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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225439/exploring-the-obesity-paradox-as-a-correlate-of-cognitive-and-physical-function-in-community-dwelling-black-and-white-older-adults
#1
Jeannine S Skinner, Willie Mae Abel, Katryna McCoy, Consuelo H Wilkins
Objective: The obesity paradox has been documented in aged populations, yet it remains unclear if this paradox persists for physical and cognitive outcomes in community-dwelling older adult populations. Our study examines associations between body mass index (BMI) classification, cognitive function, and physical function. We also investigate whether these associations are modified by race or age. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Senior residential sites and community centers in Saint Louis, Missouri...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225423/adiposity-measures-and-plasma-adipokines-in-females-with-rheumatoid-and-osteoarthritis
#2
Vanessa DeClercq, Yunsong Cui, Cynthia Forbes, Scott A Grandy, Melanie Keats, Louise Parker, Ellen Sweeney, Zhijie Michael Yu, Trevor J B Dummer
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adipokines and adiposity in individuals with rheumatoid and osteoarthritis in the Atlantic PATH cohort. Using a nested case-control analysis, participants in the Atlantic PATH cohort with rheumatoid or osteoarthritis were matched for measures of adiposity with participants without a history of arthritis. Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine disease status, adiposity, and lifestyle factors. Immunoassays were used to measure plasma markers...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225159/histopathology-of-periarticular-non-hereditary-heterotopic-ossification
#3
REVIEW
Kristin L Foley, Nader Hebela, Mary Ann Keenan, Robert J Pignolo
In the mature adult skeleton, new bone formation is normally restricted to regeneration of osseous tissue at sites of fracture. However, heterotopic ossification, or the formation of bone outside the normal skeleton, can occur within muscle, adipose, or fibrous connective tissue. Periarticular non-hereditary heterotopic ossification (NHHO) may occur after musculoskeletal trauma, following CNS injury, with certain arthropathies, or following injury or surgery that is often sustained in the context of age-related pathology...
December 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224987/tobacco-smoke-exposure-association-with-lipid-profiles-and-adiposity-among-u-s-adolescents
#4
Ashley L Merianos, Roman A Jandarov, Jane C Khoury, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
PURPOSE: We investigated the association between tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) as measured by serum cotinine and lipoprotein cholesterols and adiposity in adolescents. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data including participants 12-19 years old. We examined TSE: unexposed (<.05 ng/mL), passively exposed (.05-2.99 ng/mL), and actively exposed (≥3 ng/mL); lipid profiles: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides; and adiposity: body mass index z-score (BMIZ), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#5
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224025/alterations-in-adiposity-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-adult-gasp-1-overexpressing-mice
#6
Luce Périè, Alexis Parenté, Fabienne Baraige, Laetitia Magnol, Véronique Blanquet
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myostatin is known as a powerful negative regulator of muscle growth playing a key role in skeletal muscle homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that myostatin-deficient mice lead to an increase of insulin sensitivity, a decrease of adiposity and a resistance to obesity, showing that myostatin can also impact on metabolism. Thus, myostatin appeared as a potential therapeutic target to treat insulin resistance. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice overexpressing Gasp-1, a myostatin inhibitor...
December 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223363/comprehensive-determinants-of-growth-trajectories-and-body-composition-in-school-children-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#7
Hsien-Yu Fan, Yungling Leo Lee, Shwu-Huey Yang, Yi-Wen Chien, Jane C-J Chao, Yang-Ching Chen
OBJECTIVE: To fully explain the dynamic and comprehensive etiology of the trajectory associated with adiposity indices. METHODS: This study involved data of 5572 children, aged 6-11 years, as part of the Taiwan Children Health Study (TCHS). The present study introduced four distinct BMI trajectories, identified previously among children: persistently healthy weight; late-onset overweight or obesity; persistent overweight or obesity; and declining BMI class. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of non-modifiable factors on BMI trajectory classes...
December 6, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219619/prenatal-and-early-life-fructose-fructose-containing-beverages-and-mid-childhood-asthma
#9
Lakiea S Wright, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Emily Oken, Augusto A Litonjua, Diane R Gold
RATIONALE: Cross-sectional studies have linked intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened beverages with asthma in school children. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of maternal prenatal and early childhood intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fructose with current asthma in mid-childhood (median 7.7years). METHODS: We assessed maternal pregnancy (1st and 2nd trimester average) and child (median 3.3years) intake of sugar sweetened beverages and total fructose using food frequency questionnaires in 1068 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort...
December 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219102/canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years-an-integration-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behaviour-and-sleep
#10
Mark S Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Kristi B Adamo, Salomé Aubert, Joel D Barnes, Louise Choquette, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, Casey E Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Xanne Janssen, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Nicholas Kuzik, Claire LeBlanc, Joanna MacLean, Anthony D Okely, Veronica J Poitras, Mary-Ellen Rayner, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, John C Spence, Brian W Timmons, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219096/meeting-new-canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-and-associations-with-adiposity-among-toddlers-living-in-edmonton-canada
#11
Eun-Young Lee, Kylie D Hesketh, Stephen Hunter, Nicholas Kuzik, Ryan E Rhodes, Christina M Rinaldi, John C Spence, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. METHODS: Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219092/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sedentary-behaviour-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#12
Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Xanne Janssen, Salome Aubert, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between sedentary behaviour (SB) and health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years, and to determine what doses of SB (i.e., duration, patterns [frequency, interruptions], and type) were associated with health indicators. METHODS: Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure and comparator (durations, patterns, and types of SB), and outcome/health indicator (critical: adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development; important: bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, fitness, risks/harm)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219090/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-physical-activity-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#13
Valerie Carson, Eun-Young Lee, Lyndel Hewitt, Cally Jennings, Stephen Hunter, Nicholas Kuzik, Jodie A Stearns, Stephanie Powley Unrau, Veronica J Poitras, Casey Gray, Kristi B Adamo, Ian Janssen, Anthony D Okely, John C Spence, Brian W Timmons, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Given the rapid development during the early years (0-4 years), an understanding of the health implications of physical activity is needed. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured physical activity and health indicators in the early years. METHODS: Electronic databases were originally searched in April, 2016. Included studies needed to be peer-reviewed, written in English or French, and meet a priori study criteria...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219078/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sleep-duration-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#14
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Casey E Gray, Veronica J Poitras, Valerie Carson, Reut Gruber, Catherine S Birken, Joanna E MacLean, Salomé Aubert, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review was to examine for the first time the associations between sleep duration and a broad range of health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched with no limits on date or study design. Included studies (published in English or French) were peer-reviewed and met the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep durations), and outcome criteria (adiposity, emotional regulation, cognitive development, motor development, growth, cardiometabolic health, sedentary behaviour, physical activity, quality of life/well-being, and risks/injuries)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219077/cross-sectional-associations-between-sleep-duration-sedentary-time-physical-activity-and-adiposity-indicators-among-canadian-preschool-aged-children-using-compositional-analyses
#15
Valerie Carson, Mark S Tremblay, Sebastien F M Chastin
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity are three co-dependent behaviours that fall on the movement/non-movement intensity continuum. Compositional data analyses provide an appropriate method for analyzing the association between co-dependent movement behaviour data and health indicators. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the combined associations of the composition of time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviour, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) with adiposity indicators; and (2) the association of the time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviour, LPA, or MVPA with adiposity indicators relative to the time spent in the other behaviours in a representative sample of Canadian preschool-aged children...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219075/proportion-of-preschool-aged-children-meeting-the-canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-and-associations-with-adiposity-results-from-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#16
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Rachel C Colley, Salomé Aubert, Valerie Carson, Ian Janssen, Karen C Roberts, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years) Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219071/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-combinations-of-movement-behaviours-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#17
Nicholas Kuzik, Veronica J Poitras, Mark S Tremblay, Eun-Young Lee, Stephen Hunter, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: A recent review highlighted important relationships between combinations of movement behaviours (i.e., sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity) and health indicators among school-aged children and youth (aged 5-17 years). It is unclear whether similar relationships exist in younger children. Therefore, this review sought to examine the relationships between combinations of movement behaviours and health indicators in the early years (1.00 month to 4.99 years)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218131/hypocalcemia-associated-with-subcutaneous-fat-necrosis-of-the-newborn-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Alphonsus N Onyiriuka, Theodora E Utomi
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFNN) is a rare benign inflammatory disorder of the adipose tissue but may be complicated by hypercalcemia or less frequently, hypocalcemia, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Here we report the case of a neonate with subcutaneous fat necrosis who surprisingly developed hypocalcemia instead of hypercalcemia. A full-term female neonate was delivered by emergency cesarean section for fetal distress and was subsequently admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit. The mother's pregnancy was uncomplicated up to delivery...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217099/proinflammatory-diets-during-pregnancy-and-neonatal-adiposity-in-the-healthy-start-study
#19
Brianna F Moore, Katherine A Sauder, Anne P Starling, James R Hébert, Nitin Shivappa, Brandy M Ringham, Deborah H Glueck, Dana Dabelea
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores during pregnancy and neonatal adiposity. STUDY DESIGN: The analysis included 1078 mother-neonate pairs in Healthy Start, a prospective prebirth cohort. Diet was assessed using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. DII scores were obtained by summing nutrient intakes, which were standardized to global means and multiplied by inflammatory effect scores. Air displacement plethysmography measured fat mass and fat-free mass within 72 hours of birth...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215072/lactation-has-persistent-effects-on-a-mother-s-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-function
#20
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the prevalence of numerous diseases compared to mothers that give birth but do not participate in lactation. The goal of this study was to determine if differences in metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress underlie the protective phenotype found in lactating women. Ten-week old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): 1) rats that did not reproduce (NR), 2) rats that were allowed to mate and become pregnant but did not suckle their pups after giving birth (NL), and 3) rats that were allowed to mate and become pregnant and suckled their pups for 21 days before weaning (L)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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