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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329491/congenital-erythropoietic-porphyria-gunther-disease-long-term-follow-up-of-a-case-and-review
#1
Matthew Howard, Anthony Hall, Donald Ramsay
Patients with the rare genodermatosis congenitalerythropoietic porphyria (CEP, Gunther disease)develop erosions and scarring on sun-exposedsites caused by phototoxin mediated damage.Compromised skin barrier function places patientsat higher risk of infection and long term sequelaeinclude scarring. We report a long term follow up ofa 60 year old patient born with CEP and provide anextensive literature review of CEP including recentupdates on potential management options. Multiplepatient interviews and collection of biochemistry datawere conducted for the case discussion...
February 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325321/biosynthesis-of-agar-in-red-seaweeds-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Wei-Kang Lee, Yi-Yi Lim, Adam Thean-Chor Leow, Parameswari Namasivayam, Janna Ong Abdullah, Chai-Ling Ho
Agar is a jelly-like biopolymer synthesized by many red seaweeds as their major cell wall component. Due to its excellent rheological properties, it has been exploited commercially for applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnology industries. Despite its multiple uses, the biosynthesis of this phycocolloid is not fully understood. The current knowledge on agar biosynthesis is inferred from plant biochemistry and putative pathways for ulvan and alginate biosynthesis in green and brown seaweeds, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314342/reviews-of-physiology-biochemistry-and-pharmacology-vol-171
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303147/interactive-effects-of-uv-b-light-with-abiotic-factors-on-plant-growth-and-chemistry-and-their-consequences-for-defense-against-arthropod-herbivores
#4
REVIEW
Rocio Escobar-Bravo, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light plays a crucial role in plant-herbivorous arthropods interactions by inducing changes in constitutive and inducible plant defenses. In particular, constitutive defenses can be modulated by UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses and changes in the plant metabolome. In accordance, the prospective use of UV-B light as a tool to increase plant protection in agricultural practice has gained increasing interest. Changes in the environmental conditions might, however, modulate the UV-B -induced plant responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301769/reconstructing-ancient-proteins-to-understand-the-causes-of-structure-and-function
#5
Georg K A Hochberg, Joseph W Thornton
A central goal in biochemistry is to explain the causes of protein sequence, structure, and function. Mainstream approaches rationalize sequence and structure by how they determine function and compare related proteins to find mechanisms underlying their functional differences. Although productive, both strategies suffer from intrinsic limitations that have left important aspects of many proteins unexplained. These limits can be overcome by reconstructing ancient proteins, experimentally characterizing their properties, and retracing their evolution through time...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301754/bioanalytical-measurements-enabled-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-probes
#6
Lauren E Jamieson, Steven M Asiala, Kirsten Gracie, Karen Faulds, Duncan Graham
Since its discovery in 1974, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained momentum as an important tool in analytical chemistry. SERS is used widely for analysis of biological samples, ranging from in vitro cell culture models, ex vivo tissue and blood samples, and direct in vivo application. New insights have been gained into biochemistry, with an emphasis on biomolecule detection, from small molecules such as glucose and amino acids to larger biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. These measurements have increased our understanding of biological systems, and significantly, they have improved diagnostic capabilities...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301747/single-cell-transcriptional-analysis
#7
Angela R Wu, Jianbin Wang, Aaron M Streets, Yanyi Huang
Despite being a relatively recent technological development, single-cell transcriptional analysis through high-throughput sequencing has already been used in hundreds of fruitful studies to make exciting new biological discoveries that would otherwise be challenging or even impossible. Consequently, this has fueled a virtuous cycle of even greater interest in the field and compelled development of further improved technical methodologies and approaches. Thanks to the combined efforts of the research community, including the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology, technology and instrumentation, data science, computational biology, and bioinformatics, the single-cell RNA-sequencing field is advancing at a pace that is both astounding and unprecedented...
March 16, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301744/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites
#8
Yasunori Saheki, Pietro De Camilli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a broad localization throughout the cell and forms direct physical contacts with all other classes of membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM). A number of protein tethers that mediate these contacts have been identified, and study of these protein tethers has revealed a multiplicity of roles in cell physiology, including regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and signaling as well as control of lipid traffic and homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the cross talk between the ER and the PM mediated by direct contacts...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301743/eukaryotic-dna-replication-fork
#9
Peter M J Burgers, Thomas A Kunkel
This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301742/microbial-rhodopsins-diversity-mechanisms-and-optogenetic-applications
#10
Elena G Govorunova, Oleg A Sineshchekov, Hai Li, John L Spudich
Microbial rhodopsins are a family of photoactive retinylidene proteins widespread throughout the microbial world. They are notable for their diversity of function, using variations of a shared seven-transmembrane helix design and similar photochemical reactions to carry out distinctly different light-driven energy and sensory transduction processes. Their study has contributed to our understanding of how evolution modifies protein scaffolds to create new protein chemistry, and their use as tools to control membrane potential with light is fundamental to optogenetics for research and clinical applications...
March 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301741/mechanisms-of-autophagy-initiation
#11
James H Hurley, Lindsey N Young
Autophagy is the process of cellular self-eating by a double-membrane organelle, the autophagosome. A range of signaling processes converge on two protein complexes to initiate autophagy: the ULK1 (unc51-like autophagy activating kinase 1) protein kinase complex and the PI3KC3- C1 (class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I) lipid kinase complex. Some 90% of the mass of these large protein complexes consists of noncatalytic domains and subunits, and the ULK1 complex has essential noncatalytic activities...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301740/mitochondrial-machineries-for-protein-import-and-assembly
#12
Nils Wiedemann, Nikolaus Pfanner
Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301739/systems-biology-of-metabolism
#13
Jens Nielsen
Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296007/copper-metallothioneins
#14
REVIEW
Jenifer Calvo, Hunmin Jung, Gabriele Meloni
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of low molecular weight and cysteine-rich metal binding proteins present in all the branches of the tree of life. MTs efficiently bind with high affinity several essential and toxic divalent and monovalent transition metals by forming characteristic polynuclear metal-thiolate clusters within their structure. MTs fulfil multiple biological functions related to their metal binding properties, with essential roles in both Zn(II) and Cu(I) homeostasis as well as metal detoxification...
March 13, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295954/clinical-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-qsm-biometal-imaging-and-its-emerging-roles-in-patient-care
#15
REVIEW
Yi Wang, Pascal Spincemaille, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Kofi Deh, Jianqi Li, Yan Zhang, Yihao Yao, Kelly M Gillen, Alan H Wilman, Ajay Gupta, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Gloria Chia-Yi Chiang, Jonathan W Weinsaft, Lawrence Tanenbaum, Weiwei Chen, Wenzhen Zhu, Shixin Chang, Min Lou, Brian H Kopell, Michael G Kaplitt, David Devos, Toshinori Hirai, Xuemei Huang, Yukunori Korogi, Alexander Shtilbans, Geon-Ho Jahng, Daniel Pelletier, Susan A Gauthier, David Pitt, Ashley I Bush, Gary M Brittenham, Martin R Prince
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has enabled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tissue magnetic susceptibility to advance from simple qualitative detection of hypointense blooming artifacts to precise quantitative measurement of spatial biodistributions. QSM technology may be regarded to be sufficiently developed and validated to warrant wide dissemination for clinical applications of imaging isotropic susceptibility, which is dominated by metals in tissue, including iron and calcium. These biometals are highly regulated as vital participants in normal cellular biochemistry, and their dysregulations are manifested in a variety of pathologic processes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286749/factors-xi-and-xii-as-targets-for-new-anticoagulants
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Weitz, James C Fredenburgh
Compared with vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are simpler to administer and are associated with less intracranial bleeding. Nonetheless, even with the DOACs, bleeding still occurs and many patients with atrial fibrillation fail to receive anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis because of the fear of bleeding. Therefore, there is an urgent need for safer anticoagulants. Recent investigations into the biochemistry of hemostasis and thrombosis have identified new targets for development of novel anticoagulants...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278386/structural-evaluations-of-tau-protein-conformation-methodologies-and-approaches
#17
Nicole Lauren Zabik, Matthew Martin Imhof, Sanela Martic
Protein-misfolding diseases are based on a common principle of aggregation initiated by intra- and intermolecular contacts. The structural and conformational changes, induced by biochemical transformations, such as post-translational modifications (PTMs), often lead to protein unfolding and misfolding. Thus, these order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions may regulate cellular function. Tau, a neuronal protein, regulates microtubule (MT) structure and overall cellular integrity. However, misfolded tau modified by PTMs results in MT destabilization, toxic tau aggregate formation, and ultimately cell death, leading to neurodegeneration...
March 9, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263717/nmr-based-stable-isotope-resolved-metabolomics-in-systems-biochemistry
#18
Andrew N Lane, Teresa W-M Fan
Metabolism is the basic activity of live cells, and monitoring the metabolic state provides a dynamic picture of the cells or tissues, and how they respond to external changes, for in disease or treatment with drugs. NMR is an extremely versatile analytical tool that can be applied to a wide range of biochemical problems. Despite its modest sensitivity its versatility make it an ideal tool for analyzing biochemical dynamics both in vitro and in vivo, especially when coupled with its isotope editing capabilities, from which isotope distributions can be readily determined...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260488/genomics-and-biochemistry-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-wine-yeast-strains
#19
REVIEW
M A Eldarov, S A Kishkovskaia, T N Tanaschuk, A V Mardanov
Saccharomyces yeasts have been used for millennia for the production of beer, wine, bread, and other fermented products. Long-term "unconscious" selection and domestication led to the selection of hundreds of strains with desired production traits having significant phenotypic and genetic differences from their wild ancestors. This review summarizes the results of recent research in deciphering the genomes of wine Saccharomyces strains, the use of comparative genomics methods to study the mechanisms of yeast genome evolution under conditions of artificial selection, and the use of genomic and postgenomic approaches to identify the molecular nature of the important characteristics of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258700/the-ectonucleotidases-cd39-and-cd73-novel-checkpoint-inhibitor-targets
#20
REVIEW
Bertrand Allard, Maria Serena Longhi, Simon C Robson, John Stagg
Cancers are able to grow by subverting immune suppressive pathways, to prevent the malignant cells as being recognized as dangerous or foreign. This mechanism prevents the cancer from being eliminated by the immune system and allows disease to progress from a very early stage to a lethal state. Immunotherapies are newly developing interventions that modify the patient's immune system to fight cancer, by either directly stimulating rejection-type processes or blocking suppressive pathways. Extracellular adenosine generated by the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 is a newly recognized "immune checkpoint mediator" that interferes with anti-tumor immune responses...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
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