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adipose crosstalk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087005/and-the-fat-lady-sings-about-phosphate-and-calcium
#1
Carsten A Wagner, Pedro H Imenez Silva, Isabel Rubio-Aliaga
Adipose tissue has been long recognized as secreting various endocrine factors. Emerging evidence demonstrates that adipokines play a role in modulating systemic mineral homeostasis through endocrine loops involving interleukin-6, leptin, and now also adiponectin, which all interact with FGF23 and vitamin D and thereby change the renal control of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Understanding these regulatory loops may shed light on a complex interorgan crosstalk controlling mineral homeostasis and its dysregulation in diseases associated with obesity...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#2
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956741/role-of-the-adipose-ppar%C3%AE-adiponectin-axis-in-susceptibility-to-stress-and-depression-anxiety-related-behaviors
#3
M Guo, C Li, Y Lei, S Xu, D Zhao, X-Y Lu
Adaptive responses to stressful stimuli involving behavioral, emotional and metabolic changes are orchestrated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ, secreting adipokines that operate as hormones to mediate the crosstalk with other organs including the brain. The role of adipose tissue in sensing and responding to emotional stress and in behavioral regulation, however, remains largely unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key transcriptional factor controlling adipokine gene expression...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956048/omental-adipocytes-enhance-the-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells-by-oleic-acid-induced-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#4
Fan Xiang, Ke Wu, Yulin Liu, Liang Shi, Di Wang, Gang Li, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang
A considerable number of patients with advanced gastric cancer have a clear predilection for metastasis to the great omentum, an organ mainly composed of adipose tissue. However, it remains unclear why tumor cells preferentially spread to and progress in the omentum. Here, we used a two-dimensional co-culture system to simulate the crosstalk between adipocytes and gastric cancer cells and showed that after co-culture with isolated omental adipocytes, gastric cancer cells exhibited a significant increase in lipid uptake and enhanced invasiveness...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942879/the-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-bisabolol-in-the%C3%A2-adipocyte-cancer-desmoplastic-crosstalk-does-it-have-an-action-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
Alpha-bisabolol is a plant-derived sesquiterpene alcohol recently associated with a supposed anti-cancer action due to its ability to induce BID-related apoptosis. The molecule, which enters the cell through lipid rafts, may also interact with kisspeptin receptor 1, which has recently been associated with tumor mobility and invasiveness. This evidence suggests the possibility that α-bisabolol might act on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition mechanism, closely associated with the desmoplastic reaction of adipose tissue surrounding a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936435/bilobalide-abates-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-of-angiogenic-factors-induced-by-hypoxia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-controlling-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-activation
#6
A Priyanka, G Sindhu, G L Shyni, M R Preetha Rani, V M Nisha, K G Raghu
Obesity leads to inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Hypoxia, observed in obese adipose tissue is suggested as a major cause of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the role of hypoxia in adipose tissue during obesity and insulin resistance was not well established. Here we mainly explored the crosstalk between hypoxia induced inflammation, and insulin resistance and also secretion of angiogenic factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and possible reversal with bilobalide. Hypoxia for 24h significantly (P≤0...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#7
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810172/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediators-of-cell-communication-in-metabolic-disease
#8
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Chen-Yu Zhang, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Metabolic homeostasis emerges from the complex, multidirectional crosstalk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. This crosstalk, traditionally mediated by hormones and metabolites, becomes dysregulated in human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; including exosomes) are circulating, cell-derived nanoparticles containing proteins and nucleic acids that interact with and modify local and distant cellular targets. Accumulating evidence, reviewed herein, supports a role for extracellular vesicles in obesity-associated metabolic disturbance, particularly the local and systemic inflammation characteristic of adipose and hepatic stress...
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765498/myokines-and-adipokines-involvement-in-the-crosstalk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#9
Fengna Li, Yinghui Li, Yehui Duan, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Tang, Yulong Yin
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the two largest organs in the body. Skeletal muscle is an effector organ, and adipose tissue is an organ that stores energy; in addition, they are endocrine organs that secrete cytokines, namely myokines and adipokines, respectively. Myokines consist of myostatin, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and myonectin; adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, and visfatin. Furthermore, certain cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are released by both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and exhibit a bioactive effect; thus, they are called adipo-myokines...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734035/adipocyte-specific-loss-of-ppar%C3%AE-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy
#10
Xi Fang, Matthew J Stroud, Kunfu Ouyang, Li Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Tongbin Wu, Kirk L Peterson, Hsien-Da Huang, Ju Chen, Nanping Wang
Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697210/implications-of-thermogenic-adipose-tissues-for-metabolic-health
#11
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621268/adipose-induced-retroperitoneal-soft-tissue-sarcoma-tumorigenesis-a-potential-crosstalk-between-sarcoma-and-fat-cells
#12
Shelly Loewenstein, Nir Lubezky, Eran Nizri, Meir Zemel, Yishai Levin, Alon Savidor, Osnat Sher, Joseph M Klausner, Guy Lahat
: Previous data demonstrated that high retroperitoneal visceral fat content increases retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma (RSTS) local recurrence and patients' mortality. Most RSTS tumors initiate and recur within visceral fat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate potential paracrine effects of visceral fat on RSTS. A xenograft model was used to evaluate in vivo effects of human visceral fat on STS growth. Tissue explants were prepared from visceral fat, and their conditioned medium (CM) was utilized for various in vitro experiments designed to evaluate growth, survival, migration, and invasion of STS and endothelial cells...
December 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616684/infrapatellar-fat-pad-aggravates-degeneration-of-acute-traumatized-cartilage-a-possible-role-for-interleukin-6
#13
J He, Y Jiang, P G Alexander, V Ulici, Y Zhu, S Wu, R S Tuan
OBJECTIVES: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), which is located underneath the patella, close to cartilage surfaces, functions in distributing mechanical load and has been shown to produce cytokines. This study aims to assess the involvement of the IPFP in the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) through investigating the crosstalk between the IPFP and injured cartilage in vitro. METHODS: A single blunt impact (36 MPa) on healthy bovine articular cartilage explants was used to generate traumatized cartilage...
January 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614458/association-between-omentin-1-adiponectin-and-bone-health-under-consideration-of-osteoprotegerin-as-possible-mediator
#14
J Menzel, R Di Giuseppe, R Biemann, K Aleksandrova, O Kuxhaus, C Wittenbecher, A Fritsche, M B Schulze, B Isermann, H Boeing, C Weikert
PURPOSE: Several studies implicated a crosstalk between bone and fat in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Few studies indicated an association between adiponectin and omentin-1 on the bone remodeling process and bone mineral density, and suggested osteoprotegerin (OPG) as a mediator of this relationship. However, only limited evidence on this relationship is available in humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between omentin-1, adiponectin and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in peri-/premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to assess the role of OPG as a possible mediator...
November 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607584/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-survival-of-fat-grafts-via-crosstalk-between-the-nrf2-and-tlr4-pathways
#15
Xiaosong Chen, Liu Yan, Zhihui Guo, Zhaohong Chen, Ying Chen, Ming Li, Chushan Huang, Xiaoping Zhang, Liangwan Chen
Autologous fat grafting is an effective reconstructive surgery technique; however, its success is limited by inconsistent graft retention and an environment characterized by high oxidative stress and inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) increase the survival of fat grafts, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, TLR4(-/-) and Nrf2(-/-) mice were used to explore the effects of oxidative stress and inflammation on the viability and function of ADSCs in vitro and in vivo. Enrichment of fat grafts with ADSCs inhibited inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced growth factor levels, increased fat graft survival, downregulated NADPH oxidase (NOX)1 and 4 expression, increased vascularization and reduced ROS production in a manner dependent on toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565442/calcium-sensing-receptor-effects-in-adipocytes-and-liver-cells-implications-for-an-adipose-hepatic-crosstalk
#16
Pia Villarroel, Pamela Mattar, Amanda D'Espessailles, Marco Arrese, Andrea Arreguin, Cecilia Fuentes, Marcela Reyes, Mariana Cifuentes
The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in human adipose cells, and its activation may associate with adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. We evaluated whether CaSR stimulation influences adipocyte triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) content, and hepatocyte TGs and proinflammatory cytokine expression. The effect of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on TGs (fluorimetry), lipogenic genes (qPCR) and aP2 (immunoblot) was evaluated in LS14 adipocytes or AT. In the human HepG2 hepatic cell line, we assessed CaSR expression and cinacalcet effect on TGs and lipogenic and proinflammatory genes...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472371/leptin-induced-jak-stat-signaling-and-cancer-growth
#17
REVIEW
McKay Mullen, Ruben Rene Gonzalez-Perez
Growth factor and cytokine signaling can influence the development of several cancer types. One of the key players in the development of cancer is the Janus kinas (JAK) signal transducer of activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. The majority of growth factors and cytokine interactions with their membrane-bound receptors trigger JAK-STAT activation. The influential relationship between obesity and cancer is a fact. However, there is a complex sequence of events contributing to the regulation of this mechanism to promote tumor growth, yet to be fully elucidated...
July 26, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469268/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-angptl8-in-pregnancy-a-brown-adipose-tissue-derived-endocrine-factor-with-a-potential-role-in-fetal-growth
#18
Bruno Martinez-Perez, Miriam Ejarque, Cristina Gutierrez, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Mónica Ballesteros, Ibon Redondo-Angulo, Anna Planavila, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Ana Megía
Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8), a protein implicated in lipid and glucose homeostasis, is present only in mammals, suggesting that it is involved in processes unique to these vertebrates such as pregnancy and homeothermy. We explored the role of ANGPTL8 in maternal-fetal crosstalk and its relationship with newborn adiposity. In a longitudinal analysis of healthy pregnant women, ANGPTL8 levels decreased progressively during pregnancy although remained higher than levels in the postpartum period. In a cross-sectional observational study of women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and their offspring, ANGPTL8 levels were higher in venous cord blood than those in maternal blood and were significantly lower in GDM patients than those in healthy women...
July 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356237/can-irisin-be-a-linker-between-physical-activity-and-brain-function
#19
Jing Zhang, Weizhen Zhang
Irisin was initially discovered as a novel hormone-like myokine released from skeletal muscle during exercise to improve obesity and glucose dysfunction by stimulating the browning of white adipose tissue. Emerging evidence have indicated that irisin also affects brain function. FNDC5 mRNA and FNDC5/irisin immunoreactivity are present in various regions of the brain. Central irisin is involved in the regulation of neural differentiation and proliferation, neurobehavior, energy expenditure and cardiac function...
August 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344314/novel-phenotypes-of-prediabetes
#20
REVIEW
Hans-Ulrich Häring
This article describes phenotypes observed in a prediabetic population (i.e. a population with increased risk for type 2 diabetes) from data collected at the University hospital of Tübingen. We discuss the impact of genetic variation on insulin secretion, in particular the effect on compensatory hypersecretion, and the incretin-resistant phenotype of carriers of the gene variant TCF7L2 is described. Imaging studies used to characterise subphenotypes of fat distribution, metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity are described...
September 2016: Diabetologia
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