October 12, 2016: Diabetologia
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Quynh T Tran, Innocence Harvey, Heather S Smallwood, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Souvik Banerjee, Daniel L Johnson, James T Dalton, Ryan D Sullivan, Duane D Miller, Dave Bridges, Ramesh Narayanan
Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Wilson Nadruz, Dalane Kitzman, Beverly Gwen Windham, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Kenneth Butler, Priya Palta, Michael E Griswold, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Gerardo Heiss, Scott D Solomon, Hicham Skali, Amil M Shah
BACKGROUND: The contribution of cardiovascular dysfunction to frailty in older adults is uncertain. This study aimed to define the relationship between frailty and cardiovascular structure and function, and determine whether these associations are independent of coexisting abnormalities in other organ systems. METHODS: We studied 3,991 older adults (mean age 75.6±5.0 years; 59% female) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom the following six organ systems were uniformly assessed: cardiac (by echocardiography), vascular (by ankle-brachial-index and pulse-wave-velocity), pulmonary (by spirometry), renal (by estimated glomerular filtration rate), hematologic (by hemoglobin), and adipose (by body mass index and bioimpedance)...
October 12, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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