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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914846/epitope-selection-and-their-placement-for-increased-virus-neutralization-in-a-novel-vaccination-strategy-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-utilizing-the-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen
#1
Frank Gillam, Chenming Zhang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the Alphacoronaviridae genus within the Coronaviridae family. It is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, a disease that can have mortality rates as high as 100% in suckling piglets. PEDV causes severe economic loss, and has been in existence for decades. A panzootic starting in 2010 renewed interest in the development of a universal vaccine toward PEDV. This report details several design changes made to a Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg)-based recombinant vaccine strategy, and their effect in vivo...
June 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909129/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-n-protein-causes-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-up-regulates-interleukin-8-expression-and-its-subcellular-localization-in-the-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cell
#2
Qi Zhang, Ying Xu, Rong Chang, Dewen Tong, Xingang Xu
This essay focuses on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which is an enteropathogenic virus related to contagious and acute diseases in suckling piglets. Previous literature suggests that the TGEV nucleocapsid protein (N) plays a significant role in viral transcriptional process, however, there is a need to examine other functions of TGEV N protein in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) which is the target cell of TGEV. In the present study, we investigated the degradation, subcellular localisation, and function of TGEV N protein by examining its effects on cycle progression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, and cell survival...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803894/impact-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-a-focus-on-short-and-long-term-vascular-effects
#3
REVIEW
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
May 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776610/comparative-evaluation-of-immune-responses-of-swine-in-prrs-stable-and-unstable-herds
#4
Michele Drigo, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Daniela Pasotto, Dania Bilato, Jessica Ruggeri, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Giovani Loris Alborali, Massimo Amadori
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an elusive model of host/virus relationship in which disease is determined by virus pathogenicity, pig breed susceptibility and phenotype, microbial infectious pressure and environmental conditions. Successful disease control in PRRS-endemic Countries corresponds to "stability", i.e. a condition with no clinical signs of PRRS in the breeding-herd population and no viremia in weaning-age pigs. The aim of this work was to compare the profile and time-course of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in stable and unstable herds, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659579/replication-incompetent-rabies-virus-vector-harboring-glycoprotein-gene-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-lcmv-protects-mice-from-lcmv-challenge
#5
Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Chang-Kweng Lim, Yukie Yamaguchi, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Hirofumi Kato, Itoe Iizuka, Md Taimur Islam, Kinjiro Morimoto, Masayuki Saijo
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) causes a variety of diseases, including asymptomatic infections, meningitis, and congenital infections in the fetus of infected mother. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against LCMV is imperative. This study aims to develop a new candidate vaccine against LCMV using a recombinant replication-incompetent rabies virus (RV) vector. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have generated a recombinant deficient RV expressing the LCMV glycoprotein precursor (GPC) (RVΔP-LCMV/GPC) which is lacking the RV-P gene...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549959/cytokines-in-milk-and-the-role-of-tgf-beta
#6
REVIEW
Julia Brenmoehl, Daniela Ohde, Elisa Wirthgen, Andreas Hoeflich
Cytokines are required for normal growth and development of the mammary gland and TGF-β prominently represents an established effector of apoptosis, e.g., during involution of the mammary gland. By the control of intracellular signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI-3K, and NF-κB, cytokines efficiently regulate cell proliferation and inflammation in the breast. Therefore, cytokines are discussed also in a context of malignant mammary growth. As a group of tissue hormones produced by somatic cells or by cells from the immune system, cytokines are defined by their immunomodulatory potential...
January 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447290/a-neonatal-murine-model-for-evaluation-of-enterovirus-e-hy12-virus-infection-and-pathogenicity
#7
Xiaochun Gai, Qun Zhang, Haibing Lu, Zhanqing Yang, Lisai Zhu, Xin Li, Xinping Wang
BACKGROUNDS: HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown. METHODS: Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391452/small-molecule-analogues-of-the-parasitic-worm-product-es-62-interact-with-the-tir-domain-of-myd88-to-inhibit-pro-inflammatory-signalling
#8
Colin J Suckling, Shahabuddin Alam, Mark A Olson, Kamal U Saikh, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
ES-62 is a protein secreted by the parasitic worm Acanthocheilonema viteae that is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine. Previously we have reported that drug-like Small Molecule Analogues (SMAs) of its phosphorylcholine moiety can mimic ES-62 in protecting against disease development in certain mouse models of autoimmune and allergic conditions, due to them causing partial degradation of the TLR/IL-1R adaptor MyD88. We have now taken a molecular modelling approach to investigating the mechanism underlying this effect and this predicts that the SMAs interact directly with the MyD88 TIR domain...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197549/isolation-and-characterization-of-kabuto-mountain-virus-a-new-tick-borne-phlebovirus-from-haemaphysalis-flava-ticks-in-japan
#9
Hiroko Ejiri, Chang-Kweng Lim, Haruhiko Isawa, Yukie Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Fujita, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Ryusei Kuwata, Daisuke Kobayashi, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Itoe Iizuka-Shiota, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Yukie Katayama, Toshihiko Hayashi, Toshinori Sasaki, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Shigeru Morikawa, Ken Maeda, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koki Kaku, Masayuki Saijo, Kyoko Sawabe
In Japan, indigenous tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) and their associated diseases first became evident in 2013 by reported human cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). In this study, we report a novel member of the genus Phlebovirus designated as Kabuto Mountain virus (KAMV), which was isolated from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis flava in Hyogo, Japan. A complete viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that KAMV is a novel member of TBPVs, which is closely related to the Uukuniemi and Kaisodi group viruses...
January 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956766/porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-enters-neuro-2a-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-rab5-cholesterol-and-ph-dependent-manner
#10
Zi Li, Kui Zhao, Yungang Lan, Xiaoling Lv, Shiyu Hu, Jiyu Guan, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Junchao Shi, Yawen Yang, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus that invades the central nervous system (CNS) in piglets. Although important progress has been made toward understanding the biology of PHEV, many aspects of its life cycle remain obscure. Here we dissected the molecular mechanism underlying cellular entry and intracellular trafficking of PHEV in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells. We first performed a thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay to characterize the kinetics of PHEV, and we found that viral entry and transfer occur via membranous coating-mediated endo- and exocytosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942051/clinical-cystoisosporosis-associated-to-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-suid-herpesvirus-2-infection-in-fattening-pigs
#11
Walter Basso, Hanna Marti, Monika Hilbe, Titus Sydler, Anina Stahel, Esther Bürgi, Xaver Sidler
Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis is the causative agent of neonatal porcine coccidiosis and one of the main causes of diarrhoea in suckling piglets worldwide. Infection with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV, Suid herpesvirus 2) causes inclusion body rhinitis in pigs. In a Swiss pig herd (n=2 boars, 7 sows, 2 gilts, 18 finishing pigs, 30 fattening pigs, 54 suckling piglets), an outbreak of PCMV infection with high morbidity in all age categories, characterized by fever, anorexia, reduced general condition, respiratory signs and increased piglet mortality, was diagnosed by histopathology and molecular methods...
December 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822816/genetically-modified-rabies-virus-vectored-ebola-virus-disease-vaccines-are-safe-and-induce-efficacious-immune-responses-in-mice-and-dogs
#12
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776445/inhibition-of-dengue-virus-replication-by-novel-inhibitors-of-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-and-protease-activities
#13
Sveva Pelliccia, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Antonio Coluccia, Giuseppe La Regina, Chin-Kai Tseng, Valeria Famiglini, Domiziana Masci, John Hiscott, Jin-Ching Lee, Romano Silvestri
Dengue virus (DENV) is the leading mosquito-transmitted viral infection in the world. With more than 390 million new infections annually, and up to 1 million clinical cases with severe disease manifestations, there continues to be a need to develop new antiviral agents against dengue infection. In addition, there is no approved anti-DENV agents for treating DENV-infected patients. In the present study, we identified new compounds with anti-DENV replication activity by targeting viral replication enzymes - NS5, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and NS3 protease, using cell-based reporter assay...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737909/inhibitory-kappa-b-kinase-%C3%AE-ikk%C3%AE-inhibitors-that-recapitulate-their-selectivity-in-cells-against-isoform-related-biomarkers
#14
Nahoum G Anthony, Jessica Baiget, Giacomo Berretta, Marie Boyd, David Breen, Joanne Edwards, Carly Gamble, Alexander I Gray, Alan L Harvey, Sophia Hatziieremia, Ka Ho Ho, Judith K Huggan, Stuart Lang, Sabin Llona-Minguez, Jia Lin Luo, Kathryn McIntosh, Andrew Paul, Robin J Plevin, Murray N Robertson, Rebecca Scott, Colin J Suckling, Oliver B Sutcliffe, Louise C Young, Simon P Mackay
IKKβ plays a central role in the canonical NF-kB pathway, which has been extensively characterized. The role of IKKα in the noncanonical NF-kB pathway, and indeed in the canonical pathway as a complex with IKKβ, is less well understood. One major reason for this is the absence of chemical tools designed as selective inhibitors for IKKα over IKKβ. Herein, we report for the first time a series of novel, potent, and selective inhibitors of IKKα. We demonstrate effective target engagement and selectivity with IKKα in U2OS cells through inhibition of IKKα-driven p100 phosphorylation in the noncanonical NF-kB pathway without affecting IKKβ-dependent IKappa-Bα loss in the canonical pathway...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646221/aberrant-activation-of-the-human-sex-determining-gene-in-early-embryonic-development-results-in-postnatal-growth-retardation-and-lethality-in-mice
#15
Tatsuo Kido, Zhaoyu Sun, Yun-Fai Chris Lau
Sexual dimorphisms are prevalent in development, physiology and diseases in humans. Currently, the contributions of the genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in these processes are uncertain. Using a transgene activation system, the human sex-determining gene hSRY is activated in the single-cell embryos of the mouse. Pups with hSRY activated (hSRY(ON)) are born of similar sizes as those of non-activated controls. However, they retard significantly in postnatal growth and development and all die of multi-organ failure before two weeks of age...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622871/a-spike-specific-whole-porcine-antibody-isolated-from-a-porcine-b-cell-that-neutralizes-both-genogroup-1-and-2-pedv-strains
#16
Fang Fu, Lin Li, Lingling Shan, Beibei Yang, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Hongfeng Wang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by an alpha coronavirus, is a highly contagious disease and causes high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies from porcine B cells is critical to elucidate the development of PEDV neutralizing antibodies and the protective mechanism of PEDV infection. Here, we described the isolation of a PEDV-neutralizing antibody from the B cell of a vaccinated pig. The antibody, named PC10, was demonstrated to target the conformational epitope of PEDV spike protein, specifically bind to the infected cells of PEDV genogroup 1 and 2 strains, and potently neutralize PEDV infection...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595631/isolation-of-tibet-orbivirus-from-culicoides-and-associated-infections-in-livestock-in-yunnan-china
#17
Jinglin Wang, Huachun Li, Yuwen He, Yang Zhou, Aiguo Xin, Defang Liao, Jinxin Meng
BACKGROUND: Culicoides-borne orbiviruses, such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), are important pathogens that cause animal epidemic diseases leading to significant loss of domestic animals. This study was conducted to identify Culicoides-borne arboviruses and to investigate the associated infections in local livestock in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Culicoides were collected overnight in Mangshi City using light traps during August 2013...
June 8, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490801/dendritic-cells-provide-a-therapeutic-target-for-synthetic-small-molecule-analogues-of-the-parasitic-worm-product-es-62
#18
Felicity E Lumb, James Doonan, Kara S Bell, Miguel A Pineda, Marlene Corbet, Colin J Suckling, Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
ES-62, a glycoprotein secreted by the parasitic filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, subverts host immune responses towards anti-inflammatory phenotypes by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC). The PC dictates that ES-62 exhibits protection in murine models of inflammatory disease and hence a library of drug-like PC-based small molecule analogues (SMAs) was synthesised. Four sulfone-containing SMAs termed 11a, 11e, 11i and 12b were found to reduce mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, inhibit NF-κB p65 activation, and suppress LPS-induced up-regulation of CD40 and CD86...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#19
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381581/cell-attachment-domains-of-the-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-spike-protein-are-key-targets-of-neutralizing-antibodies
#20
Chunhua Li, Wentao Li, Eduardo Lucio de Esesarte, Hongbo Guo, Paul van den Elzen, Eduard Aarts, Erwin van den Born, Peter J M Rottier, Berend-Jan Bosch
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current vaccination approaches against this emerging coronavirus are only partially effective, though natural infection protects pigs against reinfection and provides lactogenic immunity to suckling piglets. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein, responsible for receptor binding and cell entry, is the major target for neutralizing antibodies. However, knowledge of antibody epitopes, their nature and location in the spike structure, and the mechanisms by which the antibodies interfere with infection is scarce...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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