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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521569/exploring-the-biochemistry-of-the-prenylome-and-its-role-in-disease-through-proteomics-progress-and-potential
#1
Maura Brioschi, Alma Martinez Fernandez, Cristina Banfi
Protein prenylation is a ubiquitous covalent post-translational modification characterized by the addition of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl isoprenoid groups to a cysteine residue located near the carboxyl terminal of a protein. It is essential for the proper localization and cellular activity of numerous proteins, including Ras family GTPases and G-proteins. In addition to its roles in cellular physiology, the prenylation process has important implications in human diseases and in the recent years, it has become attractive target of inhibitors with therapeutic potential...
May 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517369/treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-non-responders-a-systematic-review
#2
Duminda Suraweera, Harman Rahal, Melissa Jimenez, Matthew Viramontes, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by an immune mediated destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been the primary medication for the treatment of PBC, resulting in improved liver tests, resolution of symptoms and increased transplant free survival. However, not all patients respond to UDCA. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an evidence based assessment of the medications that have been studied in patients who are refractory to UDCA...
May 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503702/postmortem-diagnosis-of-hyponatremia-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Vanhaebost, Cristian Palmiere, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Fabiola Bou Abdallah, Arnaud Capron, Gregory Schmit
Hyponatremia is defined as a plasma sodium concentration less than 135 or 130 mEq/L (or mmol/L) and may be responsible for life threatening symptoms that can be observed in a variety of medical conditions. Cases of fatal hyponatremia have been reported in both clinical and forensic literature in situations of water intoxication due to psychogenic polydipsia, amphetamine derivative drug intake, high-endurance exercise, iatrogenic causes, and exceptional cases of child abuse by forced water intoxication. Vitreous sodium levels have been determined to be relatively stable during the early postmortem period and similar to levels found in normal serum of living subjects...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#4
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498721/mechanisms-of-deubiquitinase-specificity-and-regulation
#5
Tycho E T Mevissen, David Komander
Protein ubiquitination is one of the most powerful posttranslational modifications of proteins, as it regulates a plethora of cellular processes in distinct manners. Simple monoubiquitination events coexist with more complex forms of polyubiquitination, the latter featuring many different chain architectures. Ubiquitin can be subjected to further posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and acetylation) and can also be part of mixed polymers with ubiquitin-like modifiers such as SUMO (small ubiquitinrelated modifier) or NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8)...
May 12, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498720/protein-misfolding-amyloid-formation-and-human-disease-a-summary-of-progress-over-the-last-decade
#6
Fabrizio Chiti, Christopher M Dobson
Peptides and proteins have been found to possess an inherent tendency to convert from their native functional states into intractable amyloid aggregates. This phenomenon is associated with a range of increasingly common human disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, type II diabetes, and a number of systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we describe this field of science with particular reference to the advances that have been made over the last decade in our understanding of its fundamental nature and consequences...
May 12, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497905/flavanones-citrus-phytochemical-with-health-promoting-properties
#7
REVIEW
Davide Barreca, Giuseppe Gattuso, Ersilia Bellocco, Antonella Calderaro, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Smeriglio, Giuseppina Laganà, Maria Daglia, Silvia Meneghini, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Citrus fruit and juices represent one of the main sources of compounds with a high potential for health promoting properties. Among these compounds, flavanones (such as hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, isosakuranetin, and their respective glycosides), which occur in quantities ranging from ∼180 to 740 mg/L (depending on the Citrus species and cultivar) are responsible for many biological activities. These compounds support and enhance the body's defenses against oxidative stress and help the organism in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer...
May 12, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496055/organization-and-dynamics-of-yeast-mitochondrial-nucleoids
#8
Isamu Miyakawa
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged by association with specific proteins in compact DNA-protein complexes named mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids). The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow either aerobically or anaerobically. Due to this characteristic, S. cerevisiae has been extensively used as a model organism to study genetics, morphology and biochemistry of mitochondria for a long time. Mitochondria of S. cerevisiae frequently fuse and divide, and perform dynamic morphological changes depending on the culture conditions and the stage of life cycle of the yeast cells...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494365/a-critical-review-on-effects-tolerance-mechanisms-and-management-of-cadmium-in-vegetables
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Ibrahim, Daniel C W Tsang, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Jörg Rinklebe, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities...
May 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489421/mechanisms-and-functions-of-spatial-protein-quality-control
#10
Emily Mitchell Sontag, Rahul S Samant, Judith Frydman
A healthy proteome is essential for cell survival. Protein misfolding is linked to a rapidly expanding list of human diseases, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to aging and cancer. Many of these diseases are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in intra- and extracellular inclusions, such as amyloid plaques. The clear link between protein misfolding and disease highlights the need to better understand the elaborate machinery that manages proteome homeostasis, or proteostasis, in the cell...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472278/dihydrotestosterone-biochemistry-physiology-and-clinical-implications-of-elevated-blood-levels
#11
Ronald S Swerdloff, Robert E Dudley, Stephanie T Page, Christina Wang, Wael A Salameh
This review on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) biochemistry, physiology, and clinical implications of elevated levels in blood clarifies concepts that are important in clinical practice. Benefits associated with lowered serum DHT levels after 5α-reductase inhibitor (5AR-I) therapy in men have contributed to a misconception that circulating DHT levels are an important stimulus for androgenic action in target tissues (e.g., prostate). Yet evidence from clinical studies indicate that intracellular concentrations of androgens (particularly in androgen-sensitive tissues) are essentially independent of circulating levels...
May 2, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471691/the-evolution-of-organellar-coat-complexes-and-organization-of-the-eukaryotic-cell
#12
Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
Eukaryotic cells possess a remarkably diverse range of organelles that provide compartmentalization for distinct cellular functions and are likely responsible for the remarkable success of these organisms. The origins and subsequent elaboration of these compartments represent a key aspect in the transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular forms. The protein machinery required to build, maintain, and define many membranebound compartments is encoded by several paralog families, including small GTPases, coiled-bundle proteins, and proteins with β-propeller and α-solenoid secondary structures...
May 3, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470874/functional-interaction-and-structural-characteristics-of-unique-components-of-helicobacter-pylori-t4ss
#13
REVIEW
Enrique Merino, Marcos Flores-Encarnación, Germán Rubén Aguilar-Gutiérrez
The Helicobacter pylori infection of the human gastric mucosa causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers and is associated with the development of gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies show that these gastric diseases are related to virulent H. pylori strains that harbor the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). The cag PAI is a DNA insertion in the H. pylori chromosome that encodes approximately twenty-seven proteins, including the oncoprotein CagA. Approximately twenty of these proteins have been designated as cag type IV secretion system (T4SS) components...
May 4, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470800/oral-versus-intravenous-hypertonic-saline-for-exercise-associated-hyponatraemia
#14
Israel Berger
Exercise-associated hyponatraemia is a potentially serious acute condition that may present early as asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. Standard treatment is intravenous hypertonic saline, which can be challenging and carries some risk. An alternative may be oral therapy. We undertook a review of existing literature to assess whether paediatric populations should receive oral or intravenous hypertonic saline solutions. One study addressed our question but was aimed at a presumably adult population of runners...
May 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468201/the-study-of-calcium-phosphonium-magnesium-and-ferrum-concentration-in-serum-of-patients-with-primary-trigeminal-neuralgia
#15
Hua Zhao, Yinda Tang, Xin Zhang, Shiting Li
OBJECTIVE: To measure the concentration of 4 essential elements (Ca, P, Mg, Fe) in serum of patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia. And evaluate the role of the 4 elements in serum on the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and the relevance of etiology. METHODS: From June 2013 to June 2014, a number of 80 patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia were collected. We present a retrospective review of the concentration of 4 essential elements with those of control group of 80 patients without TN...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460188/proteasomal-and-autophagy-degradation-systems
#16
Ivan Dikic
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are the two major quality control pathways responsible for cellular homeostasis. As such, they provide protection against age-associated changes and a plethora of human diseases. Ubiquitination is utilized as a degradation signal by both systems, albeit in different ways, to mark cargoes for proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Both systems intersect and communicate at multiple points to coordinate their actions in proteostasis and organelle homeostasis. This review summarizes molecular details of how proteasome and autophagy pathways are functionally interconnected in cells and indicates common principles and nodes of communication that can be therapeutically exploited...
May 1, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447191/the-human-cytomegalovirus-chemokine-receptor-homolog-encoded-by-us27
#17
REVIEW
James R Stegman, Barry J Margulies
The genome of human cytomegalovirus contains four genes that encode chemokine receptor homologs. Of these, the protein encoded by US27 is of particular interest today because it is currently one of the viral G-protein coupled receptors that remain classified as an orphan receptor. This review explains what is presently understood about this glycoprotein: its biochemistry, its location in infected cells, and its apparent function. While there are still many questions that remain about these topics and more, we also discuss the utility of the US27-encoded glycoprotein as a new target for antiviral intervention...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441772/structural-and-biochemical-properties-of-novel-self-cleaving-ribozymes
#18
REVIEW
Ki-Young Lee, Bong-Jin Lee
Fourteen well-defined ribozyme classes have been identified to date, among which nine are site-specific self-cleaving ribozymes. Very recently, small self-cleaving ribozymes have attracted renewed interest in their structure, biochemistry, and biological function since the discovery, during the last three years, of four novel ribozymes, termed twister, twister sister, pistol, and hatchet. In this review, we mainly address the structure, biochemistry, and catalytic mechanism of the novel ribozymes. They are characterized by distinct active site architectures and divergent, but similar, biochemical properties...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441058/protein-misfolding-diseases
#20
F Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
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