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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667132/obesity-and-episodic-memory-function
#1
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667012/bone-marrow-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-biology
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665872/maternal-intake-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-mid-pregnancy-is-inversely-associated-with-linear-growth
#3
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665813/neck-circumference-as-an-independent-indicator-of-visceral-obesity-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Li Zhao, Guolan Huang, Fangzhen Xia, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yi Chen, Chi Chen, Dongping Lin, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. METHODS: Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665456/the-contribution-of-obesity-to-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden-in-a-general-population-sample-in-norway-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#5
Yume Imahori, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, David A Leon, Laila A Hopstock, Alun D Hughes, Stein Harald Johnsen, Lone Jørgensen, Nina Emaus, Katy E Morgan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have investigated the association of different measures of adiposity with carotid plaque. We aimed to investigate and compare the associations of four measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with the presence of carotid plaque and total plaque area (TPA) in the right carotid artery. METHODS: We included 4906 individuals aged 31-88 years who participated in a population-based study with ultrasonography of the right carotid artery...
April 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663637/reproductive-health-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-samoan-women
#6
H Maredia, N L Hawley, G Lambert-Messerlian, U Fidow, M S Reupena, T Naseri, S T McGarvey
OBJECTIVES: Obesity leads to deleterious effects on not only cardiovascular health but also on the reproductive health of women. We estimate the prevalence of menstrual irregularity and of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in Samoan women, among whom obesity prevalence is extremely high. We explore the association of these reproductive health conditions with adiposity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and androgen levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of Samoan women 25-39 years of age (n = 470) from a larger population-based genome-wide association study of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease was assessed for the prevalence of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (OM/AM) using a self-reported questionnaire...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663586/adiposity-body-composition-and-ventricular-arterial-stiffness-in-the-elderly-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#7
Miguel M Fernandes-Silva, Amil M Shah, Brian Claggett, Susan Cheng, Hirofumi Tanaka, Odilson M Silvestre, Wilson Nadruz, Barry A Borlaug, Scott D Solomon
AIM: Weight gain appears to accelerate age-related ventricular-arterial stiffening, which has been implicated in the development of heart failure (HF), but it is unclear whether body fat accumulation underpins this association. We evaluated the relationship of adiposity, using measures of body composition, with ventricular-arterial stiffness among the elderly in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adiposity was accessed through body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662648/visceral-abdominal-fat-measured-by-computer-tomography-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-gynecological-malignancies
#8
Johanna Nattenmüller, Joachim Rom, Tom Buckner, Jalal Arvin, Benedikt Bau, Christof Sohn, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Sarah Schott
Introduction: Obesity is associated with increased incidence of ovarian (OC), cervical (CC) and endometrium cancer (EC). However, the impact of body composition (BC) on overall survival (OS), especially of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not yet understood. Methods: In 189 women with gynecological malignancies (31 OC, 104 CC, 54 EC, mean age 62.9y; mean BMI 26.8 kg/m2 ; median follow-up 30.7months) with routine staging CT-scans at baseline (mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TAT), visceral, and subcutaneous-fat-area (SAT), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed to analyze the impact of BC on survival...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662230/reliability-and-validity-of-the-new-vikingslice-software-for-computed-tomography-body-composition-analysis
#9
Imanta Ozola-Zālīte, Esben Bolvig Mark, Tomas Gudauskas, Vladimir Lyadov, Søren Schou Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Aldis Pukitis, Jens Brøndum Frokjær
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Body composition assessment by computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in various patient groups. This study aimed to compare the reliability and validity of a newly in-house developed segmentation software VikingSlice against a commercial software (SliceOMatic) for quantification of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty abdominal CT sets from chronic pancreatitis patients were analyzed (mean age 49, range 27-84 years; 38 males)...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661180/trends-and-correlates-of-unhealthy-dieting-behaviours-among-adolescents-in-the-united-states-1999-2013
#10
Sarah N M Chin, Anthony A Laverty, Filippos T Filippidis
BACKGROUND: The increase in adiposity problems among United States adolescents has been accompanied by persistently high prevalence of unhealthy dieting behaviours (UDBs) such as fasting, taking diet pills/powders/liquids, and vomiting/taking laxatives. This study aimed to examine the associations of self-perceptions of weight status, weight change intentions (WCIs) and UDBs with sex, age and race, as well as trends of UDBs in American adolescents across the weight spectrum. METHODS: Data come from the biennial cross-sectional, school-based surveys, the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance System (1999-2013, n = 113,542)...
April 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659835/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-and-incidence-of-early-natural-menopause-in-a-prospective-study
#11
Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson, JoAnn E Manson, Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, Anne Z Steiner, A Heather Eliassen, Susan E Hankinson, Bernard A Rosner, Brian W Whitcomb
STUDY QUESTION: Are anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels assessed in women aged 32-44 associated with risk of incident early natural menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: We observed strong, significant associations between lower AMH levels and higher risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ability to predict risk early menopause, defined as menopause before age 45, prior to fertility decline would improve options for family planning and cardiovascular disease prevention...
April 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659706/body-composition-remodeling-and-incident-mobility-limitations-in-african-ancestry-men
#12
Adam J Santanasto, Iva Miljkovic, Ryan C Cvejkus, Christopher L Gordon, Clareann H Bunker, Allen L Patrick, Victor W Wheeler, Joseph M Zmuda
Background: Mobility limitations are common, with higher prevalence in African Americans compared to whites, and are associated with disability, institutionalization and death. Aging is associated with losses of lean mass and a shift to central adiposity, which are more pronounced in African Americans. We aimed to examine the association of body composition remodeling with incident mobility limitations in older men of African Ancestry. Methods: Seven-year changes in body composition were measured using peripheral computed tomography (pQCT) of the calf and whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 505 African Ancestry men aged ≥60 years and free of self-reported mobility limitations at baseline...
April 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658780/inter-and-intraobserver-variability-of-an-anatomical-landmark-based-manual-segmentation-method-by-mri-for-the-assessment-of-skeletal-muscle-fat-content-and-area-in-subjects-from-the-general-population
#13
Lena Sophie Kiefer, Jana Fabian, Roberto Lorbeer, Jürgen Machann, Corinna Storz, Mareen Sarah Kraus, Elke Wintermeyer, Christopher L Schlett, Frank Roemer, Konstantin Nikolaou, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: Changes in skeletal muscle composition, such as fat content and mass, may exert unique metabolic and musculoskeletal risks; however, the reproducibility of their assessment is unknown. We determined the variability of the assessment of skeletal muscle fat content and area by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a population-based sample. METHODS: A random sample from a prospective, community-based cohort study (KORA-FF4) was included. Skeletal muscle fat content was quantified as proton-density fat-fraction (PDFF) and area as cross-sectional area (CSA) in multi-echo Dixon sequences (TR 8...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657248/association-of-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-and-retinitis-pigmentosa-guanosine-triphosphatase-gtpase-regulator-interacting-protein-1-like-polymorphisms-with-body-mass-index-in-chinese-women
#14
Boyu Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Jianhua Chen, Jue Ji, Jingyi Shen, Yufeng Xu, Yingying Zhao, Danping Liu, Yinhuan Shen, Weijie Zhang, Jiawei Shen, Yonggang Wang, Yongyong Shi
Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI...
April 14, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657025/physical-fitness-adiposity-and-diets-as-surrogate-measures-of-bone-health-in-schoolchildren-a-biochemical-and-cross-sectional-survey-analysis
#15
Ahmad H Alghadir, Sami A Gabr, Ashraf A Rizk
This study aimed to investigate the associations between adiposity, muscular fitness (MF), diet, sun exposure, and physical activity profiles as surrogate measures with bone health status in a sample of schoolchildren aged 8-18 yr old. A total of 250 Egyptian schoolchildren aged 8-18 yr were randomly invited to participate in these cross-sectional survey analyses. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone formation markers (total calcium, serum bone alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) were measured as markers of bone health...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656108/epoxygenase-inactivation-exacerbates-diet-and-aging-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-impaired-adipogenesis
#16
Antoni Olona, Ximena Terra, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carme Grau-Bové, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardevol, Ana Garcia Diaz, Aida Moreno-Moral, Matthew Edin, David Bishop-Bailey, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy J Aitman, Enrico Petretto, Mayte Blay, Jacques Behmoaras
OBJECTIVE: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655763/sleeping-oxygen-saturation-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-the-adaptation-of-postprandial-metabolic-function-in-insulin-sensitive-and-resistant-individuals-without-diabetes
#17
Karin A Garcia, William K Wohlgemuth, Ele Ferrannini, Andrea Mari, Alex Gonzalez, Armando J Mendez, Roberto Bizzotto, Jay S Skyler, Neil Schneiderman, Barry E Hurwitz
AIMS: Sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and sleep stage duration have been linked with prediabetic alterations but the pathogenic pathways are not well understood. This study of insulin sensitive and resistant adults examined the effect on postprandial metabolic regulation of repeated mixed-meal challenges of different carbohydrate loading. The aim was to examine whether the relationship between lower sleeping oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and poorer fasting and postprandial metabolic function may be linked with reduced slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) duration, independent of age, sex and total adiposity...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#18
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652550/chia-seed-supplementation-reduces-senescence-markers-in-epididymal-adipose-tissue-of-high-fat-diet-fed-samp8-mice
#19
Yehua Rui, Shengyi Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Li-Qiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan
Adipose tissue is a key organ with substantial senescent cell accumulation under both obesity and aging conditions. Chia seed is an ancient seed and is the richest plant source of α-linolenic acid. We aimed to determine how cellular senescence markers will be altered in adipose tissue of senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice fed with high-fat diets (HFDs); and how chia seed can affect the above markers. SAMP8 mice and their control senescence-accelerated mouse-resistant 1 (SAMR1) were divided into four groups, that is, SAMR1 low-fat diet group (R1LF), SAMP8LF group (P8LF), SAMP8 high-fat group (P8HF), and SAMP8HF group supplemented with 10% chia seed (P8HC)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650297/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-is-inversely-correlated-with-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-the-very-elderly
#20
F Spannella, F Giulietti, G Cocci, L Landi, E Borioni, F E Lombardi, G Rosettani, B Bernardi, V Bordoni, P Giordano, M Bordicchia, R Sarzani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laboratory studies on human adipose tissue and differentiated adipocytes indicate that natriuretic peptides (NPs) affect lipid metabolism and plasma cholesterol. Few previous clinical studies in non-elderly populations found associations between NPs in the physiological range and cholesterol. AIM: evaluate the association between NT-proBNP and lipid profile in very elderly hospitalized patients characterized by a wide range of NT-proBNP levels...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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