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adipose crosstalk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621338/adipose-tissue-crosstalk-between-adipocytes-and-neurons
#1
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607107/myeloid-sirtuin-6-deficiency-causes-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-eliciting-macrophage-polarization-toward-an-m1-phenotype
#2
Youngyi Lee, Sun-O Ka, Hye-Na Cha, Yu-Na Chae, Mi-Kyung Kim, So-Young Park, Eun Ju Bae, Byung-Hyun Park
Obesity-related insulin resistance is closely associated with macrophage accumulation and subsequent cytokine release in local tissues. Sirtuin (Sirt) 6 is known to exert an anti-inflammatory function but its role in macrophages in the context of obesity has not been investigated. Here, we generated myeloid-specific Sirt6 knockout mice (mS6KO) and investigated the metabolic characteristics after high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 16 weeks. Compared with their wild type littermates, HFD-fed mS6KO mice exhibited greater increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose- and insulin-levels, hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599253/alantolactone-improves-palmitate-induced-glucose-intolerance-and-inflammation-in-both-lean-and-obese-states-in-vitro-adipocyte-and-adipocyte-macrophage-co-culture-system
#3
Minjee Kim, Kwangho Song, Yeong Shik Kim
Obesity is characterized by a massive infiltration of the adipose tissue by macrophages. Adipocytes, together with macrophages create a crosstalk between inflammation and insulin resistance. Excess saturated FFA, such as palmitate, absorbed via the portal system may cause glucose intolerance and inflammation, which leads to insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potency of alantolactone (AL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium in reducing palmitate-induced glucose intolerance, fat accumulation, and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte-macrophage co-culture system (3T3-L1-RAW264...
June 6, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598385/the-roles-of-long-non-protein-coding-rnas-in-osteo-adipogenic-lineage-commitment
#4
REVIEW
Hirotaka Yoshioka, Yuji Yoshiko
Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal progenitor in the bone marrow. This implies that a reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Further, cells of osteoblast lineage transdifferentiate into adipocytes under some circumstances. Dysregulation of osteo-adipogenic fate-determination leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis, accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. Thus, the fine-tuning of osteo-adipogenesis is necessary for bone homeostasis...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589909/the-fat-and-the-bad-mature-adipocytes-key-actors-in-tumor-progression-and-resistance
#5
REVIEW
Minh Ngoc Duong, Aline Geneste, Frederique Fallone, Xia Li, Charles Dumontet, Catherine Muller
Growing evidence has raised the important roles of adipocytes as an active player in the tumor microenvironment. In many tumors adipocytes are in close contact with cancer cells. They secrete various factors that can mediate local and systemic effects. The adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk leads to phenotypical and functional changes of both cell types, which can further enhance tumor progression. Moreover, obesity, which is associated with an increase in adipose mass and an alteration of adipose tissue, has been established as a risk factor for cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality...
May 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585212/lipotoxicity-related-hematological-disorders-in-obesity
#6
Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu, Umit Yavuz Malkan
Lipotoxicity can mediate endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Altered endothelial cell phenotype during the pathobiological course of the lipotoxicity may lead to the hemostatic abnormalities, which is a hallmark of several hematological disorders. Impaired hemostasis could also be directly related to the numerous metabolic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, local hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the development of atherosclerosis via acting on the lipotoxicity processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580233/connecting-bone-and-fat-the-potential-role-for-sclerostin
#7
Heather Fairfield, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
Sclerostin (SOST), a protein secreted from mature osteocytes in response to mechanical unloading and other stimuli, inhibits the osteogenic Wnt/β-catenin pathway in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) impeding their ability to differentiate into mineralizing osteoblasts. PURPOSE: This review summarizes the crosstalk between adipose tissue and bone. It also reviews the origin, regulation, and role of SOST in osteogenesis and brings attention to an emerging role of this protein in the regulation of adipogenesis...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515438/mitochondrial-retrograde-signaling-connects-respiratory-capacity-to-thermogenic-gene-expression
#8
Minwoo Nam, Thomas E Akie, Masato Sanosaka, Siobhan M Craige, Shashi Kant, John F Keaney, Marcus P Cooper
Mitochondrial respiration plays a crucial role in determining the metabolic state of brown adipose tissue (BAT), due to its direct roles in thermogenesis, as well as through additional mechanisms. Here, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to genetic and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. In mouse BAT, ablation of LRPPRC (LRP130), a potent regulator of mitochondrial transcription and respiratory capacity, triggers down-regulation of thermogenic genes, promoting a storage phenotype in BAT...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482125/electrical-stimulation-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-endothelial-cells-co-cultured-in-a-conductive-scaffold-for-potential-orthopedic-applications
#9
Jieyu Zhang, Koon Gee Neoh, En-Tang Kang
Electrical stimulation (ES) has emerged as a useful tool to regulate cell behavior, but the effect of ES on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/vasculogenic cell co-culture has not been investigated. Herein, human adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were co-cultured in an electrically conductive polypyrrole/chitosan scaffold. Compared to AD-MSC monoculture, calcium deposition in the co-culture without and with ES (200 μA for 4 h per day) was 139% and 346% higher, respectively, after seven days...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468326/subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-secretions-from-extremely-obese-men-and-women-both-acutely-suppress-muscle-insulin-signaling
#10
Ousseynou Sarr, Rachel Joyce Strohm, Tara Lynn MacDonald, Nicholas Gaudio, John Kenneth Reed, Jules Foute-Nelong, David James Dyck, David Michael Mutch
Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of type-2 diabetes via the secretion of adipokines. The current study investigated if secretion media derived from intact visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from extremely obese men and women differently suppressed insulin signaling in human skeletal myotubes derived from a healthy, non-diabetic male and female donor, respectively. Adipose tissue samples were collected from men and women during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In general, secretion media collected from both SAT and VAT depots caused impaired insulin signaling in myotubes, independent of sex...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433698/adipose-crosstalk-with-other-cell-types-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chan Hee J Choi, Paul Cohen
In addition to storing and mobilizing energy, adipocytes secrete circulating factors to signal to other tissues and coordinate energy metabolism. These functions can become disrupted in the setting of obesity, contributing to the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Since the discovery of leptin and adiponectin, an increasing number of adipokines have been identified and their functions elucidated. More recent studies have highlighted other modes by which adipose tissue can participate in crosstalk with other cell types and tissues...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#12
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424949/aggressive-crosstalk-between-fatty-acids-and-inflammation-in-macrophages-and-their-influence-on-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Tadayoshi Takeuchi, Yasu-Taka Azuma
From the immunological point of view, macrophages are required to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Recently, there has been an increased focus on the influence of macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue on the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in healthy conditions because dysregulated metabolic homeostasis causes metabolic syndrome. This review notes several types of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in metabolic homeostasis. M1 macrophage polarization mediates inflammation, whereas M2 macrophage polarization mediates anti-inflammation...
April 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422755/%C3%AE-klotho-deficiency-protects-against-obesity-through-a-crosstalk-between-liver-microbiota-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#14
Emmanuel Somm, Hugues Henry, Stephen J Bruce, Sébastien Aeby, Marta Rosikiewicz, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Mohammed Asrih, François R Jornayvaz, Pierre Damien Denechaud, Urs Albrecht, Moosa Mohammadi, Andrew Dwyer, James S Acierno, Kristina Schoonjans, Lluis Fajas, Gilbert Greub, Nelly Pitteloud
β-Klotho (encoded by Klb) is the obligate coreceptor mediating FGF21 and FGF15/19 signaling. Klb-/- mice are refractory to beneficial action of pharmacological FGF21 treatment including stimulation of glucose utilization and thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the energy homeostasis in Klb-/- mice on high-fat diet in order to better understand the consequences of abrogating both endogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 signaling during caloric overload. Surprisingly, Klb-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) owing to enhanced energy expenditure and BAT activity...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410190/dietary-oleuropein-inhibits-tumor-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-in-the-b16f10-melanoma-allograft-model-a-mechanism-for-the-suppression-of-high-fat-diet-induced-solid-tumor-growth-and-lymph-node-metastasis
#15
Hyerim Song, Do Young Lim, Jae In Jung, Han Jin Cho, So Young Park, Gyoo Taik Kwon, Young-Hee Kang, Ki Won Lee, Myung-Sook Choi, Jung Han Yoon Park
Previously, we reported that high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity stimulates melanoma progression in the B16F10 allograft model. In this study, we examined whether oleuropein (OL), the most abundant phenolic compound in olives, inhibits HFD-induced melanoma progression. Four-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were fed a HFD-diet with or without OL. After 16 weeks of feeding, B16F10-luc cells were subcutaneously injected and the primary tumor was resected 3 weeks later. OL suppressed HFD-induced solid tumor growth. In the tumor tissues, OL reduced HFD-induced expression of angiogenesis (CD31, VE-cadherin, VEGF-A, and VEGFR2), lymphangiogenesis (LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR3), and hypoxia (HIF-1α and GLUT-1) markers as well as HFD-induced increases in lipid vacuoles and M2 macrophages (MΦs)...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399645/prohibitin-at-the-crossroads-of-obesity-linked-diabetes-and-cancer
#16
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
The promoter of a gene that is selectively expressed in just a few cell types provides unique opportunities to study: (1) the pleiotropic function of a protein in two different cell types including the cell compartment specific function, and (2) the crosstalk between two cell/tissue types at the systemic level. This is not possible with a ubiquitous or a highly specific gene promoter. The adipocyte protein-2 ( aP2) is one such gene. It is primarily expressed in adipocytes, but also selectively in monocytic macrophages and dendritic cells, among various immune cell types...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371926/sensory-innervation-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-a-crucial-role-in-artery-vasodilatation-and-leptin-release
#17
Hamidah Abu Bakar, William Robert Dunn, Craig Daly, Vera Ralevic
Aims: Electrical field stimulation (EFS) elicits robust sensory neurogenic relaxation responses in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed but these responses are absent or difficult to demonstrate in isolated arteries. We believe that this mismatch is due to the absence of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) as it is conventionally removed in studies on isolated vessels. We aimed to determine whether sensory nerves are expressed in PVAT, their physiological roles and their possible interactions with PVAT-derived adipokines...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365222/signaling-pathways-linking-inflammation-to-insulin-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Hamid Zand, Nava Morshedzadeh, Farnush Naghashian
Inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic inflammation is one of the main causes of insulin resistance. Insulin pathway is very important for the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, growth and mitogenic. Proinflammatory mediators can be related to obesity and induce insulin- resistance in adipose tissue. Signaling pathways of transcription factors, particularly NF-κB signaling, are involved in insulin-sensitivity. In addition, the crosstalk between M1-M2 macrophage polarizing plays an essential role in insulin resistance by switching from an M1 to an M2 phenotype and also activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP1...
March 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333377/circadian-rhythms-in-adipose-tissue-physiology
#20
Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Anthony H Tsang, Isabel Heyde, Brinja Leinweber, Isa Kolbe, Alexei Leliavski, Henrik Oster
The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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