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Biochemistry AND review

Dana Khaled Almedallah, Dana Yousef Alshamlan, Erum Mubbashir Shariff
Myoclonus is an abnormal involuntary movement that has been previously reported with administration of high doses of opioids for prolonged periods of time. In this case, however, we report an acute myoclonic reaction and review the literature on the possible causative pathophysiology. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was admitted for postdated cesarean section. She started to have abnormal involuntary movements after administration of an epidural anesthesia containing 700 μg of fentanyl with 115 mL (0...
May 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Shi-Han Zhang, Yun-Hui DU, Hai-Cun Yu, Yu-Ming Li, Hui-Rong Liu
The complement C1q/TNF related protein (CTRP) family is rapidly growing and currently comprises 15 members. Although CTRP proteins share a common structure composed of four distinct domains: a signal peptide at the N terminus, a short variable region, a collagenous domain, and a C-terminal globular domain, which is homologous to adiponectin, each CTRP has a unique tissue expression profile and varied function. In this review we focus on the biochemistry and pleiotropic functions of CTRPs as new molecular mediators regulating cardiovascular metabolic disorders and its related risk factors diseases...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Gunnar von Heijne
This article introduces the Protein Evolution and Design theme of the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87.
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Ronald C Conaway
Although cell metabolism has been established as a major regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, the mechanisms underlying this regulation are still being uncovered. Recent years have seen great advances in our understanding of biochemical mechanisms of metabolic regulation of transcription and chromatin. Prime examples include insights into how nutrients and cellular energy status regulate synthesis of ribosomal RNAs by RNA polymerases I and III during ribosome biogenesis and how a variety of enzymes that catalyze modifications of histones in chromatin are regulated by the levels of certain metabolites...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Helena Covelo-Molares, Marek Bartosovic, Stepanka Vanacova
Eukaryotic RNA can carry more than 100 different types of chemical modifications. Early studies have been focused on modifications of highly abundant RNA, such as ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA, but recent technical advances have made it possible to also study messenger RNA (mRNA). Subsequently, mRNA modifications, namely methylation, have emerged as key players in eukaryotic gene expression regulation. The most abundant and widely studied internal mRNA modification is N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), but the list of mRNA chemical modifications continues to grow as fast as interest in this field...
June 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Kevin B Reed, Hal S Alper
Metabolic engineering offers an exquisite capacity to produce new molecules in a renewable manner. However, most industrial applications have focused on only a small subset of elements from the periodic table, centered around carbon biochemistry. This review aims to illustrate the expanse of chemical elements that can currently (and potentially) be integrated into useful products using cellular systems. Specifically, we describe recent advances in expanding the cellular scope to include the halogens, selenium and the metalloids, and a variety of metal incorporations...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Emily C Ulrich, Siddhesh S Kamat, Bjarne Hove-Jensen, David L Zechel
Inorganic phosphate is essential for all life forms, yet microbes in marine environments are in near constant deprivation of this important nutrient. Organophosphonic acids can serve as an alternative source of inorganic phosphate if microbes possess the appropriate biochemical pathways that allow cleavage of the stable carbon-phosphorus bond that defines this class of molecule. One prominent source of inorganic phosphate is methylphosphonic acid, which is found as a constituent of marine-dissolved organic matter...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Liting Tong, Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Amaka C Offiah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by disordered bone mineralisation and is therefore an increased fracture risk. Preterm infants are especially at risk due to incomplete in utero bone accretion during the last trimester. Currently, diagnosing metabolic bone disease mainly relies on biochemistry and radiographs. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (US) are used less frequently. However, biochemical measurements correlate poorly with bone mineralisation and although scoring systems exist for metabolic bone disease, radiographs are subjective and do not detect early features of osteopenia...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Fidele Tugizimana, Msizi I Mhlongo, Lizelle A Piater, Ian A Dubery
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics—the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in a dynamic equilibrium) of a biological system. This field has developed as an indispensable methodological approach to study cellular biochemistry at a global level. For protection and survival in a constantly-changing environment, plants rely on a complex and multi-layered innate immune system...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dmitri A Maslov, Fred R Opperdoes, Alexei Y Kostygov, Hassan Hashimi, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Unicellular flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligatory parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Dixenous species are aetiological agents of a number of diseases in humans, domestic animals and plants. Their monoxenous relatives are restricted to insects. Because of the high biological diversity, adaptability to dramatically different environmental conditions, and omnipresence, these protists have major impact on all biotic communities that still needs to be fully elucidated. In addition, as these organisms represent a highly divergent evolutionary lineage, they are strikingly different from the common 'model system' eukaryotes, such as some mammals, plants or fungi...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Andrew C Gill, Andrew R Castle
The cellular prion protein, PrPC , is a small, cell surface glycoprotein with a function that is currently somewhat ill defined. It is also the key molecule involved in the family of neurodegenerative disorders called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which are also known as prion diseases. The misfolding of PrPC to a conformationally altered isoform, designated PrPTSE , is the main molecular process involved in pathogenesis and appears to precede many other pathologic and clinical manifestations of disease, including neuronal loss, astrogliosis, and cognitive loss...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D M Li, H W Wu, J D Li, W B Xia, Y Jiang, D R Zhong
Objective: To study the clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotype of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) . Methods: The clinicopathological data and immunohistochemical profiles were obtained retrospectively from 206 patients diagnosed with PMT at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during July 2008 to September 2017, with a review of literature. Results: The mean age of PMT patients was 42 years (range 13 to 70 years), with a male to female ratio of 1.1∶1.0. All patients presented with different degree of bone pain, muscle weakness, shorten of stature, thoracic deformity and pathological fractures, with hypophosphatemia and high serum ALP...
June 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Amanda Bentley-DeSousa, Michael Downey
Polyphosphorylation is a newly described non-enzymatic post-translational modification wherein long chains of inorganic phosphates are attached to lysine residues. The first targets of polyphosphorylation identified were S. cerevisiae proteins Nsr1 and Top1. Building on this theme, we recently exploited functional genomics tools in yeast to identify 15 new targets, including a conserved network of nucleolar proteins implicated in ribosome biogenesis. We also described the polyphosphorylation of six human proteins, suggesting that this unique post-translational modification could be conserved throughout eukaryotes...
June 7, 2018: Current Genetics
Elizabeth S Baranowski, Wiebke Arlt, Jan Idkowiak
Disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis comprise autosomal recessive conditions affecting steroidogenic enzymes of the adrenal cortex. Those are located within the 3 major branches of the steroidogenic machinery involved in the production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. This mini review describes the principles of adrenal steroidogenesis, including the newly appreciated 11-oxygenated androgen pathway. This is followed by a description of pathophysiology, biochemistry, and clinical implications of steroidogenic disorders, including mutations affecting cholesterol import and steroid synthesis, the latter comprising both mutations affecting steroidogenic enzymes and co-factors required for efficient catalysis...
June 6, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
F Peter Guengerich
In honor of the 100th birthday of Dr. Herbert Tabor, JBC's Editor-in-Chief for 40 years, here I review JBC's extensive coverage of the field of cytochrome P450 (P450) research. Research on the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes was published in JBC before it was even realized that they were P450s, that is, that they have a "pigment" with an absorption maximum at 450 nm. After the P450 pigment discovery, reported in JBC in 1962, the journal proceeded to publish the methods for measuring P450 activities and many seminal findings...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
George R Bousfield, Jeffrey V May, John S Davis, James A Dias, T Rajendra Kumar
Human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exhibits both macro- and microheterogeneity in its carbohydrate moieties. Macroheterogeneity results in three physiologically relevant FSHβ subunit variants, two that possess a single N-linked glycan at either one of the two βL1 loop glycosylation sites or one with both glycans. Microheterogeneity is characterized by 80 to over 100 unique oligosaccharide structures attached to each of the 3 to 4 occupied N-glycosylation sites. With respect to its receptor, partially glycosylated (hypo-glycosylated) FSH variants exhibit higher association rates, greater apparent affinity, and greater occupancy than fully glycosylated FSH...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cassandra S Carroll, Margo M Moore
Iron is required for microbial growth and proliferation. To survive in low-iron environments, some microorganisms secrete ferric iron chelators called siderophores. Siderophore biosynthesis occurs via two pathways: the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) synthetase pathway. NIS enzymes function by adenylating a carboxylic acid substrate, typically citrate, or a derivative, followed by nucleophilic capture of an amine or alcohol and displacement of a citryl intermediate...
June 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Peter J Harrison, Teresa M Dunn, Dominic J Campopiano
A new review covering up to 2018Sphingolipids are essential molecules that, despite their long history, are still stimulating interest today. The reasons for this are that, as well as playing structural roles within cell membranes, they have also been shown to perform a myriad of cell signalling functions vital to the correct function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Indeed, sphingolipid disregulation that alters the tightly-controlled balance of these key lipids has been closely linked to a number of diseases such as diabetes, asthma and various neuropathologies...
June 4, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Kristen M Hutchinson, Kelly Tart, Kari L Anderson, Lisa L Powell
To describe a case of naturally occurring pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli and emphysematous hepatitis in a cat. A 9-month-old, indoors-only, female spayed, domestic medium hair cat presented for vomiting, open-mouth breathing and acute collapse. The initial physical examination identified moderate to severe hypothermia [35°C (95°F)], obtunded mentation, weak femoral pulses, tachycardia (heart rate 240 beats per min), pale pink mucous membranes and significant splenomegaly on abdominal palpation...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Monika Schmidt, Veronika Hrabcova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek
Mosquito-borne diseases (including malaria) are among the leading causes of death in humans. Vector control is a very important part of the global strategy for management of mosquito-associated diseases, and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. However, drug and insecticide resistance threaten the successes made with existing methods. Reduction or elimination of malaria is not possible without effective mosquito control. This article reviews current strategies of intervention in vector control to decrease transmission of disease, and covers current relevant knowledge in molecular biology, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry...
May 31, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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