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adipose progenitors

Alina Constantin, Madalina Dumitrescu, Maria Cristina Mihai Corotchi, Dana Jianu, Maya Simionescu
CO2 laser has a beneficial effect on stem cells by mechanisms that are not clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that the effect of fractional CO2 laser on human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) could be due to changes in redox homeostasis and secretion of factors contributing to cellular proliferation and angiogenic potential. ADSC incubated in medium containing 0.5 or 10 % FBS were exposed to a single irradiation of a 10,600-nm fractional CO2 laser; non-irradiated ADSC were used as control. Viability/proliferation of ADSC was assessed by MTT assay; the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) were determined with DCFH-DA and JC-1 fluorescent probes, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Chelsea Hepler, Rana K Gupta
The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts
There are sex associated differences in the risk for cardiovascular comorbidities in obesity and metabolic syndrome. A common clinical finding in these diseases is the expansion of perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) which is associated with alterations in their role as regulators of vessel function. PVAT hyperplasia and hypertrophy are dependent on the biology of populations of adipocyte progenitor cells (APC). It is currently unclear if PVAT enlargement diverges between males and females and the mechanisms linking APC biology with sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Shuang Zhang, Chunyu Bai, Dong Zheng, Yuhua Gao, Yanan Fan, Lu Li, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent, and can be differentiated into many cell types in vitro. In this study, tissues from pigs were chosen to identify and characterize ADSCs. Primary ADSCs were sub-cultured to passage 28. The surface markers of ADSCs: CD29, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD166 were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and the markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and vimentin were detected by immunofluorescence. Growth curves and the capacity of clone-forming were performed to test the proliferation of ADSCs...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Siddharth Shanbhag, Kamal Mustafa, Nikolaos Pandis, Jens R Nyengaard, Andreas Stavropoulos
The regenerative potential of tissue engineered bone constructs may be enhanced by in vitro co-culture and in vivo co-transplantation of vasculogenic and osteogenic (progenitor) cells. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to answer the focused question: in animal models, does co-transplantation of osteogenic and vasculogenic cells enhance bone regeneration in craniofacial defects, compared to solely osteogenic cell-seeded constructs? Following PRISMA guidelines, electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting co-transplantation of endothelial cells (EC) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or osteoblasts (OB) in craniofacial critical-size bone defect (CSD) models...
October 12, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Shun Lu, Jing Wang, Jixing Ye, Yulong Zou, Yunxiao Zhu, Qiang Wei, Xin Wang, Shengli Tang, Hao Liu, Jiaming Fan, Fugui Zhang, Evan M Farina, Maryam M Mohammed, Dongzhe Song, Junyi Liao, Jiayi Huang, Dan Guo, Minpeng Lu, Feng Liu, Jianxiang Liu, Li Li, Chao Ma, Xue Hu, Michael J Lee, Russell R Reid, Guillermo A Ameer, Dongsheng Zhou, Tongchuan He
Regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as an effective approach to bone and skeletal reconstruction. While adipose tissue harbors MSC-like progenitors, or multipotent adipose-derived cells (MADs), it is important to identify and characterize potential biological factors that can effectively induce osteogenic differentiation of MADs. To overcome the time-consuming and technically challenging process of isolating and culturing primary MADs, here we establish and characterize the reversibly immortalized mouse multipotent adipose-derived cells (iMADs)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Lucas Eduardo Botelho de Souza, Tathiane Maistro Malta, Simone Kashima Haddad, Dimas Tadeu Covas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were initially identified as progenitors of skeletal tissues within mammalian bone marrow and cells with similar properties were also obtained from other tissues such as adipose and dental pulp. Although MSC have been extensively investigated, their native behavior and in vivo identity remains poorly defined. Uncovering the in vivo identity of MSC has been challenging due to the lack of exclusive cell markers, cellular alterations caused by culture methods and extensive focus on in vitro properties for characterization...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Katarzyna Siennicka, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Karolina Stepien, Natalia Lubina-Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Ewa Zolocinska, Anna Slysz, Renata Piusinska-Macoch, Slawomir Mazur, Urszula Zdanowicz, Robert Smigielski, Adam Stepien, Zygmunt Pojda
Although mesenchymal stem cells are used in numerous clinical trials, the safety of their application is still a matter of concern. We have analysed the clinical results of the autologous adipose-derived stem cell treatment (stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitors, and blood mononuclear cells) for orthopedic (cartilage, bone, tendon, or combined joint injuries) and neurologic (multiple sclerosis) diseases. Methods of adipose tissue collection, cell isolation and purification, and resulting cell numbers, viability, and morphology were considered, and patient's age, sex, disease type, and method of cell administration (cell numbers per single application, treatment numbers and frequency, and methods of cell implantation) were analysed and searched for the unwanted clinical effects...
2016: Stem Cells International
Hejiao Bian, Jean Z Lin, Chendi Li, Stephen R Farmer
OBJECTIVE: Arising from common progenitors in the bone marrow, adipogenesis and osteogenesis are closely associated yet mutually exclusive during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) development. Previous studies have shown that morphological changes can affect the early commitment of pluripotent BMSCs to the adipose versus osteoblastic lineage via modulation of RhoA activity. The RhoA pathway regulates actin polymerization to promote the incorporation of globular actin (G-actin) into filamentous actin (F-actin)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Carolina Soler-Botija, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Santiago Roura, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Isaac Perea-Gil, Benjamin Sanchez, Ramon Bragos, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Antoni Bayes-Genis
: : Cardiac cells are subjected to mechanical and electrical forces, which regulate gene expression and cellular function. Therefore, in vitro electromechanical stimuli could benefit further integration of therapeutic cells into the myocardium. Our goals were (a) to study the viability of a tissue-engineered construct with cardiac adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs) and (b) to examine the effect of electromechanically stimulated cardiac ATDPCs within a myocardial infarction (MI) model in mice for the first time...
September 29, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Hui-Yi Feng, Yang-Chao Chen
The role of bile acids in colorectal cancer has been well documented, but their role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this review, we examined the risk factors of pancreatic cancer. We found that bile acids are associated with most of these factors. Alcohol intake, smoking, and a high-fat diet all lead to high secretion of bile acids, and bile acid metabolic dysfunction is a causal factor of gallstones. An increase in secretion of bile acids, in addition to a long common channel, may result in bile acid reflux into the pancreatic duct and to the epithelial cells or acinar cells, from which pancreatic adenocarcinoma is derived...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Sadat A Aziz, Luisa A Wakeling, Satomi Miwa, Goiuri Alberdi, John E Hesketh, Dianne Ford
Promoting the development of brown or beige adipose tissue may protect against obesity and related metabolic features, and potentially underlies protective effects of genistein in mice. We observed that application of genistein to 3T3-L1 adipocytes changed the lipid distribution from large droplets to a multilocular distribution, reduced mRNAs indicative of white adipocytes (ACC, Fasn, Fabp4, HSL, chemerin and resistin) and increased mRNAs that are a characteristic feature of brown/beige adipocytes (CD-137 and UCP1)...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Sherman O Canapp, Debra A Canapp, Victor Ibrahim, Brittany Jean Carr, Catherine Cox, Jennifer G Barrett
OBJECTIVE: To report clinical findings and outcomes for 55 dogs with supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) treated with adipose-derived progenitor cells and platelet-rich plasma (ADPC-PRP) therapy. METHODS: Medical records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with ST that were treated with ADPC-PRP combination therapy were reviewed from 2006 to 2013. Data collected included signalment, medical history, limb involvement, prior treatments, physical and orthopedic examination, objective temporospatial gait analysis findings, diagnostic imaging results (radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, musculoskeletal ultrasonography), arthroscopy findings, and outcome...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Briana Foley, Daniel Doheny, Michael Black, Salil N Pendse, Barbara Wetmore, Rebecca Clewell, Melvin E Andersen, Chad Deisenroth
The developmental origins of obesity hypothesis posits a multifaceted contribution of factors to the fetal origins of obesity and metabolic disease. Adipocyte hyperplasia in gestation and early childhood may result in predisposition for obesity later in life. Rodent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that some chemicals may directly affect adipose progenitor cell differentiation, but the human relevance of these findings is unclear. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is the master regulator of adipogenesis...
September 23, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Pamela Mattar, Ximena Díaz, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Vibe Nylander, Lars R Ingerslev, Emil Andersen, Odile Fabre, Christian Garde, Morten Rasmussen, Kiymet Citirikkaya, Josephine Bæk, Gitte L Christensen, Marianne Aznar, Lena Specht, David Simar, Romain Barrès
Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life. We hypothesized that irradiation reprograms the epigenome of metabolic progenitor cells, which could account for impaired metabolism after cancer treatment. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with a single dose of irradiation and subjected to high fat diet (HFD). RNA Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing were used to create transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles of preadipocytes and skeletal muscle satellite cells collected from irradiated mice...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes
Qiyuan Yang, Xingwei Liang, Xiaofei Sun, Lupei Zhang, Xing Fu, Carl J Rogers, Anna Berim, Shuming Zhang, Songbo Wang, Bo Wang, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, David R Gang, Buel D Rodgers, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is an attractive strategy for the treatment of obesity, as activated BAT dissipates energy through thermogenesis; however, the mechanisms controlling BAT formation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that as a master regulator of energy metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may play a direct role in the process and found that AMPKα1 (PRKAA1) ablation reduced Prdm16 expression and impaired BAT development. During early brown adipogenesis, the cellular levels of α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a key metabolite required for TET-mediated DNA demethylation, were profoundly increased and required for active DNA demethylation of the Prdm16 promoter...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Stephanie Merfeld-Clauss, Benjamin R Lease, Hongyan Lu, Keith L March, Dmitry O Traktuev
Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) support endothelial cell (EC) vasculogenesis through paracrine and cell-contact communications. In addition, ASCs differentiate towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype under different stimuli, which prompted their use as a source of mural cells in fabricating small calibre vessels. How ASCs' SMC-lineage commitment affects their subsequent communication with ECs is unknown. The vasculogenic characteristics of human ASC in progenitor stage and after differentiation towards SMC phenotype were analysed in the present study...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Janina Burk, Amelie Plenge, Walter Brehm, Sandra Heller, Bastian Pfeiffer, Cornelia Kasper
Tendon and ligament pathologies are still a therapeutic challenge, due to the difficulty in restoring the complex extracellular matrix architecture and biomechanical strength. While progress is being made in cell-based therapies and tissue engineering approaches, comprehensive understanding of the fate of progenitor cells in tendon healing is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decellularized tendon matrix and moderate cyclic stretching as natural stimuli which could potentially direct tenogenic fate...
2016: Stem Cells International
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