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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226703/impact-of-mindfulness-training-on-physiological-measures-of-stress-and-objective-measures-of-attention-control-in-a-military-helicopter-unit
#1
Anders Meland, Kazuma Ishimatsu, Anne Marte Pensgaard, Anthony Wagstaff, Vivianne Fonne, Anne Helene Garde, Anette Harris
Objective: This study sought to determine if mindfulness training (MT) has a measurable impact on stress and attentional control as measured by objective physiological and psychological means. Background: Periods of persistent, intensive work demands are known to compromise recovery and attentional capacity. The effects of 4-month MT on salivary cortisol and performance on 2 computer-based cognitive tasks were tested on a military helicopter unit exposed to a prolonged period of high workload. Methods: MT participants were compared to a wait list control group on levels of saliva cortisol and performance on a go-no go test and a test of stimulus-driven attentional capture...
October 2, 2015: International Journal of Aviation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356374/noise-exposure-and-cognitive-performance-a-study-on-personnel-on-board-royal-norwegian-navy-vessels
#2
Kaja Irgens-Hansen, Hilde Gundersen, Erlend Sunde, Valborg Baste, Anette Harris, Magne Bråtveit, Bente E Moen
Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included...
September 2015: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25558741/-24-hour-work-the-interaction-of-stress-and-changes-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle-in-the-police-force
#3
REVIEW
Sergio Garbarino
Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep...
October 2014: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23944871/circadian-time-organization-of-professional-firemen-desynchronization-tau-differing-from-24-0-hours-documented-by-longitudinal-self-assessment-of-16-variables
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alain Reinberg, Marc Riedel, Eric Brousse, Nadine Le Floc'h, René Clarisse, Benoît Mauvieux, Yvan Touitou, Michael H Smolensky, Michel Marlot, Stéphane Berrez, Mohamed Mechkouri
We investigated the circadian synchronization/desynchronization (by field-study assessment of differences in period, τ, of 16 coexisting and well-documented rhythms) of 30 healthy firemen (FM) exposed to irregular, difficult, and stressful nocturnal work hours who demonstrated excellent clinical tolerance (allochronism). Three groups of FM were studied (A = 12 FM on 24-h duty at the fire station; B = 9 FM on 24-h duty at the emergency call center; C = 9 day-shift administrative FM) of mostly comparable average age, body mass index, career duration, chronotype-morningness/eveningness, and trait of field dependence/independence...
October 2013: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23587456/effects-of-night-float-and-24-h-call-on-resident-psychomotor-performance
#5
William S Yi, Shabnam Hafiz, Jack A Sava
INTRODUCTION: Night-float work schedules were designed to address growing concerns of the affect of fatigue on resident psychomotor and cognitive skills after traditional 24-h call work schedules. Whether this transition has achieved these results is debatable. This study was designed to compare the psychomotor performance of general surgery residents on both work schedule types. We hypothesized that when measured with novel laparoscopic simulator tasks, residents on a 24-h call schedule would exhibit worse psychomotor performance compared with those on a night-float work schedule...
September 2013: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23213813/-sleep-stress-neurogenesis-and-driving-performance
#6
S Garbarino
The enormous number of traffic accidents, implying a firm place in the top three death-rate causation in most industrialised countries, has inspired the development of studies of its major cause, i.e. human behaviour. Many traffic accidents are caused by, or at least related to, inadequate mental workload and, when it is either too low (vigilance, sleepiness) or too high (stress). Poor or inadequate sleep is a frequent result of being "stressed out." Professional and commuter drivers suffering from both daytime sleepiness and stress, two main factors impairment road safety mediated by behaviours including cognitive lapses, errors, and intentional traffic violations...
July 2012: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23200071/what-are-the-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-and-fatigue-in-surgical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Colin Sugden, Thanos Athanasiou, Ara Darzi
Sleep deprivation and fatigue have long been linked with accidents in high-risk industries and serious errors in the medical profession, but their effects on surgical performance are less well understood. This article outlines the important functions that human sleep serves and describes the neurobehavioral effects of wakefulness extension and mental fatigue that are relevant to surgical performance, including attentional failure, risk taking, and decision-making bias. Methods used to explore the effects of sleep deprivation and fatigue on surgical performance, from laboratory studies to outcomes data, are discussed; the findings are summarized; and important deficiencies in the literature are highlighted...
2012: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23116528/sleep-science-schedules-and-safety-in-hospitals-challenges-and-solutions-for-pediatric-providers
#8
Glenn Rosenbluth, Christopher P Landrigan
Sleep deprivation is common among resident physicians and clinical fellows. Current evidence about sleep science, performance, shift work, and medical errors consistently demonstrates positive impact from reduction of excessive duty hours, particularly when shift length is shortened. This article provides an overview of this literature, highlighting research on diminished physician cognitive performance due to sleep deprivation and the increase in the number of medical errors that is seen under these conditions...
December 2012: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22913912/sleep-deprivation-in-resident-physicians-work-hour-limitations-and-related-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Meghna P Mansukhani, Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Salim Surani, Joseph Varon, Kannan Ramar
Extended work hours, interrupted sleep, and shift work are integral parts of medical training among all specialties. The need for 24-hour patient care coverage and economic factors have resulted in prolonged work hours for resident physicians. This has traditionally been thought to enhance medical educational experience. These long and erratic work hours lead to acute and chronic sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, resulting in numerous adverse consequences. Impairments may occur in several domains, including attention, cognition, motor skills, and mood...
July 2012: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22239922/fatigue-research-in-2011-from-the-bench-to-practice
#10
EDITORIAL
Drew Dawson
Over the last 20 years, academic, industry and community stakeholders have been meeting at a biennial scientific conference to discuss fatigue-related research and policy in the transportation, resources and health sectors. During this period, the research conducted around the world has progressed substantially: we now better understand the basic processes of sleep and circadian physiology that underpin performance; we better understand that fatigue risk management in the absence of any discussion about sleep is fruitless at worst and inadequate at best; and we are improving the capacity of models and other technologies to assist us to predict, monitor, identify, minimise and mitigate fatigue-related risk...
March 2012: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22079034/sleep-deprivation-increases-cognitive-workload-during-simulated-surgical-tasks
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jonathan M Tomasko, Eric M Pauli, Allen R Kunselman, Randy S Haluck
BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports of the effects of modest sleep deprivation on surgical skills. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 24-hour call shift on technical and cognitive function, as well as the ability to learning a new skill. METHODS: Thirty-one students trained to expert proficiency on a virtual reality part-task trainer. They then were randomized to either a control or sleep-deprived group. On the second testing day they were given a novel task...
January 2012: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21463024/effects-of-sleep-inertia-after-daytime-naps-vary-with-executive-load-and-time-of-day
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John A Groeger, June C Y Lo, Christopher G Burns, Derk-Jan Dijk
The effects of executive load on working memory performance during sleep inertia after morning or afternoon naps were assessed using a mixed design with nap/wake as a between-subjects factor and morning/afternoon condition as a within-subject factor. Thirty-two healthy adults (mean 22.5 ± 3.0 years) attended two laboratory sessions after a night of restricted sleep (6 hrs), and at first visit, were randomly assigned to the Nap or Wake group. Working memory (n-back) and subjective workload were assessed approximately 5 and 25 minutes after 90-minute morning and afternoon nap opportunities and at the corresponding times in the Wake condition...
April 2011: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21275572/assessing-air-medical-crew-real-time-readiness-to-perform-critical-tasks
#13
Darren Braude, Timothy Goldsmith, Steven J Weiss
BACKGROUND: Air medical transport has had problems with its safety record, attributed in part to human error. Flight crew members (FCMs) must be able to focus on critical safety tasks in the context of a stressful environment. Flight crew members' cognitive readiness (CR) to perform their jobs may be affected by sleep deprivation, personal problems, high workload, and use of alcohol and drugs. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the feasibility of using a computer-based cognitive task to assess FCMs' readiness to perform their job...
April 2011: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21252214/junior-doctors-extended-work-hours-and-the-effects-on-their-performance-the-irish-case
#14
Fiona Flinn, Claire Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between junior doctors' long working hours and their performance in a variety of cognitive and clinical decision-making tests. Also, to consider the implications of performance decrements in such tests for healthcare quality. DESIGN: A within-subject design was used to eliminate variation related to individual differences. Each participant was tested twice, once post call and once rested. At each session, participants were tested on cognitive functioning and clinical decision-making...
April 2011: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20952142/skills-training-after-night-shift-work-enables-acquisition-of-endovascular-technical-skills-on-a-virtual-reality-simulator
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Peter A Naughton, Rajesh Aggarwal, Tim T Wang, Isabelle Van Herzeele, Aoife N Keeling, Ara W Darzi, Nicholas J W Cheshire
BACKGROUND: Adoption of residents' working time restrictions potentially undermines surgical training by reduction of operating room exposure. Simulation has been proposed as a way to acquire necessary skills in a laboratory environment but remains difficult to incorporate into training schedules. This study assessed whether residents working successive nights could acquire endovascular skills similar to colleagues working day shifts. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study recruited 20 junior residents, divided into day shift and night shift groups by their respective call schedule...
March 2011: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20226215/neural-correlates-of-fast-pupil-dilation-in-nonhuman-primates-relation-to-behavioral-performance-and-cognitive-workload
#16
R E Hampson, Ioan Opris, S A Deadwyler
Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) task...
September 1, 2010: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19618092/estimating-brain-load-from-the-eeg
#17
Anu Holm, Kristian Lukander, Jussi Korpela, Mikael Sallinen, Kiti M I Müller
Modern work requires cognitively demanding multitasking and the need for sustained vigilance, which may result in work-related stress and may increase the possibility of human error. Objective methods for estimating cognitive overload and mental fatigue of the brain on-line, during work performance, are needed. We present a two-channel electroencephalography (EEG)-based index, theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio, potentially implementable into a compact wearable device. The index reacts to both acute external and cumulative internal load...
2009: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19485104/managing-aviator-fatigue-in-a-deployed-environment-the-relationship-between-fatigue-and-neurocognitive-functioning
#18
Yaron G Rabinowitz, Jill E Breitbach, Christopher H Warner
The current military battlefield requires aviators to make split-second decisions that often have life-and-death consequences, making identifying predictors of diminished cognitive performance a vital aeromedical and safety concern. The current study explored the relationship between aviator effectiveness, as determined by sleep-wake patterns, and neurocognitive functioning in a brigade-size rotary wing aviation element deployed in Iraq. Actigraphy and the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST) were used to assess the ratio of sleep-wake patterns over a 24-hour time period, and a computerized multitasking measure, which mimics the task demands of flying, was utilized to evaluate neurocognitive functioning during preflight operations...
April 2009: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19126590/long-working-hours-and-cognitive-function-the-whitehall-ii-study
#19
Marianna Virtanen, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jane E Ferrie, David Gimeno, Michael G Marmot, Marko Elovainio, Markus Jokela, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997-1999 (baseline) and 2002-2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up...
March 1, 2009: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18310605/fatigue-and-health-in-a-seafaring-population
#20
Emma J K Wadsworth, Paul H Allen, Rachel L McNamara, Andrew P Smith
BACKGROUND: Occupational fatigue is relatively common within the general population and has been linked to reduced performance, injury and longer term ill-health. Despite growing acknowledgement of this problem in the maritime sector, little research has been conducted into the risk factors, prevalence and consequences of seafarers' fatigue. AIMS: To examine the prevalence of fatigue among seafarers, identify potential risk factors and assess possible links with poor performance and ill-health...
May 2008: Occupational Medicine
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