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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159928/the-immunogenetics-of-neurological-disease
#1
REVIEW
Maneesh K Misra, Vincent Damotte, Jill A Hollenbach
Genes encoding antigen-presenting molecules within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) account for the highest component of genetic risk for many neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Myriad genetic, immunological and environmental factors may contribute to an individual's susceptibility to neurological disease. Here, we review and discuss the decades long research on the influence of genetic variation at the MHC locus and the role of immunogenetic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) loci in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159373/bortezomib-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-the-more-severe-forms
#2
Jennifer Taylor, Sarosh R Irani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159372/bortezomib-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-the-more-severe-forms
#3
Su-Hyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159366/bortezomib-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-the-more-severe-forms-reply
#4
Chao Zhang, Fu-Dong Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156226/frequency-of-brain-mri-abnormalities-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-at-presentation-a-cohort-of-latin-american-patients
#5
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Vanessa Daccach Marques, Ibis Soto de Castillo, Veronica Tkachuk, Amilton Antunes Barreira, Elizabeth Armas, Edson Chiganer, Camila de Aquino Cruz, José Luis Di Pace, Javier Pablo Hryb, Carolina Lavigne Moreira, Carmen Lessa, Omaira Molina, Monica Perassolo, Arnoldo Soto, Alejandro Caride
BACKGROUND: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI) lesions were classically not reported in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, BMRI lesions are not uncommon in NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients. OBJECTIVE: To report BMRI characteristic abnormalities (location and configuration) in NMOSD patients at presentation. METHODS: Medical records and BMRI characteristics of 79 patients with NMOSD (during the first documented attack) in Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela were reviewed retrospectively...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154728/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-and-pregnancy-interactions-and-management
#6
Eslam Shosha, Sean J Pittock, Eoin Flanagan, Brian G Weinshenker
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) predominantly affect women who are of childbearing age. Understanding the interactions between pregnancy and NMOSD is important for clinical management. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most common target antigen in NMOSD, is expressed on placenta in early pregnancy. A variety of immune and cytokine changes in pregnancy may impact pregnancy outcomes in NMOSD patients. Relapses continue during pregnancy and increase in frequency postpartum. Preeclampsia and fetal loss are more frequent in NMOSD than in controls...
December 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153600/subclinical-retinal-atrophy-in-the-unaffected-fellow-eyes-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica
#7
Tetsuya Akaishi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Noriko Himori, Takayuki Takeshita, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Toru Nakazawa, Masashi Aoki, Ichiro Nakashima
We compared the retinal thickness in the unaffected eyes among the following subtypes of unilateral optic neuritis (ON): multiple sclerosis (MS-ON), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-ON), patients with serum anti-MOG antibody (MOG-ON), and idiopathic ON. In the chronic phase, macular GCC and circum-papillary RNFL in the unaffected eyes were both atrophied in MS-ON and AQP4-ON, but were not atrophied in the others. Titers of anti-AQP4-Ab was suggested to be associated with such latent neurodegenerative process in AQP4-ON...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149698/ectrodactyly-in-a-chinese-patient-born-to-a-mother-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
Yanyu Chang, Yaqing Shu, Xiaobo Sun, Chengfang Xu, Dan He, Ling Fang, Chen Chen, Xueqiang Hu, Allan Kermode, Wei Qiu
NMOSD develops primarily in women of childbearing age, and several previous studies have shown that the disorder may increase the risk of miscarriage. However, there are no reports, to our knowledge, of fetal malformation, other than neonatal hydrocephalus, related to NMOSD. We report a 30-year-old woman who experienced recurrent neuritis and who was seropositive for AQP4-IgG. She became pregnant, and the fetus was found to have ectrodactyly. Histological analysis of the placenta showed moderate inflammatory infiltration; however, whether fetal malformation in NMOSD is related to inflammation and AQP4-IgG remains to be determined...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#9
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143589/biomarkers-in-the-evolution-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Thomas Berger
Nonimaging biomarkers can be applied in differential diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression and therapy monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Presence of oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid is a diagnostic element and a negative predictor of MS evolution. AQP4 antibodies are pathogenic and diagnostic for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein develop in about 50% of predominantly pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but their possible role in pathogenesis is unknown...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141830/post-herpes-zoster-infection-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#11
Thomas Mathew, Kurian Thomas, Sonia Shivde, Shruthi Venkatesh, Smitha Mary Rockey
Neuromyelitis optica is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease; however, the trigger for autoimmunity in an individual patient is unclear. Here, we report the case of a 48 year old female presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical region of the spinal cord two weeks post herpes zoster infection in right C6 dermatome. Though post herpetic myelitis was provisionally diagnosed, serological evaluation revealed aquaporin-4 antibody positivity, confirming the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141825/radiculopathy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-how-does-anti-aqp4-ab-involve-pns
#12
Seungyeon Kim, Joonghyun Park, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Kiyeun Nam
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) had been known to be spared in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, some studies of late have reported PNS damage in demyelination diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as MS and NMOSD. Although multiple studies have reported characteristics reminiscent of peripheral neuropathy in MS, there have been limited reports in NMOSD. To investigate the incidence and pathology of peripheral neuropathy in NMOSD, we reviewed articles describing such cases including our own case...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141820/fulminant-intramedullary-spinal-cord-sarcoidosis
#13
Jonas Graf, Marius Ringelstein, Orhan Aktas, Mike P Wattjes, Hans-Peter Hartung
Neurosarcoidosis is a rare disease with various clinical phenotypes. Thus, case reports and series broaden the understanding of this entity (Ibitoye et al., 2017). We present a case of isolated intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis, an exceedingly rare phenotype, which needs to be distinguished especially from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). This report exemplifies the need for a systematic approach to diagnosis and management of spinal cord sarcoidosis.
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141819/autoimmune-aquaporin-4-induced-damage-beyond-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Dian He, Anni Zhang, Ya Li, Gang Cai, Yuan Li, Shipeng Guo
Initially, it was believed that Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)- immunoglobulin G (IgG) only affected the central nervous system (CNS), and peripheral AQP4-expressing organs were usually spared. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that AQP4-IgG causes damage to peripheral organs beyond the CNS such as skeletal muscle, vestibulocochlear nerves, gastrointestinal tract, blood system, kidney, lung and placenta. Recently, the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" has been proposed to incorporate a wide range of diseases associated with AQP4-IgG, including neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and AQP4-IgG-induced peripheral nerves system damage...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141816/optic-neuritis-with-radiological-longitudinal-spinal-cord-involvement-and-seronegative-anti-aquaporin-antibody-evidence-from-a-case-study
#15
Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
In recent years, not only the incidence of brain demyelinating disease has increased, but also it seems that the world is facing new forms of autoimmune diseases of the brain. Distinguishing these diseases from each other is very important, since each requires a different treatment. The new criteria that were put forward in 2015 were meant to pave the way for better diagnosis of these diseases called neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). However, too much emphasis on the criteria based on the convergence and association of radiological findings with the clinical symptoms actually causes confusion in the diagnosis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141815/cognitive-impairment-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-what-do-we-know
#16
REVIEW
M B Eizaguirre, R Alonso, S Vanotti, O Garcea
The aim of this study is to make a descriptive review of the bibliography available on cognitive dysfunction in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). We selected fifteen studies that quantitatively assess the relationship between NMOSD and one or more cognitive variables. Results showed that patients with NMOSD had a decrease in cognitive functions. Cognitive dysfunctions were found in 35-67% of patients with NMOSD, specifically in the attention, memory and information processing speed...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141812/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-iran
#17
Sharareh Eskandarieh, Saharnaz Nedjat, Amir Reza Azimi, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitys optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare demyelinating disease; as a result, the epidemiological data on this disorder is scarce. In this regard, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, serology, and clinical features of NMOSD in Caucasian population in Tehran, Iran. METHOD: A cross sectional study was performed in Tehran from 2015 to 2016 among patients registered with NMOSD diagnosis, based on consensus criteria published in 2015...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141797/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-in-iran-a-consensus-guideline-and-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Nasrin Asgari, Fahimeh H Akhoundi, Roya Abolfazli, Shekoofeh Alaie, Fereshteh Ashtari, Hormoz Ayromlou, Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Farzad Fatehi, Mohsen Foroughipour, Hamidreza Ghalyanchi Langroodi, Nastaran Majdinasab, Alireza Nickseresht, Abbas Nourian, Vahid Shaygannejad, Hamid Reza Torabi
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a relapsing neuro inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that typically presents with optic neuritis or myelitis and may cause severe disability. The diagnostic criteria have been updated and several immunosuppressive agents have been demonstrated to prevent acute exacerbations. As the disease rarely develops in a progressive course, management of acute attacks and proper prevention of exacerbations may change the long term out-come and prevent future disability...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#19
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141393/-the-role-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-for-detection-of-demyelinating-optic-neuritis
#20
S H Wei, Y Zhao
The incidence of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in the Asian population is much higher than in Europe and North America. Optic neuritis is the first sign of NMOSD for some people. Identification of aquaporin 4 antibody is a milestone in the research of NMOSD and has been included in the diagnosis standard of NMOSD, but about 20% to 30% of NMOSD patients is aquaporin 4 antibody-negative. With the cell-based assays, oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system have aroused the attention of researchers...
November 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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