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dyslipidemia and carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814665/fatty-acid-oxidation-by-the-osteoblast-is-required-for-normal-bone-acquisition-in-a-sex-and-diet-dependent-manner
#1
Soohyun P Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L Zoch, Julie L Frey, Caitlyn E Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A Ryan, Brian C Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E Kershaw, Daniel L J Thorek, Thomas L Clemens, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723568/loss-of-hepatic-mitochondrial-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-confers-resistance-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#2
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Susanna Scafidi, Ryan C Riddle, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2(L-/-) mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2(L-/-) mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#3
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217401/presence-of-arachidonoyl-carnitine-is-associated-with-adverse-cardiometabolic-responses-in-hypertensive-patients-treated-with-atenolol
#4
Liming Weng, Yan Gong, Jeffrey Culver, Stephen J Gardell, Christopher Petucci, Alison M Morse, Reginald F Frye, Stephen T Turner, Arlene Chapman, Eric Boerwinkle, John Gums, Amber L Beitelshees, Peggy R Borum, Julie A Johnson, Timothy J Garrett, Lauren M McIntyre, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
INTRODUCTION: Atenolol, a commonly prescribed β blocker for hypertension, is also associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Knowledge of the mechanistic underpinnings of these adverse effects of atenolol is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify biomarkers associated with risk for these untoward effects of atenolol. We measured baseline blood serum levels of acylcarnitines (ACs) that are involved in a host of different metabolic pathways, to establish associations with adverse cardiometabolic responses after atenolol treatment...
October 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088290/could-post-weaning-dietary-chia-seed-mitigate-the-development-of-dyslipidemia-liver-steatosis-and-altered-glucose-homeostasis-in-offspring-exposed-to-a-sucrose-rich-diet-from-utero-to-adulthood
#5
M A Fortino, M E Oliva, S Rodriguez, Y B Lombardo, A Chicco
The present work analyzes the effects of dietary chia seeds during postnatal life in offspring exposed to a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) from utero to adulthood. At weaning, chia seed (rich in α-linolenic acid) replaced corn oil (rich in linoleic acid) in the SRD. At 150 days of offspring life, anthropometrical parameters, blood pressure, plasma metabolites, hepatic lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis were analyzed. Results showed that chia was able to prevent the development of hypertension, liver steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#6
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854029/acute-administration-of-3-5-diiodo-l-thyronine-to-hypothyroid-rats-stimulates-bioenergetic-parameters-in-liver-mitochondria
#7
Alessandro Cavallo, Federica Taurino, Fabrizio Damiano, Luisa Siculella, Anna Maria Sardanelli, Antonio Gnoni
The role of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), initially considered only a 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) catabolite, in the bioenergetic metabolism is of growing interest. In this study we investigated the acute effects (within 1 h) of T2 administration to hypothyroid rats on liver mitochondria fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation rate, mitochondrial efficiency (by measuring proton leak) and mitochondrial oxidative damage (by determining H2O2 release). Fatty acid uptake into mitochondria was measured assaying carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) I and II activities, and fatty acid β-oxidation using palmitoyl-CoA as a respiratory substrate...
October 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353085/ethanol-extracts-of-chickpeas-alter-the-total-lipid-content-and-expression-levels-of-genes-related-to-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-mouse-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
Shigeo Shinohara, Yuanjun Gu, Ying Yang, Yasuo Furuta, Masahiko Tanaka, Xiaohua Yue, Weiqing Wang, Masaru Kitano, Hiroshi Kimura
Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320917/hepatic-fatty-acid-oxidation-restrains-systemic-catabolism-during-starvation
#9
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Susanna Scafidi, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver is critical for maintaining systemic energy balance during starvation. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation on this process, we generated mice with a liver-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2(L-/-)), an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Fasting induced hepatic steatosis and serum dyslipidemia with an absence of circulating ketones, while blood glucose remained normal. Systemic energy homeostasis was largely maintained in fasting Cpt2(L-/-) mice by adaptations in hepatic and systemic oxidative gene expression mediated in part by Pparα target genes including procatabolic hepatokines Fgf21, Gdf15, and Igfbp1...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011261/berberine-attenuates-development-of-the-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-disorder-in-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-in-palmitate-incubated-hepg2-cells-through-suppression-of-the-hnf-4%C3%AE-mir122-pathway
#10
Shengnan Wei, Ming Zhang, Yang Yu, Xiaoxin Lan, Fan Yao, Xin Yan, Li Chen, Grant M Hatch
Berberine (BBR) has been shown to exhibit protective effects against diabetes and dyslipidemia. Previous studies have indicated that BBR modulates lipid metabolism and inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis by decreasing expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α). However, the mechanism involved in this process was unknown. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and the lipid metabolism alterations observed in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and in palmitate (PA)-incubated HepG2 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000070/effect-of-danqi-pill-on-ppar%C3%AE-lipid-disorders-and-arachidonic-acid-pathway-in-rat-model-of-coronary-heart-disease
#11
Hong Chang, Qiyan Wang, Tianjiao Shi, Kuiyuan Huo, Chun Li, Qian Zhang, Guoli Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Binghua Tang, Wei Wang, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Danqi pill (DQP) is one of the most widely prescribed formulas and has been shown to have remarkable protective effect on coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its regulatory effects on lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. We aimed to explore the effects of DQP on Peroxisome Proliferator activated receptors α (PPARα), lipid uptake-transportation-metabolism pathway and arachidonic acid (AA)-mediated inflammation pathway in rats with CHD...
March 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26938273/pharmacological-inhibition-of-monoacylglycerol-o-acyltransferase-2-improves-hyperlipidemia-obesity-and-diabetes-by-change-in-intestinal-fat-utilization
#12
Kazumi Take, Taisuke Mochida, Toshiyuki Maki, Yoshinori Satomi, Megumi Hirayama, Masanori Nakakariya, Nobuyuki Amano, Ryutaro Adachi, Kenjiro Sato, Tomoyuki Kitazaki, Shiro Takekawa
Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DG), a triacylglycerol precursor and potential peripheral target for novel anti-obesity therapeutics. High-throughput screening identified lead compounds with MGAT2 inhibitory activity. Through structural modification, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MGAT2 inhibitor, compound A (compA), was discovered. CompA dose-dependently inhibited postprandial increases in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that compA inhibited triglyceride/diacylglycerol resynthesis in the small intestine and increased free fatty acid and acyl-carnitine with shorter acyl chains than originally labelled fatty acid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828527/mechanisms-involved-in-the-improvement-of-lipotoxicity-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-by-dietary-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-rich-salvia-hispanica-l-salba-seed-in-the-heart-of-dyslipemic-insulin-resistant-rats
#13
Agustina Creus, María R Ferreira, María E Oliva, Yolanda B Lombardo
This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time...
2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803481/melatonin-and-l-carnitin-improves-endothelial-disfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#14
Derya Selcen Salmanoglu, Tugba Gurpinar, Kamil Vural, Nuran Ekerbicer, Ertan Darıverenli, Ahmet Var
Vascular dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The roles of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia will be considered. Melatonin as well as L-carnitine were shown to possess strong antioxidant properties. Diabetes induced with high fat diet (for 8 weeks) and multipl low doses intraperitoneal injection of STZ (twice, 30mg/kg/d i.p). The diabetic animals were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups as follows: Control group (C), high fat diet (HFD), STZ-induced diabetic group (HFD+STZ) , HFD+STZ diabetic group received melatonin (10mg/kg/d i...
August 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621841/implications-of-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-ligand-clofibrate-in-breast-cancer
#15
Karthic Chandran, Sudeshna Goswami, Neelam Sharma-Walia
Inflammatory and invasive breast cancers are aggressive and require better understanding for the development of new treatments and more accurate prognosis. Here, we detected high expression of PPARα in human primary inflammatory (SUM149PT) and highly invasive (SUM1315MO2) breast cancer cells, and tissue sections of human breast cancer. PPARα ligands are clinically used to treat dyslipidemia. Among lipid lowering drugs clofibrate, fenofibrate and WY14643, clofibrate showed high chemo-sensitivity towards breast cancer cells...
March 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519879/high-fructose-consumption-induces-dna-methylation-at-ppar%C3%AE-and-cpt1a-promoter-regions-in-the-rat-liver
#16
Koji Ohashi, Eiji Munetsuna, Hiroya Yamada, Yoshitaka Ando, Mirai Yamazaki, Nao Taromaru, Ayuri Nagura, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Koji Suzuki, Ryoji Teradaira, Shuji Hashimoto
DNA methylation status is affected by environmental factors, including nutrition. Fructose consumption is considered a risk factor for the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia. However, the pathogenetic mechanism by which fructose consumption leads to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Based on observations that epigenetic modifications are closely related to induction of metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is caused by epigenetic alterations. Male SD rats were designated to receive water or 20% fructose solution for 14 weeks...
December 4, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503742/antidiabetic-and-antihyperlipidemic-properties-of-a-triterpenoid-compound-dehydroeburicoic-acid-from-antrodia-camphorata-in-vitro-and-in-streptozotocin-induced-mice
#17
Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Chun-Ching Shih
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. STZ-induced diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and given orally by gavage TT (at three dosages), metformin (Metf), fenfibrate (Feno), or vehicle for 4 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed elevations in blood glucose levels (P < 0.001). TT treatment markedly decreased blood glucose levels by 42.6-46.5%. Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic mice displayed an increase in circulating triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (P < 0...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190035/amelioration-of-free-fatty-acid-induced-fatty-liver-by-quercetin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-through-modulation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-signaling
#18
Lu Lu Wang, Zhi Chao Zhang, Waseem Hassan, Yu Li, Jun Liu, Jing Shang
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of the natural flavonoid quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Q3GA) against lipid metabolism disorder in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced fatty liver in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Fat accumulation was documented by oil red O staining, and intracellular triglyceride levels were detected by triglyceride(TG) enzymatic assay. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunoassay assay were performed to observe the effect of Q3GA on lipotoxicity and inflammation response of primary rat hepatocytes with FFA treatment...
February 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26136915/molecular-and-immunohistochemical-effects-of-metformin-in-a-rat-model-of-type%C3%A2-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Tamer Ahmed Ismail, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed Abdo Nassan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious health issue worldwide. The disease is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), which leads to dyslipidemia and alterations in the expression levels of a number of genes. Metformin is the standard treatment for T2DM; however, the exact mechanism underlying metformin regulation is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of metformin on serum lipid profiles and the expression levels of various genes that are associated with IR, as well as the histopathological changes in the liver and pancreas...
May 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26088373/d-xylose-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
D-Xylose, a natural pentose, has been reported to reduce postprandial glucose levels, although its effect on lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Therefore, this study hypothesized that d-xylose, as an alternative sweetener, suppresses adipogenesis and lipid metabolism by regulating blood lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and related gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal diet, a 60% HFD diet, or an HFD with 5% or 10% of the total sucrose content supplemented with d-xylose (Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 diets, respectively)...
July 2015: Nutrition Research
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