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Endurance Fitness

Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M Frei, Hubert Annen, Roberto La Marca
BACKGROUND: Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. METHODS: The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Pierce Boyne, Jeffrey Welge, Brett Kissela, Kari Dunning
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of dosing parameters and patient characteristics on the efficacy of aerobic exercise (AEX) post-stroke. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted using Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro and Academic Search Complete. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were selected that compared AEX to a non-aerobic control group among ambulatory persons with stroke. DATA EXTRACTION: Extracted outcome data included: peak oxygen consumption during exercise testing (VO2peak), walking speed and walking endurance (6-minute walk test)...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
K Karatrantou, V Gerodimos, K Häkkinen, A Zafeiridis
Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Elizabeth G Pringle
Life on earth is enormously diverse, in part because each individual engages in countless interactions with its biotic and abiotic environment during its lifetime. Not only are there many such interactions, but any given interaction of each individual with, say, its neighbor or a nutrient could lead to a different effect on its fitness and on the dynamics of the population of which it is a member. Predicting those effects is an enduring challenge to the field of ecology. Using a simple laboratory system, Hoek and colleagues present evidence that resource availability can be a primary driver of variation between interactions...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Carlos A Camillo, Christian R Osadnik, Hans van Remoortel, Chris Burtin, Wim Janssens, Thierry Troosters
The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus "add-on" therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
D S Trachsel, A Giraudet, D Maso, G Hervé, D D Hauri, E Barrey, C Robert
BACKGROUND: The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data on the relationships between heart dimensions and growth or aerobic training in Arabian and Arabian-related endurance horses. Therefore the objective of the present study was to describe the influence of body dimensions (body length (BL), thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH)), BWT, age, gender, breed (purebred Arabians, part-bred Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, and Others) and the initiation of endurance training on echocardiographic measurements in competition-fit endurance horses aged 4 to 6 years...
October 10, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Ana Oliveira, Ângela Monteiro, Cristina Jácome, Vera Afreixo, Alda Marques
Group sports interventions have been developed to improve health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. However, its benefits are not systematically documented. This study synthesizes the evidence about the effects of group sports on health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and Academic Search Complete were searched in February 2016. Studies assessing the effects of group sports on body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and neuromotor fitness of overweight/obese youth (aged <18 years) were included...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Ryan Burns, Tim Brusseau, James Hannon
Motor skills are needed for physical development and may be linked to health-related fitness and physical activity levels. No studies have examined the relationships among these constructs in large samples of disadvantaged children from low-income families using the Test for Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate associations among health-related fitness, physical activity, and motor skills assessed using the TGMD-3. Participants included 1460 school-aged children (730 boys, 730 girls; M age = 8...
October 4, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Feng-Sen Li, Yan-Li Zhang, Zheng Li, Dan Xu, Chun-Yan Liao, Huan Ma, Li Gong, Jun Su, Qi Sun, Qian Xu, Zhen Gao, Ling Wang, Jing Jing, Jing Wang, Min Jiang, Ge Tian, Bilal Hasan
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Yiqigubiao pill is commonly used to enhance physical fitness. The current clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Yiqigubiao pill as an adjuvant therapy for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial. The participants were recruited from outpatients at the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated with Xinjiang Medical University (Ürümqi, China) between February and September 2012...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Deydre S Teyhen, Daniel I Rhon, Robert J Butler, Scott W Shaffer, Stephen L Goffar, Danny J McMillian, Robert E Boyles, Kyle B Kiesel, Phillip J Plisky
CONTEXT:  Although inactivity, being overweight, smoking, and a history of injury are identified as risk factors for poor health and injury, few authors have examined their association on physical performance. Young adults may be more likely to adopt healthier lifestyles if they understand the effect of health behaviors on performance. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the association of being overweight, smoking, inactivity, and a history of injury with physical performance...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
E C McKenzie, L V Eyrich, M E Payton, S J Valberg
A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Alfredo Navigante, Pablo Cresta Morgado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the principal issues about physical activity in advanced cancer patients through the analyses of the last articles and our experience in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of exercise training intervention could improve quality of life (QOL), fatigue and well being in advanced cancer patients. Several published studies have included, nevertheless, patients with early stage of disease and more recently, populations of patients with local advanced tumors of the breast, rectum and lung, who are undergoing neoadjuvant therapy...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Agathe Anthierens, Nicolas Olivier, Patrick Mucci, André Thevenon
OBJECTIVE: Low back pain is a pathology associated to a trunk extensors muscles weakness. Studies suggested that it could be associated with an inadequacy between oxygen demand and oxygen utilization by paraspinal muscles (Kell and Bhambhani, 2006). In contrast to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, judo athletes are characterized by a great trunk extensors muscles endurance, due to their intensive solicitation within sport practice. Our purpose was to compare aerobic metabolism in those muscles of CLBP patients with judo athletes...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Andrew C Fry, Terry J Housh, Joel B Cramer, Joseph P Weir, Travis W Beck, Brian K Schilling, Jonathan D Miller, Justin X Nicoll
Numerous conditions and types of physical activity (e.g., exercise, aging, muscle-related diseases) can influence muscle fiber types and the proteins expressed. To date, muscle fibers can only be characterized by actually obtaining a tissue sample using the invasive muscle biopsy procedure. Mechanomyography (MMG) is the assessment of the vibration properties of contracting skeletal muscle, and has been proposed as a possible non-invasive method for muscle fiber analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of using MMG and muscle performance measures to non-invasively assess muscle fiber characteristics...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jérémy Vanhelst, Julien Labreuche Julien, Laurent Beghin, Elodie Drumez, Paul S Fardy, Didier Chapelot, Jacques Mikulovic, Zekya Ulmer
The aim of this study was to establish gender- and age-specific physical fitness percentiles in French youth. A sample of 11 186 children and adolescents (5 546 boys, 5 640 girls), ages 10-15 years, was assessed in the French national BOUGE study. Participants were tested on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and agility using the following tests: 20-m shuttle run tests, curl ups test, 50-m sprint test, back-saver sit and reach test and 10 x 5 m shuttle run test. Percentile values were estimated for French youth as a function of age stratified by gender using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
P Á Latorre Román, R Moreno Del Castillo, M Lucena Zurita, J Salas Sánchez, F García-Pinillos, D Mora López
BACKGROUND: Because fitness level is a potent biomarker of health from an early age, the improvements of physical fitness performance through the promotion of physical activity could be important for the health of preschool children, particularly in obesity prevention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the physical fitness in children aged 3-6 years, discriminating performance by sex, age and body mass index (BMI). METHOD: A total of 3868 children from 3 to 6 years agreed voluntarily to participate...
September 25, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Simon Robertson Stuart, Louise Tansey, Ethel Quayle
BACKGROUND: The recovery approach is increasingly popular among mental-health services, but there is a lack of consensus about its applicability and it has been criticised for imposing professionalised ideas onto what was originally a service-user concept. AIMS: To carry out a review and synthesis of qualitative research to answer the question: "What do we know about how service users with severe and enduring mental illness experience the process of recovery?" It was hoped that this would improve clarity and increase understanding...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Anna Ilona Roberts, Sam George Bradley Roberts
Primates form strong and enduring social bonds with others and these bonds have important fitness consequences. However, how different types of communication are associated with different types of social bonds is poorly understood. Wild chimpanzees have a large repertoire of gestures, from visual gestures to tactile and auditory gestures. We used social network analysis to examine the association between proximity bonds (time spent in close proximity) and rates of gestural communication in pairs of chimpanzees when the intended recipient was within 10 m of the signaller...
2016: Scientific Reports
Apostolos Tsimploulis, Michael Doumas, Andreas Pittaras, Charles Faselis, Jonathan Myers, Peter Kokkinos
OBJECTIVE: Chronological aging in healthy subjects is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, endurance, and aerobic fitness. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related dysfunctions. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the impact of increased exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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