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adipose crosstalk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294170/exploring-inter-organ-crosstalk-to-uncover-mechanisms-that-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass
#1
REVIEW
J Shirakawa, D F De Jesus, R N Kulkarni
Impaired β-cell function and insufficient β-cell mass compensation are twin pathogenic features that underlie type 2 diabetes (T2D). Current therapeutic strategies continue to evolve to improve treatment outcomes in different ethnic populations and include approaches to counter insulin resistance and improve β-cell function. Although the effects of insulin secretion on metabolic organs such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose is directly relevant for improving glucose uptake and reduce hyperglycemia, the ability of pancreatic β-cells to crosstalk with multiple non-metabolic tissues is providing novel insights into potential opportunities for improving β-cell function and/or mass that could have beneficial effects in patients with diabetes...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260206/follicle-stimulating-hormone-its-novel-association-with-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-in-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#2
Ningjian Wang, Kun Zhang, Bing Han, Qin Li, Yi Chen, Chunfang Zhu, Yingchao Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Boren Jiang, Zhoujun Shen, Yingli Lu
PURPOSE: Follicle stimulating hormone plays direct roles in a variety of nongonadal tissues and sex hormone binding globulin is becoming the convergence of the crosstalk among metabolic diseases. However, no studies have explored the association between follicle stimulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin. We aimed to study this association among men and women. METHODS: SPECT-China is a population-based study conducted since 2014. This study included 4206 men and 2842 postmenopausal women...
March 4, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#3
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196858/the-2016-walter-b-cannon-lecture-deconstructing-metabolic-inflammation-using-cellular-systems
#4
Kenny L Chan, Parastoo Boroumand, Marciane Milanski, Nicolas J Pillon, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Over the past years we have embarked in a systematic analysis of the effect of obesity or fatty acids on circulating monocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, macrophages and skeletal muscle cells. Using cell culture strategies, we have deconstructed complex physiological systems, then reconstructed 'partial equations' to better understand cell-to-cell communication. Through these approaches we identified that in high saturated fat environments, cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory pathways are activated in monocytes and endothelial cells, promoting monocyte adhesion and transmigration...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190771/obesity-induced-metabolic-stress-leads-to-biased-effector-memory-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-via-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-akt-mediated-signals
#5
Claudio Mauro, Joanne Smith, Danilo Cucchi, David Coe, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Gaia Cermenati, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Alberico L Catapano, Enrico Ammirati, Maria P Longhi, Klaus Okkenhaug, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity leads to cardiovascular complications, caused partly by infiltration of adipose and vascular tissue by effector T cells. The signals leading to T cell differentiation and tissue infiltration during obesity are poorly understood. We tested whether saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic stress affects differentiation and trafficking patterns of CD4(+) T cells. Memory CD4(+) T cells primed in high-fat diet-fed donors preferentially migrated to non-lymphoid, inflammatory sites, independent of the metabolic status of the hosts...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125531/repeated-binge-like-alcohol-intoxication-depot-specific-adipose-tissue-immuno-metabolic-dysregulation
#6
Flavia M Souza-Smith, Stephen M Ford, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
Repeated binge-like alcohol intoxication (RBAI) induces whole-body insulin resistance, which is predicted to increase the risk for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Previously we showed that acute alcohol intoxication increases mesenteric lymphatic permeability, perilymphatic adipose tissue (PLAT) inflammation, and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in rats. We hypothesize that mesenteric lymphatic hyperpermeability, adipose tissue inflammation and associated dysregulated adipokine expression and insulin signaling are central mechanisms underlying whole body metabolic dysregulation resulting from RBAI...
January 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087005/and-the-fat-lady-sings-about-phosphate-and-calcium
#7
Carsten A Wagner, Pedro H Imenez Silva, Isabel Rubio-Aliaga
Adipose tissue has been long recognized as secreting various endocrine factors. Emerging evidence demonstrates that adipokines play a role in modulating systemic mineral homeostasis through endocrine loops involving interleukin-6, leptin, and now also adiponectin, which all interact with FGF23 and vitamin D and thereby change the renal control of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Understanding these regulatory loops may shed light on a complex interorgan crosstalk controlling mineral homeostasis and its dysregulation in diseases associated with obesity...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#8
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956741/role-of-the-adipose-ppar%C3%AE-adiponectin-axis-in-susceptibility-to-stress-and-depression-anxiety-related-behaviors
#9
M Guo, C Li, Y Lei, S Xu, D Zhao, X-Y Lu
Adaptive responses to stressful stimuli involving behavioral, emotional and metabolic changes are orchestrated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ, secreting adipokines that operate as hormones to mediate the crosstalk with other organs including the brain. The role of adipose tissue in sensing and responding to emotional stress and in behavioral regulation, however, remains largely unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key transcriptional factor controlling adipokine gene expression...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956048/omental-adipocytes-enhance-the-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells-by-oleic-acid-induced-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#10
Fan Xiang, Ke Wu, Yulin Liu, Liang Shi, Di Wang, Gang Li, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang
A considerable number of patients with advanced gastric cancer have a clear predilection for metastasis to the great omentum, an organ mainly composed of adipose tissue. However, it remains unclear why tumor cells preferentially spread to and progress in the omentum. Here, we used a two-dimensional co-culture system to simulate the crosstalk between adipocytes and gastric cancer cells and showed that after co-culture with isolated omental adipocytes, gastric cancer cells exhibited a significant increase in lipid uptake and enhanced invasiveness...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942879/the-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-bisabolol-in-the%C3%A2-adipocyte-cancer-desmoplastic-crosstalk-does-it-have-an-action-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
Alpha-bisabolol is a plant-derived sesquiterpene alcohol recently associated with a supposed anti-cancer action due to its ability to induce BID-related apoptosis. The molecule, which enters the cell through lipid rafts, may also interact with kisspeptin receptor 1, which has recently been associated with tumor mobility and invasiveness. This evidence suggests the possibility that α-bisabolol might act on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition mechanism, closely associated with the desmoplastic reaction of adipose tissue surrounding a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936435/bilobalide-abates-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-of-angiogenic-factors-induced-by-hypoxia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-controlling-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-activation
#12
A Priyanka, G Sindhu, G L Shyni, M R Preetha Rani, V M Nisha, K G Raghu
Obesity leads to inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Hypoxia, observed in obese adipose tissue is suggested as a major cause of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the role of hypoxia in adipose tissue during obesity and insulin resistance was not well established. Here we mainly explored the crosstalk between hypoxia induced inflammation, and insulin resistance and also secretion of angiogenic factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and possible reversal with bilobalide. Hypoxia for 24h significantly (P≤0...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulates-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#13
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 h and measured core and fat temperatures and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810172/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediators-of-cell-communication-in-metabolic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Chen-Yu Zhang, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Metabolic homeostasis emerges from the complex, multidirectional crosstalk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. This crosstalk, traditionally mediated by hormones and metabolites, becomes dysregulated in human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; including exosomes) are circulating, cell-derived nanoparticles containing proteins and nucleic acids that interact with and modify local and distant cellular targets. Accumulating evidence, reviewed herein, supports a role for extracellular vesicles in obesity-associated metabolic disturbance, particularly the local and systemic inflammation characteristic of adipose and hepatic stress...
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765498/myokines-and-adipokines-involvement-in-the-crosstalk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#15
REVIEW
Fengna Li, Yinghui Li, Yehui Duan, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Tang, Yulong Yin
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the two largest organs in the body. Skeletal muscle is an effector organ, and adipose tissue is an organ that stores energy; in addition, they are endocrine organs that secrete cytokines, namely myokines and adipokines, respectively. Myokines consist of myostatin, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and myonectin; adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, and visfatin. Furthermore, certain cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are released by both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and exhibit a bioactive effect; thus, they are called adipo-myokines...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734035/adipocyte-specific-loss-of-ppar%C3%AE-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy
#16
Xi Fang, Matthew J Stroud, Kunfu Ouyang, Li Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Tongbin Wu, Kirk L Peterson, Hsien-Da Huang, Ju Chen, Nanping Wang
Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697210/implications-of-thermogenic-adipose-tissues-for-metabolic-health
#17
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621268/adipose-induced-retroperitoneal-soft-tissue-sarcoma-tumorigenesis-a-potential-crosstalk-between-sarcoma-and-fat-cells
#18
Shelly Loewenstein, Nir Lubezky, Eran Nizri, Meir Zemel, Yishai Levin, Alon Savidor, Osnat Sher, Joseph M Klausner, Guy Lahat
Previous data demonstrated that high retroperitoneal visceral fat content increases retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma (RSTS) local recurrence and patients' mortality. Most RSTS tumors initiate and recur within visceral fat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate potential paracrine effects of visceral fat on RSTS. A xenograft model was used to evaluate in vivo effects of human visceral fat on STS growth. Tissue explants were prepared from visceral fat, and their conditioned medium (CM) was utilized for various in vitro experiments designed to evaluate growth, survival, migration, and invasion of STS and endothelial cells...
December 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616684/infrapatellar-fat-pad-aggravates-degeneration-of-acute-traumatized-cartilage-a-possible-role-for-interleukin-6
#19
J He, Y Jiang, P G Alexander, V Ulici, Y Zhu, S Wu, R S Tuan
OBJECTIVES: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), which is located underneath the patella, close to cartilage surfaces, functions in distributing mechanical load and has been shown to produce cytokines. This study aims to assess the involvement of the IPFP in the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) through investigating the crosstalk between the IPFP and injured cartilage in vitro. METHODS: A single blunt impact (36 MPa) on healthy bovine articular cartilage explants was used to generate traumatized cartilage...
January 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614458/association-between-omentin-1-adiponectin-and-bone-health-under-consideration-of-osteoprotegerin-as-possible-mediator
#20
J Menzel, R Di Giuseppe, R Biemann, K Aleksandrova, O Kuxhaus, C Wittenbecher, A Fritsche, M B Schulze, B Isermann, H Boeing, C Weikert
PURPOSE: Several studies implicated a crosstalk between bone and fat in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Few studies indicated an association between adiponectin and omentin-1 on the bone remodeling process and bone mineral density, and suggested osteoprotegerin (OPG) as a mediator of this relationship. However, only limited evidence on this relationship is available in humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between omentin-1, adiponectin and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in peri-/premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to assess the role of OPG as a possible mediator...
November 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
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