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newer contrast media

Jehan Z Bahrainwala, Amanda K Leonberg-Yoo, Michael R Rudnick
Contrast exposure in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires additional consideration given the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after exposure to iodinated contrast as well as systemic injury with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). Strategies to avoid CIN, and manage patients after exposure, including extracorporeal removal of contrast media, may differ among an advanced CKD population as compared to a general population. There is strong evidence to support the use of isotonic volume expansion and the lowest dose of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar contrast media possible to decrease CIN...
July 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
Abhaya Trivedi, Chase Hall, Eric A Hoffman, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mario Castro
There have been significant advancements in the various imaging techniques being used for the evaluation of asthmatic patients, both from a clinical and research perspective. Imaging characteristics can be used to identify specific asthmatic phenotypes and provide a more detailed understanding of endotypes contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography can be used to assess pulmonary structure and function. It has been shown that specific airway and lung density measurements using computed tomography correlate with clinical parameters, including severity of disease and pathology, but also provide unique phenotypes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
D Elantamilan, Valarie Wihiwot Lyngdoh, Annie B Khyriem, Jyotismita Rajbongshi, Ishani Bora, Surbala Thingujam Devi, Prithwis Bhattacharyya, Himesh Barman
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. The mortality directly attributable to BSI has been estimated to be around 16% and 40% in general hospital population and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population, respectively. The detection rate of these infections increases with the number of blood samples obtained for culture. The newer continuous monitoring automated blood culture systems with enhanced culture media show increased yield and sensitivity...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Tushar Chandra, Suyash Mohan
Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents have been widely used over the last 3 decades in routine clinical practice. Paul Lauterbur recognized the presence of these contrast agents, which act as paramagnetic catalysts that accelerate the T1 relaxation process. The first MR contrast agent to be approved for clinical use was in 1988, and since then, it is estimated that 200 million doses have been administered worldwide. These contrast agents have diverse clinical as well as research applications, involving almost all the body organs...
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Moshe Rogosnitzky, Stacy Branch
Gadolinium chelates are widely used as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging. The approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have historically been considered safe and well tolerated when used at recommended dosing levels. However, for nearly a decade, an association between GBCA administration and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been recognized in patients with severe renal impairment. This has led to modifications in clinical practices aimed at reducing the potential and incidence of NSF development...
June 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Kathy Hardy, Philip John Hardy
Miscarriage is a very common occurrence in humans. This paper sets out to present published data on research that has provided increased understanding of pregnancy failure. Clarification of definitions, exploring the range of failures from preclinical to later pregnancy losses, and the scientific tools employed to find information on the losses have been documented. What is now understood, which tools work best, and the associated limitations are all discussed. Early studies used cytogenetic methods and tissue culture to obtain results...
April 2015: Translational pediatrics
Anusree V Nair, Neetha Joseph, Kiran Krishna, K G Sneha, Neenu Tom, Kamlesh Jangid, Shanta Nair
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium having a versatile metabolic potential and great ecological and clinical significance. The geographical distribution of P. aeruginosahas revealed the existence of an unbiased genetic arrangement in terrestrial isolates. In contrast, there are very few reports about P. aeruginosa strains from marine environments. The present work was aimed at studying the distribution of P. aeruginosa in coastal waters along the Indian Peninsula and understanding the environmental influence on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics by comparing marine and clinical isolates...
July 2015: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
James R Ballinger
Radiopharmaceuticals are widely accepted to be a very safe class of drugs, with very few adverse reactions and unexpected biodistributions. However, problems can arise because of technical issues in manufacture or reconstitution, patient preparation, or drug administration. This review presents highlights of issues that have arisen in the newer classes of radiopharmaceuticals in the last 20 years and expands the scope of the previous report to include PET and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Variations in the "quality" of the eluate of a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator remain a major issue...
September 2015: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Ekta Dhamija, Shashi B Paul
Grey scale ultrasound (US) is the first line imaging modality used for the evaluation of liver by the radiologists and clinicians worldwide. It is a simple, inexpensive, safe and an easily available technique. US has the ability to delineate the hepatic parenchyma and differentiate the cystic from solid hepatic lesions. However, it has limited accuracy in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL). CEUS is a major breakthrough in ultrasound imaging which evolved with the aim of overcoming these limitations of US...
July 2014: Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
Luis M De León-Rodríguez, André F Martins, Marco C Pinho, Neil M Rofsky, A Dean Sherry
The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists, largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities...
September 2015: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
P Törnqvist, N V Dias, T Resch
Imaging is an integral part of an aortic program. Careful preoperative planning is essential to successful evaluation and treatment of aortic pathology. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the dominant modality for such preoperative planning. The use of a dedicated workstation for 3D postprocessing is very favorable and is considered mandatory when treating complex aortic pathology. Intraoperative imaging during aortic repair still depends heavily on standard fluoroscopy and angiography. However, the introduction of image fusion has the potential to reduce the use of both contrast and radiation, for the benefit of both patients and operators...
April 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
A J Höink, W Heindel, B Buerke
UNLABELLED: In consequence of the rapid development of newer targeted and personalized tumor therapies, radiology as an essential component of the treatment concept of numerous malignant diseases needs to improve in order to adequately capture and evaluate the effects, but also the side effects of these novel therapeutic agents. The early recognition of therapy response or failure is crucial for the optimal planning of the further treatment and can therefore have direct impact on the chances of recovery and the survival time of oncological patients...
October 2014: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Daniel C Barr, Hero K Hussain
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fastest growing cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cirrhosis is the most important risk factor for HCC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for working up nodules detected at screening, for staging known HCC, and for follow-up. In cirrhotic livers, the combination of tumor arterial phase hyperenhancement plus washout and/or capsular enhancement is highly specific for HCC and can make biopsy unnecessary. Newer imaging techniques may further improve MR imaging sensitivity for HCC and help to characterize tumors with atypical dynamic enhancement patterns...
August 2014: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Danielle E Luciano, Caterina Exacoustos, Anthony A Luciano
Evaluation of tubal patency is an essential part of a fertility workup. Laparoscopy with chromopertubation in conjunction with hysteroscopy is the gold standard in evaluation of tubal patency and the uterine cavity. In this review article we describe a newer method for evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes, that is, hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy). Accuracy of HyCoSy for tubal patency has been shown to be comparable to that with hysterosalpingography (HSG) when compared with laparoscopic chromopertubation...
November 2014: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Erin O'Neill, Nancy Hammond, Frank H Miller
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pancreas is useful as both a problem-solving tool and an initial imaging examination of choice. With newer imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging, MR offers improved ability to detect and characterize lesions and identify and stage tumors and inflammation. MR cholangiopancreatography can be used to visualize the pancreatic and biliary ductal system. In this article, the use of MR to evaluate the pancreas, including recent advances, is reviewed and the normal appearance of the pancreas on different imaging sequences, as well as inflammatory diseases, congenital abnormalities, and neoplasms of the pancreas, are discussed...
July 2014: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Quyen N Do, James S Ratnakar, Zoltán Kovács, A Dean Sherry
The development of responsive or "smart" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can report specific biomarker or biological events has been the focus of MRI contrast agent research over the past 20 years. Among various biological hallmarks of interest, tissue redox and hypoxia are particularly important owing to their roles in disease states and metabolic consequences. Herein we review the development of redox-/hypoxia-sensitive T1 shortening and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) MRI contrast agents...
June 2014: ChemMedChem
Biswajit Datta, Chandan Datta, Debabrata Sen
Even in the light of newer and less nephrotoxic contrast media solutions, their increased use during standard and new radiological procedures has resulted in the growing incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy, an iatrogenic disorder caused by exposure to contrast media. This retrospective study was conducted among the patients admitted in North Bengal Medical College from January 2007 to December 2010 with significant rise in serum creatinine level within 48 to 72 hours of systemic administration of contrast media...
August 2013: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Ghulam Murtaza, Kuo Gao, Tiegang Liu, Imran Tariq, Ashif Sajjad, Muhammad Rouf Akram, Meiying Niu, Guokai Liu, Zahid Mehmood, Guihua Tian
Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.
2014: BioMed Research International
Mehyar Mehrizi, Robert M Pascuzzi
Use of older contrast agents during radiologic imaging in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has been associated with increased myasthenic symptoms and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The effects of newer contrast agents have not been determined. A retrospective review of imaging safety in MG was conducted. Three hundred fifty-four imaging studies were analyzed. Procedures included 189 computed tomography (CT) images with and 106 without intravenous (IV) contrast and 42 magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with and 17 without contrast...
September 2014: Muscle & Nerve
Steven G Chrysant, George S Chrysant
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) from fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an uncommon cause of hypertension that affects mostly women. FMD is a noninflammatory vascular disease that predominantly affects mainly the renal arteries, but can also affect arteries in other vascular territories. The most common type of FMD is the media fibroplasia with the characteristic "string of beads" appearance (80-90%), whereas the two other types, the "intimal" and "adventitial" FMD are much less common accounting for 10% and <5% of cases, respectively...
February 2014: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
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