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Biochemistry AND review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088624/oxidative-phospholipidomics-in-health-and-disease-achievements-challenges-and-hopes
#1
REVIEW
Ana Reis
Phospholipid peroxidation products are recognized as important bioactive lipid mediators playing an active role as modulators in signalling events in inflammation, immunity and infection. The biochemical responses are determined by the oxidation structural features present in oxPL modulating biophysical and biological properties in model membranes and lipoproteins. In spite of the extensive work conducted with model systems over the last 20 years, the study of oxPL in biological systems has virtually stagnated...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#2
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#3
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062838/enzymes-as-modular-catalysts-for-redox-half-reactions-in-h2-powered-chemical-synthesis-from-biology-to-technology
#4
REVIEW
Holly A Reeve, Philip A Ash, HyunSeo Park, Ailun Huang, Michalis Posidias, Chloe Tomlinson, Oliver Lenz, Kylie A Vincent
The present study considers the ways in which redox enzyme modules are coupled in living cells for linking reductive and oxidative half-reactions, and then reviews examples in which this concept can be exploited technologically in applications of coupled enzyme pairs. We discuss many examples in which enzymes are interfaced with electronically conductive particles to build up heterogeneous catalytic systems in an approach which could be termed synthetic biochemistry We focus on reactions involving the H(+)/H2 redox couple catalysed by NiFe hydrogenase moieties in conjunction with other biocatalysed reactions to assemble systems directed towards synthesis of specialised chemicals, chemical building blocks or bio-derived fuel molecules...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062615/biochemistry-therapeutics-and-biomarker-implications-of-neprilysin-in-cardiorenal-disease
#5
REVIEW
Yang Chen, John C Burnett
BACKGROUND: Neprilysin (NEP) is a membrane-bound neutral endopeptidase that degrades a variety of bioactive peptides. The substrates include natriuretic peptides (NPs), which are important regulating mediators for cardiovascular and renal biology. Inhibition of NEP activity and exogenous NP administration thus have emerged as potential therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal diseases. More recently, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP), 3'-5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and soluble NEP as biomarkers have also been investigated in heart failure (HF) trials and their predictive value are beginning to be recognized...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045509/metal-ion-modeling-using-classical-mechanics
#6
Pengfei Li, Kenneth M Merz
Metal ions play significant roles in numerous fields including chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and materials science. With computational tools increasingly becoming important in chemical research, methods have emerged to effectively face the challenge of modeling metal ions in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Herein, we review both quantum and classical modeling strategies for metal ion-containing systems that have been developed over the past few decades. This Review focuses on classical metal ion modeling based on unpolarized models (including the nonbonded, bonded, cationic dummy atom, and combined models), polarizable models (e...
January 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034792/glutathione-in-the-human-brain-review-of-its-roles-and-measurement-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#7
Caroline D Rae, Stephen R Williams
We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment...
December 26, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030868/implementation-of-an-automated-primary-care-acute-kidney-injury-warning-system-a-quantitative-and-qualitative-review-of-2-years-of-experience
#8
Omid Sadeghi Alavijeh, Jas Bansal, Katie Hadfield, Christopher Laing, Anne Dawnay
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often detected late, leading to worse clinical outcomes. In 2012, we pioneered an AKI-alerting system for primary care clinicians (PCCs). We retrospectively analysed the alerts and evaluated PCC satisfaction to assess the feasibility of the system. METHODS: The study used a 2-pronged approach. AKI alerts, generated by an algorithm designed by University College London Hospital biochemistry department between June 2012 and June 2014, were analysed to reveal the demographics and outcomes of each patient generating an alert...
December 29, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027958/chasing-the-tail-the-emergence-of-autocatalytic-networks
#9
REVIEW
Wim Hordijk, Mike Steel
A ubiquitous feature of all living systems is their ability to sustain a biochemistry in which all reactions are coordinated by catalysts, and all reactants (along with the catalysts) are either produced by the system itself or are available from the environment. This led to the hypothesis that 'autocatalytic networks' play a key role in both the origin and the organization of life, which was first proposed in the early 1970s, and has been enriched in recent years by a combination of experimental studies and the application of mathematical and computational techniques...
December 25, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027411/dna-repair-by-the-radical-sam-enzyme-spore-photoproduct-lyase-from-biochemistry-to-structural-investigations
#10
Olivier Berteau, Alhosna Benjdia
Radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzymes have emerged as one of the last superfamilies of enzymes discovered to date. Arguably, it is the most versatile group of enzymes involved in at least 85 biochemical transformations. One of the founding members of this enzyme superfamily is the Spore Photoproduct (SP) lyase, a DNA repair enzyme catalyzing the direct reversal repair of a unique DNA lesion, the so-called spore photoproduct, back into two thymidine residues. Discovered more than 20 years ago in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, SP lyase has been shown to be widespread in the endospore-forming Firmicutes from the Bacilli and Clostridia classes and to use radical-based chemistry to perform C-C bond breakage, a chemically challenging reaction...
December 27, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025056/non-malignant-pleural-effusions-nmpe-a-prospective-study-of-356-consecutive-unselected-patients
#11
Steven P Walker, Anna J Morley, Louise Stadon, Duneesha De Fonseka, David A Arnold, Andrew Rl Medford, Nick A Maskell
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusions secondary to a non-malignant aetiology can represent significant morbidity and mortality. These non-malignant pleural effusions (NMPE) are common, with congestive heart failure (CHF) representing the leading cause. Despite this, there is limited data on mortality risk and the factors which influence them. METHODS: We recruited 782 consecutive patients presenting to a pleural service, between 03/2008 and 03/2015, with an undiagnosed pleural effusion...
December 23, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017739/mrs-studies-of-neuroenergetics-and-glutamate-glutamine-exchange-in-rats-extensions-to-hyperammonemic-models
#12
Bernard Lanz, Veronika Rackayova, Olivier Braissant, Cristina Cudalbu
In vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is a useful tool to characterize brain biochemistry as well as its alteration in a large number of major central nervous system diseases. The present review will focus on the study of the glutamate-glutamine cycle, an important biochemical pathway in excitatory neurotransmission, analyzed using in vivo MRS of different accessible nuclei: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (31)P. The different methodological aspects of data acquisition, processing and absolute quantification of the MRS data for each nucleus will be presented, as well as the description of the mathematic modeling approach to interpret the MRS measurements in terms of biochemical kinetics...
December 22, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012964/resveratrol-regulates-gene-transcription-via-activation-of-stimulus-responsive-transcription-factors
#13
REVIEW
Gerald Thiel, Oliver G Rössler
Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin of grapes and other fruits and plants, is a common constituent of our diet and of dietary supplements. Many health-promoting benefits have been connected with resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and diseases connected with aging. To explain the pleiotropic effects of resveratrol, the molecular targets of this compound have to be identified on the cellular level. Resveratrol induces intracellular signal transduction pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the gene expression pattern of the cells...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009830/a-brief-history-of-research-on-mitotic-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
J Richard McIntosh, Thomas Hays
This chapter describes in summary form some of the most important research on chromosome segregation, from the discovery and naming of mitosis in the nineteenth century until around 1990. It gives both historical and scientific background for the nine chapters that follow, each of which provides an up-to-date review of a specific aspect of mitotic mechanism. Here, we trace the fruits of each new technology that allowed a deeper understanding of mitosis and its underlying mechanisms. We describe how light microscopy, including phase, polarization, and fluorescence optics, provided descriptive information about mitotic events and also enabled important experimentation on mitotic functions, such as the dynamics of spindle fibers and the forces generated for chromosome movement...
December 21, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007614/hypertension-the-role-of-biochemistry-in-the-diagnosis-and-management
#15
REVIEW
P M O'Shea, T P Griffin, M Fitzgibbon
Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Collectively, hypertension is referred to as a "silent killer" - frequently it displays no overt symptomatology. It is a leading risk factor for death and disability globally, with >40% of persons aged over 25 having hypertension...
December 19, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007527/applications-of-higenamine-in-pharmacology-and-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Nana Zhang, Zeqin Lian, Xueying Peng, Zijian Li, Haibo Zhu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum has been used as local and traditional medicines in many asian regions for the treatment of various diseases such as collapse, syncope, painful joints, oedema, bronchial asthma et al. Higenamine, a plant-based alkaloid, was initially isolated from Aconitum and identified as the active cardiotonic component of Aconitum. It has been tested as a candidate of pharmacologic stress agent in the detection of coronary artery diseases (CADs) and now researchers have just accomplished the phase III clinical studies successfully in China...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004455/engineering-central-metabolism-a-grand-challenge-for-plant-biologists
#17
Lee J Sweetlove, Jens Nielsen, Alisdair R Fernie
The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However, as has been amply demonstrated in simpler systems such as microbes, central metabolism is extremely difficult to rationally engineer. This is because of multiple layers of regulation that operate to maintain metabolic steady state and because of the highly connected nature of central metabolism...
December 22, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999715/secretory-paraspinal-paraganglioma-of-thoracolumar-spine-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#18
Saad Akhtar, Sidra Sattar, Ehsan Bari, Naila Kayani, Sarosh Moeen
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine secreting tumors of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, however, when present extra-adrenally they are called paragangliomas. Paragangliomas rarely produce catecholamine in excess, which is evident by clinical symptoms, urine, and blood biochemistry. Total resection of these tumors can lead to complete clinical and biochemical resolution. This case report presents the clinical features, radiological findings, and neurological outcome in a middle-aged female with a secretory paraganglioma...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991766/magnetically-actuated-droplet-manipulation-and-its-potential-biomedical-applications
#19
Guoyou Huang, Moxiao Li, Qingzhen Yang, Yuhui Li, Hao Liu, Hui Yang, Feng Xu
Droplet manipulation has found broad applications in various engineering and biomedical fields, such as biochemistry, microfluidic systems, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Many methods have been developed to enhance the ability for manipulating droplets, among which magnetically actuated droplet manipulation has attracted widespread interests due to its remote, noninvasive manipulation ability and biocompatibility. This review summarizes the approaches and their principles that enable actuating the droplet magnetically...
January 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991674/photolyase-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-repair-of-sun-induced-dna-damage
#20
Meng Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Dongping Zhong
Photolyase, a photomachine discovered half a century ago for repair of sun-induced DNA damage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), has been characterized extensively in biochemistry (function), structure and dynamics since 1980s. The molecular mechanism and repair photocycle have been revealed at the most fundamental level. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we have mapped out the entire dynamical evolution and determined all actual timescales of the catalytic processes...
December 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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