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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689382/escherichia-coli-as-a-host-for-metabolic-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Sammy Pontrelli, Tsan-Yu Chiu, Ethan I Lan, Freddy Y Chen, Pei-Ching Chang, James C Liao
Over the past century, Escherichia coli has become one of the best studied organisms on earth. Features such as genetic tractability, favorable growth conditions, well characterized biochemistry and physiology, and availability of versatile genetic manipulation tools make E. coli an ideal platform host for development of industrially viable productions. In this review, we discuss the physiological attributes of E. coli that are most relevant for metabolic engineering, as well as emerging techniques that enable efficient phenotype construction...
April 21, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673914/dynamics-nanoscale-organization-and-function-of-synaptic-adhesion-molecules
#2
REVIEW
Ingrid Chamma, Olivier Thoumine
Synaptic adhesion molecules not only provide a physical link between pre- and post-synaptic membranes, but also contribute to synaptic differentiation and plasticity by organizing functional elements, in particular neurotransmitter receptors. The wealth of existing adhesive protein families including many isoforms and splice variants, calls for systematic identification of the levels and exchange rates of each of those protein members at specific synapse types. Complementary to electron microscopy to identify individual synaptic contacts and biochemistry to reveal protein-protein interactions, recent super-resolution light microscopy methods combined with appropriate fluorescent labeling provide a way to measure the dynamics and sub-micron organization of selective molecular components, and their inter-relations at the synapse...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673146/predictors-of-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668934/ammonia-oxidation-ecology-physiology-biochemistry-and-why-they-must-all-come-together
#4
Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley
Ammonia oxidation is a fundamental core process in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2 -) is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is carried out by distinct groups of microorganisms. Ammonia oxidation is essential for nutrient turnover in most terrestrial, aquatic and engineered ecosystems and plays a major role, both directly and indirectly, in greenhouse gas production and environmental damage. Although ammonia oxidation has been studied for over a century, this research field has been galvanised in the past decade by the surprising discoveries of novel ammonia oxidising microorganisms...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668306/dosage-compensation-of-the-x-chromosome-a-complex-epigenetic-assignment-involving-chromatin-regulators-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#5
Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668305/chalkophores
#6
Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Copper-binding metallophores, or chalkophores, play a role in microbial copper homeostasis that is analogous to that of siderophores in iron homeostasis. The best-studied chalkophores are members of the methanobactin (Mbn) family-ribosomally produced, posttranslationally modified natural products first identified as copper chelators responsible for copper uptake in methane-oxidizing bacteria. To date, Mbns have been characterized exclusively in those species, but there is genomic evidence for their production in a much wider range of bacteria...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663881/recent-developments-in-drug-design-of-no-donor-hybrid-compounds
#7
Sarel Francois Malan, Rajan Sharma, Jacques Joubert
The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is considered one of the most versatile endogenous molecules and is a crucial signalling molecule in numerous biochemistry pathways of the human body. NO is directly related to pathological processes and plays an important role in many different and interrelated physiological processes. In some cases, a depletion of NO or an attenuation of its effector system could exist as in hypertension, angina and impotence; in others, an overproduction of NO may be a major cause of damage, as in circulatory shock, sepsis, neurodegenerative disorders and inflammatory responses...
April 16, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661689/cardiometabolic-risk-and-female-sexuality-part-ii-understanding-and-overcoming-gender-differences-the-key-role-of-an-adequate-methodological-approach
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Maseroli, Irene Scavello, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Although basic science and clinical research indicate that the vascular physiopathology of male and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is similar, to date the association between FSD and cardiovascular (CV) diseases has been only marginally explored. AIM: To discuss the potential reasons for differences in the role of CV diseases and risk factors in sexual function in women vs men in the 2nd part of a 2-part review. METHODS: A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed using the PubMed database...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661000/regulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#9
Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652515/structure-and-function-of-the-26s-proteasome
#10
Jared A M Bard, Ellen A Goodall, Eric R Greene, Erik Jonsson, Ken C Dong, Andreas Martin
As the endpoint for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the 26S proteasome is the principal proteolytic machine responsible for regulated protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome's cellular functions range from general protein homeostasis and stress response to the control of vital processes such as cell division and signal transduction. To reliably process all the proteins presented to it in the complex cellular environment, the proteasome must combine high promiscuity with exceptional substrate selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652486/biochemistry-and-molecular-biology-of-flaviviruses
#11
Nicholas J Barrows, Rafael K Campos, Kuo-Chieh Liao, K Reddisiva Prasanth, Ruben Soto-Acosta, Shih-Chia Yeh, Geraldine Schott-Lerner, Julien Pompon, October M Sessions, Shelton S Bradrick, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are critically important human pathogens that sicken a staggeringly high number of humans every year. Most of these pathogens are transmitted by mosquitos, and not surprisingly, as the earth warms and human populations grow and move, their geographic reach is increasing. Flaviviruses are simple RNA-protein machines that carry out protein synthesis, genome replication, and virion packaging in close association with cellular lipid membranes...
April 13, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648875/regulated-proteolysis-in-bacteria
#12
Samar A Mahmoud, Peter Chien
Regulated proteolysis is a vital process that affects all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent AAA+ proteases to power degradation of misfolded and native regulatory proteins. Given that proteolysis is an irreversible event, specificity and selectivity in degrading substrates are key. Specificity is often augmented through the use of adaptors that modify the inherent specificity of the proteolytic machinery. Regulated protein degradation is intricately linked to quality control, cell-cycle progression, and physiological transitions...
April 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643156/indecho-study-cohort-study-investigating-birth-size-childhood-growth-and-young-adult-cardiovascular-risk-factors-as-predictors-of-midlife-myocardial-structure-and-function-in-south-asians
#13
Senthil K Vasan, Ambuj Roy, Viji Thomson Samuel, Belavendra Antonisamy, Santosh K Bhargava, Anoop George Alex, Bhaskar Singh, Clive Osmond, Finney S Geethanjali, Fredrik Karpe, Harshpal Sachdev, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Nikhil Tandon, Nihal Thomas, Prasanna S Premkumar, Prrathepa Asaithambi, Sneha F X Princy, Sikha Sinha, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Caroline H D Fall
INTRODUCTION: South Asians have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and central obesity). Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction are features of these disorders and important predictors of CVD mortality. Lower birth and infant weight and greater childhood weight gain are associated with increased adult CVD mortality, but there are few data on their relationship to LV function. The IndEcho study will examine associations of birth size, growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence and CVD risk factors in young adulthood with midlife cardiac structure and function in South Asian Indians...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629463/exploring-the-alternatives-of-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#14
REVIEW
Florence Mus, Alexander B Alleman, Natasha Pence, Lance C Seefeldt, John W Peters
Most biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) results from the activity of the molybdenum nitrogenase (Mo-nitrogenase, Nif), an oxygen-sensitive metalloenzyme complex found in all known diazotrophs. Two alternative forms of nitrogenase, the vanadium nitrogenase (V-nitrogenase, Vnf) and the iron-only nitrogenase (Fe-only nitrogenase, Anf) have also been identified in the genome of some organisms that encode for Nif. It has been suggested that alternative nitrogenases were responsible for N2-fixation on early Earth because oceans were depleted of bioavailable Mo...
April 9, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628727/inositols-in-midlife
#15
Sanjay Kalra, Bharti Kalra
This review describes the mechanistic, animal, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in midlife. It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol and randomized controlled trials conducted in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome and supports these data with the results of in vitro and animal studies on inositol in nephropathy and other related conditions. Recent advances related to biochemistry, pharmaceutical science, and genetics are discussed. It concludes that inositols have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic health in postmenopausal women...
January 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626924/unsolvable-problems-of-biology-it-is-impossible-to-create-two-identical-organisms-to-defeat-cancer-or-to-map-organisms-onto-their-genomes
#16
REVIEW
E D Sverdlov
The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626917/structural-functional-organization-of-the-eukaryotic-cell-nucleus-and-transcription-regulation-introduction-to-this-special-issue-of-biochemistry-moscow
#17
S V Razin
This issue of Biochemistry (Moscow) is devoted to the cell nucleus and mechanisms of transcription regulation. Over the years, biochemical processes in the cell nucleus have been studied in isolation, outside the context of their spatial organization. Now it is clear that segregation of functional processes within a compartmentalized cell nucleus is very important for the implementation of basic genetic processes. The functional compartmentalization of the cell nucleus is closely related to the spatial organization of the genome, which in turn plays a key role in the operation of epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605887/delafloxacin-place-in-therapy-and-review-of-microbiologic-clinical-and-pharmacologic-properties
#18
REVIEW
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
March 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602263/applications-of-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-in-chemistry-and-biochemistry
#19
Guannan Zhang, Christian Hilty
Sensitivity of detection is one of the most limiting aspects when applying NMR spectroscopy to current problems in the molecular sciences. A number of hyperpolarization methods exist for increasing the population difference between nuclear spin Zeeman states, and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by orders of magnitude. Among these methods, dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) is unique in its capability of providing high spin polarization for many types of molecules in the liquid state. Originally proposed for biomedical applications including in vivo imaging, applications in high resolution NMR spectroscopy are now emerging...
March 30, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601123/hydrogen-sulfide-in-physiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacteria-and-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Virender Kumar Pal, Parijat Bandyopadhyay, Amit Singh
An increasing number of studies have established hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas as a major cytoprotectant and redox modulator. Following its discovery, H2 S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and human health. H2 S acts as a gasotransmitter and exerts its influence on gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. Recent discoveries have clearly indicated the importance of H2 S in regulating vasorelaxation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, ageing, and metabolism...
March 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
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