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Biochemistry AND review

Walter L Miller
Until the mid-1980s studies of steroidogenesis largely depended on identifying steroid structures and measuring steroid concentrations in body fluids. The molecular biology revolution radically revolutionized studies of steroidogenesis with the cloning of known steroidogenic enzymes, by identifying novel factors, and delineating the genetic basis of known and newly discovered diseases. Unfortunately, this dramatic success has led many young research-oriented endocrinologists to regard steroidogenesis as a 'solved area'...
October 11, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Elham S Al-Risi, Fatma S Al-Essry, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA) status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014)...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
Isabel Betancor-Fernández, David J Timson, Eduardo Salido, Angel L Pey
Mutations causing single amino acid exchanges can dramatically affect protein stability and function, leading to disease. In this chapter, we will focus on several representative cases in which such mutations affect protein stability and function leading to cancer. Mutations in BRAF and p53 have been extensively characterized as paradigms of loss-of-function/gain-of-function mechanisms found in a remarkably large fraction of tumours. Loss of RB1 is strongly associated with cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms by which missense mutations affect protein function and stability are not well known...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
John M Nicoludis, Rachelle Gaudet
Recently, protein sequence coevolution analysis has matured into a predictive powerhouse for protein structure and function. Direct Coupling Analysis, a method that uses a global statistical model of sequence coevolution, has enabled the prediction of membrane and disordered protein structures, protein complex architectures, and the functional effects of mutations in proteins. The field of membrane protein biochemistry and structural biology has embraced these computational techniques, which provide functional and structural information in an otherwise experimentally-challenging field...
October 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Benke Kuai, Junyi Chen, Stefan Hörtensteiner
Chlorophyll breakdown is one of the most obvious signs of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. The resulting yellowing of leaves can be observed every autumn, and the color change of fruits indicates their ripening state. During these processes, chlorophyll is broken down in a multistep pathway, now termed the 'PAO/phyllobilin' pathway, acknowledging the core enzymatic breakdown step catalysed by pheophorbide a oxygenase, which determines the basic linear tetrapyrrole structure of the products of breakdown that are now called 'phyllobilins'...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mark Roosjen, Sébastien Paque, Dolf Weijers
The phytohormone auxin is involved in almost all developmental processes in land plants. Most, if not all, of these processes are mediated by changes in gene expression. Auxin acts on gene expression through a short nuclear pathway that converges upon the activation of a family of DNA-binding transcription factors. These AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) are thus the effector of auxin response and translate the chemical signal into the regulation of a defined set of genes. Given the limited number of dedicated components in auxin signaling, distinct properties among the ARF family probably contribute to the establishment of multiple unique auxin responses in plant development...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vance L Albaugh, Kaushik Mukherjee, Adrian Barbul
Wound healing is a complex process marked by highly coordinated immune fluxes into an area of tissue injury; these are required for re-establishment of normal tissue integrity. Along with this cascade of cellular players, wound healing also requires coordinated flux through a number of biochemical pathways, leading to synthesis of collagen and recycling or removal of damaged tissues. The availability of nutrients, especially amino acids, is critical for wound healing, and enteral supplementation has been intensely studied as a potential mechanism to augment wound healing-either by increasing tensile strength, decreasing healing time, or both...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Ruipeng Guo, Liang Gao, Bin Xu
PURPOSE: To systematically review the available preclinical evidence of adult stem cells as a biological augmentation in the treatment of animal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase were searched for the eligible studies. The inclusion criteria were controlled animal trials of adult stem cells used in ACL treatment (repair or reconstruction). Studies of natural ACL healing without intervention, in vitro studies, ex vivo studies, and studies without controls were excluded...
September 26, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
S A Wudy, G Schuler, A Sánchez-Guijo, M F Hartmann
Steroids are small and highly important structural or signalling molecules in living organisms and their metabolism is complex. Due to the multiplicity of enzymes involved there are many different steroid related disorders. E.g., an individual enzyme defect is rather rare but can share various clinical symptoms and can thus be hardly diagnosed clinically. Therefore, reliable hormonal determination still presents the most reasonable initial diagnostic approach and helps to avoid uncritical and expensive attempts at molecular diagnostic testing...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Vincenzo Tufarelli, Elisabetta Casalino, Angela G D'Alessandro, Vito Laudadio
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites present in the human and animal diet, and numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich food ingredients. To date, the research on natural antioxidants as an alternative to synthetic products is of great interest among scientists. The present review emphasizes the importance of knowing the contents and the quality of phenolic compounds present in the natural food. The aim of the present review is also a critical analysis of achievements related to polyphenols action in livestock production with a particular emphasis on their antioxidant-related properties both in vitro and in vivo...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Akiho Yokota
Since the discovery of its role in the CO2 fixation reaction in photosynthesis, RuBisCO has been one of the most extensively researched enzymes in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics as well as conventional plant physiology, agricultural chemistry, and crop science. In addition, the RuBisCO and RuBisCO-like genes of more than 2000 organisms have been sequenced during the past 20 years. During the course of those studies, the origin of the RuBisCO gene began to be discussed...
September 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kelly A Fader, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the prototypical ligand for a group of environmental halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants which elicit hepatotoxicity and other toxic responses through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Despite the conservation of the AhR and its signaling pathway, TCDD-elicited differential gene expression networks are species-specific, consistent with differences in sensitivity and toxic responses between species. This review integrates gene expression studies with complementary phenotypic analyses (e...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Mohsen Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chukwuma C Ogbaga, Piotr Stepien, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ashraf
In the past decade, various strategies to improve photosynthesis and crop yield, such as leaf morphology, light interception and use efficiency, biochemistry of light reactions, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, and source to sink regulation, have been discussed at length. Leaf morphology and physiology are tightly coupled to light capturing efficiency, gas exchange capacity, and temperature regulation. However, apart from the photoprotective mechanism of photosystem-II (PSII), i.e. non-photochemical quenching, very low genetic variation in the components of light reactions has been observed in plants...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Narumi Shigi, Jun Sumaoka, Makoto Komiyama
More than ten years ago, artificial restriction DNA cutters were developed by combining two pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acid (pcPNA) strands with either Ce(IV)/EDTA or S1 nuclease. They have remarkably high site-specificity and can cut only one predetermined site in the human genome. In this article, recent progress of these man-made tools have been reviewed. By cutting the human genome site-selectively, desired fragments can be clipped from either the termini of chromosomes (telomeres) or from the middle of genome...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Steve Simpson, Ingrid van der Mei, Bruce Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system, manifesting in loss or alterations in function of sensory, motor and cognitive function. Of the various environmental and behavioural risk factors identified as playing a role in MS onset and progression, perhaps none has been as consistent as vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we will endeavour to present a general background on the role of vitamin D in human health and particularly in MS, as well as the substantial epidemiological evidence in support of vitamin D's role in MS...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Kelsey D J Jones, S E Grossman, Dharshini Kumaranayakam, Arati Rao, Greg Fegan, Narendra Aladangady
BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinaemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity. Early identification of those infants most at risk might allow the development of targeted primary preventative therapy and follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess whether arterial umbilical cord bilirubin (aUCB) level at delivery predicts the development of neonatal jaundice in term deliveries. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital biochemistry records identified term deliveries with recorded aUCB...
September 20, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Claudia Bevilacqua, Bertrand Ducos
Laser microdissection (LM) has become considerably democratized over the last fifteen years. Instruments have evolved to offer more powerful and efficient lasers as well as new options for sample collection and preparation. Technological evolutions have also focused on the post-microdissection analysis capabilities, opening up investigations in all disciplines of experimental and clinical biology, thanks to the advent of new high-throughput methods of genome analysis, including RNAseq and proteomics, now globally known as microgenomics, i...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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