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Neuromyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322962/etiologic-spectrum-and-prognosis-in-noncompressive-acute-transverse-myelopathies-an-experience-of-80-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-facility
#1
Shuchit Pandey, Ravindra K Garg, Hardeep S Malhotra, Amita Jain, Kiran P Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Rajesh Verma, Praveen K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the spectrum of acquired demyelinating and inflammatory disorders in patients presenting with an acute transverse myelopathy. We also studied differences between an acute idiopathic transverse myelitis and myelitis resulting from other etiologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients with acute transverse myelopathy were included. At inclusion, clinical profile, serum and cerebrospinal fluid parameters, brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, and visual evoked potentials were obtained...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321467/importance-of-regular-and-maintenance-therapy-adherence-in-neuromyelitis-optica-nmo-lessons-from-a-repeating-relapse-case
#2
Jing Miao, Doreen E Aboagye, Boris Chulpayev, Lin Liu, Gary Ishkanian, Bangaruraju Kolanuvada, Dariush Alaie, Richard L Petrillo
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system; NMO predominantly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical presentation, seropositive NMO-IgG antibody, and notably, exclusion of other diseases. Despite the absence of definitive therapeutic strategies for NMO, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange are used for acute phase treatment, while immunosuppressive agent(s) are recommended to prevent relapses and improve prognosis...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320844/demyelinating-syndrome-in-sle-review-of-different-disease-subtypes-and-report-of-a-case-series
#3
E Chessa, M Piga, A Floris, A Mathieu, A Cauli
Demyelinating syndrome (DS) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (1%) with high clinical heterogeneity and potentially severe prognosis. It can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. A recent study described 5 different patterns of demyelinating disease presentation, characterised by specific clinical, laboratory and brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities: 1) neuromyelitis optica; 2) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders; 3) DS prevalently involving the brain; 4) DS prevalently involving the brainstem; 5) clinically isolated syndrome...
December 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320331/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-spectrum-of-mr-imaging-findings-and-their-differential-diagnosis
#4
Bruna Garbugio Dutra, Antônio José da Rocha, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antônio Carlos Martins Maia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder for which the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the major target antigens. Advances in the understanding of NMO have clarified several points of its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and imaging patterns. A major advance was the discovery of the AQP4 antibody, which is highly specific for this disorder. Descriptions of new clinical and radiologic features in seropositive patients have expanded the spectrum of NMO, and the term NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been adopted...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317098/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-associated-with-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#5
Lisa M Deuel, Marjorie E Bunch
Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorders are demyelinating conditions that are typically idiopathic, though various case reports have demonstrated an association with malignancy. We present the case of a 64year old woman with NMOSD in the setting of small cell lung cancer. She had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and left eye optic neuritis; aquaporin-4 antibodies were elevated. Biopsy of mediastinal adenopathy was positive for SCLC. Malignancy should be considered in any patient with an atypical presentation of NMOSD, or who does not respond to traditional therapies...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311561/inhibition-of-rgma-alleviates-symptoms-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#6
Kana Harada, Yuki Fujita, Tatsusada Okuno, Shogo Tanabe, Yoshihisa Koyama, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease associated with NMO immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), an antibody that selectively binds to the aquaporin-4. Here, we established a localized NMO model by injecting NMO-IgG into the spinal cord, and assessed the efficacy of treating its NMO-like symptoms by blocking repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa), an axon growth inhibitor. The model showed pathological features consistent with NMO. Systemic administration of humanized monoclonal anti-RGMa antibody delayed the onset and attenuated the severity of clinical symptoms...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309416/long-term-safety-of-rituximab-induced-peripheral-b-cell-depletion-in-autoimmune-neurological-diseases
#7
Anza B Memon, Adil Javed, Christina Caon, Shitiz Srivastawa, Fen Bao, Evanthia Bernitsas, Jessica Chorostecki, Alexandros Tselis, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Omar Khan
BACKGROUND: B-cells play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases, including patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders (PIMND), such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis (MS), and myasthenia gravis (MG). Targeting B-cells has been an effective approach in ameliorating both central and peripheral autoimmune diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature on the safety of continuous B-cell depletion over a long period of time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term safety, incidence of infections, and malignancies in subjects receiving continuous therapy with a B-cell depleting agent rituximab over at least 3 years or longer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306405/chloride-imbalance-between-serum-and-csf-in-the-acute-phase-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#8
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
We collected serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-paired samples during the acute phase of clinical episodes in MS and NMO patients, together with paired samples from non-MS/NMO patients, to compare the quotients of proteins and electrolytes among them. In NMO, the quotient of chloride was significantly higher in the acute phase of optic neuritis and brain lesions, but it was significantly lower in the acute phase of myelitis. Such findings were not observed in MS or in non-MS/NMO cases. With the coexistence of serum anti-AQP4-Ab, chloride imbalance between serum and CSF could be associated with the clinical episodes in NMO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305608/disease-course-and-treatment-responses-in-children-with-relapsing-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-disease
#9
Yael Hacohen, Yu Yi Wong, Christian Lechner, Maciej Jurynczyk, Sukhvir Wright, Bahadir Konuskan, Judith Kalser, Anne Lise Poulat, Helene Maurey, Esther Ganelin-Cohen, Evangeline Wassmer, Chery Hemingway, Rob Forsyth, Eva Maria Hennes, M Isabel Leite, Olga Ciccarelli, Banu Anlar, Rogier Hintzen, Romain Marignier, Jacqueline Palace, Matthias Baumann, Kevin Rostásy, Rinze Neuteboom, Kumaran Deiva, Ming Lim
Importance: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) are consistently identified in a range of demyelinating disorders in adults and children. Current therapeutic strategies are largely center specific, and no treatments have been formally evaluated. Objective: To examine the clinical phenotypes, treatment responses, and outcomes of children with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and radiologic data from 102 patients from 8 countries of the EU Paediatric Demyelinating Disease Consortium from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016...
January 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297712/comparison-of-olfactory-function-between-neuromyelitis-optica-and-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Li-Min Li, Hui-Yue Guo, Ning Zhao, Lin-Jie Zhang, Ningnannan Zhang, Jingchun Liu, Li Yang
OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (ODF) has been reported in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the comparison of olfactory function and olfactory-related gray matter (GM) between patients with NMO and MS needed to be further elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with NMO and 37 with MS were enrolled. Olfactory function was evaluated with a Japanese T&T olfactometer test kit, and the neuroanatomical features of olfactory-related GM were assessed using voxel-based morphometry...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297041/association-of-visual-impairment-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-visual-network-reorganization
#11
Carsten Finke, Hanna Zimmermann, Florence Pache, Frederike C Oertel, Velina Sevdalinova Chavarro, Yelyzaveta Kramarenko, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul
Importance: Severe visual impairment is one of the major symptoms in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), but functional network reorganization induced by the diminished sensory input has not been investigated thus far. Objective: To examine adaptive visual network connectivity changes in NMOSD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 1, 2013, through February 31, 2016, from 31 patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals at the Department of Neurology and NeuroCure Clinical Research Center at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296620/infectious-risk-stratification-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-receiving-immunotherapy
#12
Jonas Graf, Verena I Leussink, Thomas Dehmel, Marius Ringelstein, Norbert Goebels, Ortwin Adams, Colin R MacKenzie, Clemens Warnke, Torsten Feldt, Anna Lammerskitten, Luisa Klotz, Sven Meuth, Heinz Wiendl, Hans-Peter Hartung, Orhan Aktas, Philipp Albrecht
The increasing number of potent treatments for multiple sclerosis warrants screening for infections. To investigate the prevalence of infections in two independent German patient cohorts with multiple sclerosis/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), we performed a retrospective chart review study of multiple sclerosis/NMOSD patients who underwent testing for infections between 2014 and 2016. We show that 6 out of 80 tested patients (Düsseldorf cohort) and 2 out of 97 tested patients (Münster cohort) had a latent tuberculosis infection; total 3...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291482/paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-single-center-cohort-description-with-two-cases-of-histological-validation
#13
Philippe Beauchemin, Raffaele Iorio, Anthony L Traboulsee, Thalia Field, Anna V Tinker, Robert L Carruthers
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes are remote effects of cancer caused by an autoimmune response triggered by tumor cells. Paraneoplastic Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) has been previously described, but the underlying mechanism for these rare cases is not well characterized. This paper presents a newly described case series of paraneoplastic NMOSD, including 2 new histological types of cancer and histological validation. METHODS: The UBC NMO clinic database was surveyed and identified 6 patients with paraneoplastic NMOSD...
December 23, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290939/grp78-autoantibodies-initiate-the-breakdown-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#14
EDITORIAL
Fumitaka Shimizu, Richard M Ransohoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285152/the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-site-of-aquaporin-4-gene-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica
#15
Qing-Song Wang, Hong-Qiong Xiao, Hua-Xian Chen, Yan-Ping Liu, Xu-Dong Ding
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site within the aquaporin (AQP)-4 gene exons and its possible role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) were studied. From March 2010 to June 2012, 72 patients with NMO from Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine were enrolled in the NMO group. At the same time, 80 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were enrolled in our study as the MS group. Blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted for analysis of SNP sites of AQP4 gene...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284658/teaching-neuroimages-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-masquerading-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#16
Roman Kassa, Flavius Raslau, Charles Smith, Padmaja Sudhakar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280091/the-gut-microbiome-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#17
REVIEW
Scott S Zamvil, Collin M Spencer, Sergio E Baranzini, Bruce A C Cree
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare, disabling, sometimes fatal central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease that is associated with antibodies ("NMO IgG") that target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressed on astrocytes. There is considerable interest in identifying environmental triggers that may elicit production of NMO IgG by AQP4-reactive B cells. Although NMO is considered principally a humoral autoimmune disease, antibodies of NMO IgG are IgG1, a T-cell-dependent immunoglobulin subclass, indicating that AQP4-reactive T cells have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis...
December 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260529/-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica
#18
Xiao-Hui Miao, Zi-Yan Shi, Hong-Xi Chen, Hong-Yu Zhou, Rong Yang
OBJECTIVE: To assess anxiety and depression in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: Eligible patients with NMO were assessed with Hamilton anxiety rating scale-14 (HARS-14),Hamilton depression rating scale-21 (HDRS-21) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS). RESULTS: A total of 65 NMO patients [(39.85±10.36) yr., male/female: 5/60) participated in this study. They had a median EDSS score of 2.5 and a mean score of (37.37±20...
November 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260500/baseline-demographics-clinical-features-and-treatment-protocols-of-240-patients-with-optic-neuropathy-experiences-from-a-neuro-ophthalmological-clinic-in-the-aegean-region-of-turkey
#19
Omer Karti, Dilek Top Karti, İlay Hilal Kilic, Figen Gokcay, Nese Celebisoy
PURPOSE: To analyze the demographic patterns, clinical characteristics, and treatment protocols of optic neuropathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hospital data of patients with optic neuropathy admitted to the Department of Neuro-ophthalmology in a tertiary referral center in Turkey between January 2010 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic patterns, clinical features, treatment protocols, and the natural disease courses were assessed. RESULTS: The total number of patients with optic neuropathy seen over this period was 240, which consist of 43 with idiopathic optic neuritis (17...
December 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260040/cognitive-impairment-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-a-comparison-of-the-wechsler-adult-intelligence-scale-iii-and-the-wechsler-memory-scale-revised-with-the-rao-brief-repeatable-neuropsychological-battery
#20
Juichi Fujimori, Ichiro Nakashima, Toru Baba, Yuko Meguro, Ryo Ogawa, Kazuo Fujihara
Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN), but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the BRBN...
December 2017: ENeurologicalSci
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