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adipose progenitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096344/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-regulates-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-adult-atria
#1
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1(CreERT2+/-)Rosa(tdT+/-) mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088466/teneurin-2-tenm2-deficiency-induces-ucp1-expression-in-differentiating-human-fat-cells
#2
D Tews, T Fromme, M Keuper, S M Hofmann, K M Debatin, M Klingenspor, M Wabitsch, P Fischer-Posovszky
Under certain conditions UCP1 expressing adipocytes arise in white adipose tissue depots of both mice and humans. It is still not fully understood whether these cells differentiate de novo from specific progenitor cells or if they transdifferentiate from mature white adipocytes. Performing expression pattern analysis comparing adipocyte progenitor cells from deep and subcutaneous neck adipose tissue, we recently identified teneurin-2 (TENM2) enriched in white adipocyte progenitor cells. Here we tested whether TENM2 deficiency in adipocyte progenitor cells would lead to a brown adipocyte phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#3
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070930/pituitary-adenoma-with-adipose-tissue-a-new-metaplastic-variant
#4
Chiara Caporalini, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Luigi Pansini, Selene Moscardi, Luca Novelli, Gianna Baroni, Lorenzo Bordi, Franco Ammannati, Gian Luigi Taddei
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors representing approximately 15-20% of intracranial neoplasms. There have been few reports of metaplastic osseous transformation and about 60 cases of neuronal metaplasia in pituitary adenoma but adipose metaplasia has not been previously described in the English literature. Here we report a case of pituitary adenoma with metaplastic adipose tissue in a 58-year-old male patient. Histologically this case fulfilled the criteria of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and moreover a central area of adipose tissue, made by mature adipocytes, and many tumor cells, containing fat droplet were evident...
January 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052263/amplification-of-adipogenic-commitment-by-vstm2a
#5
Blandine Secco, Étienne Camiré, Marc-Antoine Brière, Alexandre Caron, Armande Billong, Yves Gélinas, Anne-Marie Lemay, Kevin M Tharp, Peter L Lee, Stéphane Gobeil, Jean V Guimond, Natacha Patey, David A Guertin, Andreas Stahl, Élie Haddad, David Marsolais, Yohan Bossé, Kivanc Birsoy, Mathieu Laplante
Despite progress in our comprehension of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue development, the nature of the factors that functionally characterize adipose precursors is still elusive. Defining the early steps regulating adipocyte development is needed for the generation of tools to control adipose tissue size and function. Here, we report the discovery of V-set and transmembrane domain containing 2A (VSTM2A) as a protein expressed and secreted by committed preadipocytes. VSTM2A expression is elevated in the early phases of adipogenesis in vitro and adipose tissue development in vivo...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041747/autologous-fat-grafting-does-not-improve-burn-scar-appearance-a-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#6
Shaili Gal, Jesus Ignacio Ramirez, Pirko Maguina
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that fat grafts can improve the appearance of mature burn scars. The pluripotent progenitor cells contained within autologous adipose tissue grafts are believed to induce skin repair and improve scar appearance. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of fat grafts on the appearance of mature burn scars. METHODS: Pediatric burn survivors with mature scars were recruited for this study...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033623/-consensus-of-the-deutsche-gesellschaft-der-plastischen-rekonstruktiven-und-%C3%A3-sthetischen-chirurgen-dgpr%C3%A3-c-on-autologous-fat-grafting
#7
R E Giunta, R E Horch, L Prantl, E M Baur, C Herold, L Kamolz, M Lehnhardt, E M Noah, O Rennekampff, D Richter, D J Schaefer, K Ueberreiter
On occasion of the Munich Plastic Symposium in Munich the board of the Deutsche Gesellschaft der Plastischen, Rekonstruktiven und Ästhetischen Chirurgen (DGPRÄC) together with a group of experts who were also involved in the preparation of the recently published S2K guideline "Autologous Fat Grafting", prepared a consensus statement from a plastic-surgical point of view so to evaluate current spects and taking into account the current legal framework: 1. Autologous Fat Grafting is a long established treatment in plastic surgery and does not differ from other tissue grafts...
December 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026903/impaired-adrenergic-agonist-dependent-beige-adipocyte-induction-in-aged-mice
#8
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018908/partial-cranial-cruciate-ligament-tears-treated-with-stem-cell-and-platelet-rich-plasma-combination-therapy-in-36-dogs-a-retrospective-study
#9
Sherman O Canapp, Christopher S Leasure, Catherine Cox, Victor Ibrahim, Brittany J Carr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes in 36 dogs with a partial cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) tear treated with autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) or adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPC) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with an early partial (≤50%) tear of the craniomedial band of the CCL that was treated with BMAC-PRP or ADPC-PRP were reviewed from 2010 to 2015. Signalment, medical history, physical and orthopedic examination, objective temporospatial gait analyses, radiographs, day 0 and day 90 diagnostic arthroscopy findings, treatment, and outcome were among the data collected...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004524/a-cell-based-self-assembly-approach-for-the-production-of-human-osseous-tissues-from-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cells
#10
Todd Galbraith, William P Clafshenkel, Fabien Kawecki, Camille Blanckaert, Benoit Labbé, Michel Fortin, François A Auger, Julie Fradette
Achieving optimal bone defect repair is a clinical challenge driving intensive research in the field of bone tissue engineering. Many strategies focus on seeding graft materials with progenitor cells prior to in vivo implantation. Given the benefits of closely mimicking tissue structure and function with natural materials, the authors hypothesize that under specific culture conditions, human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) can solely be used to engineer human reconstructed osseous tissues (hROTs) by undergoing osteoblastic differentiation with concomitant extracellular matrix production and mineralization...
December 22, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004288/in-vivo-quantification-of-the-revascularization-of-a-human-acellular-dermis-seeded-with-epcs-and-mscs-in-co-culture-with-fibroblasts-and-pericytes-in-the-dorsal-chamber-model-in-pre-irradiated-tissue
#11
M Vitacolonna, D Belharazem, P Hohenberger, E D Roessner
INTRODUCTION: Transplantation of a cell-seeded graft may improve wound healing after radiotherapy. However, the survival of the seeded cells depends on a rapid vascularization of the graft. Co-culturing of adult stem cells may be a promising strategy to accelerate the vessel formation inside the graft. Thus, we compared the in vivo angiogenic potency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) using dorsal skinfold chambers and intravital microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were isolated from rat bone marrow and adipose tissue and characterized by immunostaining and flow cytometry...
December 21, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000538/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-enhanced-therapeutic-properties
#12
John Girdlestone
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are connective tissue progenitor cells with interesting immunoregulatory properties and are currently being assessed as cellular therapeutics in a variety of clinical applications. While bone marrow has been the traditional source, adipose tissue and umbilical cord are being used increasingly to generate MSC for therapeutic use as an allogeneic, off-the-shelf product. Although the means by which MSC home to sites of inflammation or tissue damage and exert their beneficial effects remain to be fully elucidated, they have recently been shown to adsorb a number of immunosuppressive and anticancer drugs that may further enhance their therapeutic potential...
December 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999947/comparison-of-in-vivo-immune-responses-following-transplantation-of-vascularized-and-non-vascularized-human-dermo-epidermal-skin-substitutes
#13
Agnes S Klar, Thomas Biedermann, Claudia Simmen-Meuli, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli
PURPOSE: Autologous bio-engineered dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) represent an alternative therapeutic option for a definitive treatment of skin defects in human patients. Largely, the interaction of host immune cells with transplanted DESS is considered to be essential for the granulation tissue formation, graft take, and its functionality. The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal distribution and density of host-derived monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes in vascularized (vascDESS) versus non-vascularized DESS (non-vascDESS) in a rat model...
December 20, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994950/cytokine-signaling-regulating-adipose-stromal-cell-trafficking
#14
Yan Zhang, Mikhail G Kolonin
Adipocyte progenitors, known as adipose stromal cells (ASC), can become mobilized, recruited by tumors, and contribute to cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking have remained obscure. We recently reported that CXCL1 expressed by cancer cells chemoattracts ASC expressing CXCR1 in obesity. As a candidate mechanism of CXCL1 activation, we identified interleukin (IL)-22, systemic circulation of which is increased in obesity. It has been reported that IL-22 signaling through IL-22R is upstream of CXCL1...
October 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994622/bone-formation-by-sheep-stem-cells-in-an-ectopic-mouse-model-comparison-of-adipose-and-bone-marrow-derived-cells-and-identification-of-donor-derived-bone-by-antibody-staining
#15
Kristian Kjærgaard, Chris H Dreyer, Nicholas Ditzel, Christina M Andreasen, Li Chen, Søren P Sheikh, Søren Overgaard, Ming Ding
Background. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE) can be loaded with stem and progenitor cells (SPC) from different sources to improve osteogenesis. SPC can be found in bone marrow, adipose tissue, and other tissues. Little is known about osteogenic potential of adipose-derived culture expanded, adherent cells (A-CEAC). This study compares in vivo osteogenic capacity between A-CEAC and bone marrow derived culture expanded, adherent cells (BM-CEAC). Method. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were isolated from five female sheep and seeded on hydroxyapatite granules prior to subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982067/brown-adipogenic-potential-of-brown-adipocytes-and-peri-renal-adipocytes-from-human-embryo
#16
Nan-Nan Wu, Chuan-Hai Zhang, Hyuek-Jong Lee, Yan Ma, Xin Wang, Xiao-Juan Ma, Wei Ma, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng
Both brown adipocytes (BAC) and beige cells hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Unfortunately, the amount and activity of these cells are limited in adults. Although BAC marker expression has been shown in peri-renal adipose tissues in children and adults, functional assessment is lacking. Furthermore, it is entirely unknown whether adipose progenitors are present in human embryo and able to give rise to BAC in situ during evolution. Therefore, adipose tissues in the interscapular and peri-renal regions were dissected from human embryo and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT) were obtained from an adult...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939445/changes-in-adipose-tissue-cellular-composition-during-obesity-and-aging-as-a-cause-of-metabolic-dysregulation
#17
Kari Martyniak, Michal M Masternak
Adipose tissue represents complex endocrine organ containing several different cellular populations including adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. It is well establishing that these populations are not static but alter during obesity and aging. Changes in cellular populations alter inflammatory status and other common metabolic complications arise, therefore adipose tissue cellular composition helps dictate its endocrine and regulatory function. During excessive weight gain in obese individuals and as we age there is shift towards increase populations of inflammatory macrophages with a decrease of regulatory T cell...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925477/relevance-of-meniscal-cell-regional-phenotype-to-tissue-engineering
#18
Shawn P Grogan, Chantal Pauli, Martin K Lotz, Darryl D D'Lima
PURPOSE: Meniscus contains heterogeneous populations of cells that have not been fully characterized. Cell phenotype is often lost during culture; however, culture expansion is typically required for tissue engineering. We examined and compared cell surface molecule expression levels on human meniscus cells from the vascular and avascular regions and articular chondrocytes while documenting changes during culture-induced dedifferentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 16 different surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry after monolayer culture for 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925313/isolation-proliferation-and-characterization-of-endometrial-canine-stem-cells
#19
V De Cesaris, S Grolli, C Bresciani, V Conti, G Basini, E Parmigiani, E Bigliardi
In the last decade, progenitor cells isolated from dissociated endometrial tissue have been the subject of many studies in several animal species. Recently, endometrial cells showing characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been demonstrated in human, pig and cow uterine tissue samples. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of stromal cells from the endometrium of healthy bitches, a tissue that after elective surgery is routinely discarded. Multipotent stromal cells could be isolated from all bitches enrolled in the study (n = 7)...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#20
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
January 2017: Nature Genetics
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