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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468426/epr-spectroscopy-of-complex-biological-iron-sulfur-systems
#1
REVIEW
Wilfred R Hagen
From the very first discovery of biological iron-sulfur clusters with EPR, the spectroscopy has been used to study not only purified proteins but also complex systems such as respiratory complexes, membrane particles and, later, whole cells. In recent times, the emphasis of iron-sulfur biochemistry has moved from characterization of individual proteins to the systems biology of iron-sulfur biosynthesis, regulation, degradation, and implications for human health. Although this move would suggest a blossoming of System-EPR as a specific, non-invasive monitor of Fe/S (dys)homeostasis in whole cells, a review of the literature reveals limited success possibly due to technical difficulties in adherence to EPR spectroscopic and biochemical standards...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460105/the-importance-of-standardisation-of-measurement-and-reference-intervals-for-detection-of-phaeochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-ppgl
#2
REVIEW
Tomás P Griffin, Delia Bogdanet, Patrick Navin, Grace Callagy, Paula M O'Shea, Marcia Bell
A 51-year-old male presented 25 years ago with excessive sweating and haematuria. Blood pressure was labile. CT abdomen showed a large right-sided adrenal mass. Two 24-h urine collections showed elevated urinary catecholamines. Right adrenal resection was performed; a phaeochromocytoma (PC) was confirmed histologically. Two decades later, the patient represented with excessive sweating and measured variable blood pressure readings. Measurement of plasma metanephrines (PMets) showed elevated normetanephrine (NMN) [50,250 (R...
February 19, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454880/fluorescence-and-chemiluminescence-approaches-for-peroxynitrite-detection
#3
REVIEW
Carolina Prolo, Natalia Rios, Lucia Piacenza, María Noel Álvarez, Rafael Radi
In the last two decades, there has been a significant advance in understanding the biochemistry of peroxynitrite, an endogenously-produced oxidant and nucleophile. Its relevance as a mediator in several pathologic states and the aging process together with its transient character and low steady-state concentration, motivated the development of a variety of techniques for its unambiguous detection and estimation. Among these, fluorescence and chemiluminescence approaches have represented important tools with enhanced sensitivity but usual limited specificity...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451805/loss-and-formation-of-malodorous-volatile-sulfhydryl-compounds-during-wine-storage
#4
Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H 2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451138/detection-of-repair-of-the-zone-of-calcified-cartilage-with-osteoarthritis-through-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-ultrashort-echo-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Quan Zhou, Shao-Lin Li, Ya-Jun Ma, Vicki de Tal, Wei Li, Ying-Hua Zhao
Objective: Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for observing the growth and development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after in vivo transplantation to treat osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is a challenge to accurately monitor the treatment effects of MSCs in the zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) with OA. This is especially true in the physiological and biochemical views that are not accurately detected by MRI contrast agents. In contrast, ultrashort time echo (UTE) MRI has been shown to be sensitive to the presence of the ZCC, creating the potential for more effectively observing the repair of the ZCC in OA by MSCs...
February 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447378/trace-metal-metabolism-in-plants
#6
Elisa Andresen, Edgar Peiter, Hendrik Küpper
Many trace metals are essential micronutrients, but also potent toxins. Due to natural and anthropogenic causes, vastly different trace metal concentrations occur in various habitats, ranging from deficient to toxic levels. Therefore, one focus of plant research is on the response to trace metals in terms of uptake, transport, sequestration, speciation, physiological use, deficiency, toxicity, and detoxification. In this review, we cover most of these aspects for the essential micronutrients copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc to provide a broader overview than found in other recent reviews, to cross-link aspects of knowledge in this very active research field that are often seen in a separated way...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446868/the-amyloid-polymorphism-in-the-protein-folding-and-aggregation-energy-landscape
#7
Raffaele Mezzenga, Jozef Adamcik
Protein folding (and misfolding) is of paramount importance to an extraordinary vast class of fields, spanning from biochemistry to biology, medicine, biophysics and statistical thermodynamics. The folding process involves a large number of steps and conformations in which the folding protein samples different thermodynamic states characterized by local minima and activation energies in between. The kinetically trapped on- or off-pathway intermediates identifying the relative minima are metastable folding intermediates towards the lowest absolute energy minima, which have been postulated to be the natively folded state for the regime in which the intramolecular interactions dominate, and the amyloid status for the regime where intermolecular interactions rule...
February 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445344/invertebrate-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-gene-genetic-architecture-biochemistry-physiological-function-and-potential-applications
#8
REVIEW
Bin Tang, Su Wang, Shi-Gui Wang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jia-Yong Zhang, Shuai-Ying Cui
The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is widely distributed among various organisms. It plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy, being the major blood sugar in insects. In addition, it helps countering abiotic stresses. Trehalose synthesis in insects and other invertebrates is thought to occur via the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) pathways. In many insects, the TPP gene has not been identified, whereas multiple TPS genes that encode proteins harboring TPS/OtsA and TPP/OtsB conserved domains have been found and cloned in the same species...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441608/hyperpolarized-laplace-nmr
#9
Ville-Veikko Telkki
Laplace NMR, dealing with NMR relaxation and diffusion experiments, reveals details of molecular motion and provides chemical resolution complementary to NMR spectra. Laplace NMR has witnessed a great progress in past decades due to the development of methodology and signal processing, and it has lots of extremely interesting applications in various fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, geology, archaeology and medicine. The aim of this minireview is to give a pedagogically oriented overview of Laplace NMR...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438679/discovery-of-novel-bacterial-toxins-by-genomics-and-computational-biology
#10
Andrew C Doxey, Michael J Mansfield, Cesare Montecucco
Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. The ongoing and explosive development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have set in motion a revolution in many fields of biology, including microbiology...
February 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432704/clinicopathological-features-and-comorbidities-of-cats-with-mild-moderate-or-severe-hyperthyroidism-a-radioiodine-referral-population
#11
Natalie Watson, Jane K Murray, Sonja Fonfara, Angie Hibbert
Objectives This study sought to explore the clinicopathological features and comorbidities of cats with mild, moderate and severe hyperthyroidism in a radioiodine referral population. Methods Medical records were reviewed, along with results of serum biochemistry, urinalysis, systolic blood pressure and diagnostic imaging performed at the time of radioiodine referral. Cats were grouped by total thyroxine (TT4) levels as mildly (TT4 60.1-124.9 nmol/l), moderately (TT4 125-250 nmol/l) or severely (TT4 >250 nmol/l) hyperthyroid at the time of diagnosis and referral...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432621/implementation-of-the-autovalidation-algorithm-for-clinical-chemistry-testing-in-the-laboratory-information-system
#12
Vladimira Rimac, Ivana Lapic, Kresimir Kules, Dunja Rogic, Marijana Miler
Objective: Autovalidation algorithm should be properly designed with clearly defined criteria and any data that do not meet the criteria, must be reviewed and manually validated. The aim was to define the rules for autovalidation in our laboratory information system (LIS), and validate the algorithm prior to its implementation in routine laboratory work. Methods: Autovalidation was implemented for all routine serum biochemistry tests. The algorithm included analytical measurement ranges (AMR), delta check, critical values, serum indices and all preanalytical and analytical flags from the analyzer...
February 8, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427523/meropenem-and-vaborbactam-stepping-up-the-battle-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Sarah Christina Jane Jorgensen, Michael Joseph Rybak
Vaborbactam (VAB; formerly RPX7009) is a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor based on a cyclic boronic acid pharmacophore with potent inhibitory activity against Ambler class A and C beta-lactamases. It has been co-formulated with meropenem to restore its activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC). VAB does not inhibit class B or D carbapenemases, nor does it improve the activity of meropenem against multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, notably Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
February 10, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#14
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415210/the-cell-biology-of-secondary-cell-wall-biosynthesis
#15
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414514/qm-mm-methods-for-free-energies-and-photochemistry
#16
REVIEW
Eliot Boulanger, Jeremy N Harvey
Hybrid computational methods describing a small region of a biomolecular system with quantum mechanics and the bulk with molecular mechanics, referred to as QM/MM methods, are now a central part of computational biochemistry. This review considers developments in the QM/MM approach that make it easier to calculate free energies using accurate QM-based potential energy expressions. We also describe techniques to treat electronic coupling between the core region and the MM environment. Polarizability of the protein matrix is important but so is electronic coupling...
January 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411404/review-article-the-evidence-that-vancomycin-is-a-therapeutic-option-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#17
REVIEW
J L Damman, E A Rodriguez, A H Ali, C W Buness, K L Cox, E J Carey, K D Lindor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: PSC is an autoimmune biliary inflammatory disorder that is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with 50%-75% of patients with PSC having coexisting IBD, most commonly ulcerative colitis. Currently, no medical therapies have been shown to improve the disease course or slow its progression. However, ongoing research has resulted in a growing interest in the use of antibiotics for treatment of PSC, of which vancomycin is the most studied. In this review, we summarise the current evidence on the use of vancomycin in PSC and comment on future research areas of interest...
February 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410995/-solvent-in-salt-systems-for-design-of-new-materials-in-chemistry-biology-and-energy-research
#18
REVIEW
Vladimir A Azov, Ksenia S Egorova, Marina M Seitkalieva, Alexey S Kashin, Valentine P Ananikov
Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408340/when-a-transmembrane-channel-isn-t-or-how-biophysics-and-biochemistry-mis-communicate
#19
REVIEW
Ilya Reviakine
Annexins are a family of soluble proteins that bind to acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine in a calcium-dependent manner. The archetypical member of the annexin family is annexin A5. For many years, its function remained unknown despite the availability of a high-resolution structure. This, combined with the observations of specific ion conductance in annexin-bound membranes, fueled speculations about the possible membrane-spanning forms of annexins that functioned as ion channels. The channel hypothesis remained controversial and did not gather sufficient evidence to become accepted...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405979/the-nmr-split-peak-effect-in-cell-suspensions-historical-perspective-explanation-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Philip W Kuchel, Kiaran Kirk, Dmitry Shishmarev
The physicochemical environment inside cells is distinctly different from that immediately outside. The selective exchange of ions, water and other molecules across the cell membrane, mediated by integral, membrane-embedded proteins is a hallmark of living systems. There are various methodologies available to measure the selectivity and rates (kinetics) of such exchange processes, including several that take advantage of the non-invasive nature of NMR spectroscopy. A number of solutes, including particular inorganic ions, show distinctive NMR behaviour, in which separate resonances arise from the intra- and extracellular solute populations, without the addition of shift reagents, differences in pH, or selective binding partners...
February 2018: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
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