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Clinical epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635992/odontogenic-tumors-a-retrospective-clinicopathological-study-from-two-italian-centers
#1
C Rubini, M Mascitti, A Santarelli, A Tempesta, L Limongelli, G Favia, E Maiorano
Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to perform an epidemiological analysis of all odontogenic tumors treated in the University Hospitals "Ospedali Riuniti" in Ancona and "Policlinico" in Bari, from 1990 to 2015. Materials and methods: A retrospective survey of 277 patients treated for odontogenic tumors from 1990 to 2015 was performed. Data were retrieved from the archives of the above quoted Sections of Pathology. The lesions were classified according to 2005 WHO histological classification, and the following variables were analyzed: age, sex, histopathological diagnosis, site distribution, tumor size, and relapses...
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#2
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634652/a-multi-source-approach-to-determine-sma-incidence-and-research-ready-population
#3
Ingrid E C Verhaart, Agata Robertson, Rebecca Leary, Grace McMacken, Kirsten König, Janbernd Kirschner, Cynthia C Jones, Suzanne F Cook, Hanns Lochmüller
In spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), degeneration of motor neurons causes progressive muscular weakness, which is caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. Available epidemiological data on SMA are scarce, often outdated, and limited to relatively small regions or populations. Combining data from different sources including genetic laboratories and patient registries may provide better insight of the disease epidemiology. To investigate the incidence of genetically confirmed SMA, and the number of patients who are able and approachable to participate in new clinical trials and observational research, we used both genetic laboratories, the TREAT-NMD Global SMA Patient Registry and the Care and Trial Sites Registry (CTSR)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634594/pancreatic-cancer-heralded-by-worsening-glycemic-control-a-report-of-two-cases
#4
Dimpi Desai, Devika Rao, Vineeth Sukrithan, Eleanor Weinstein, Akankasha Goyal, Ulrich Schubart
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, its prognosis remains poor. The initial presentation varies according to the tumor location. The most common presenting signs are weight loss, jaundice, and pain. Several epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies over the past 2 decades have shown that long-standing diabetes is a modest risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, new-onset diabetes has also been observed to be an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634578/neonatal-venous-thromboembolism
#5
REVIEW
Kristina M Haley
Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#6
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634563/aspiration-of-aluminum-beverage-can-tab-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Alhasan N Elghouche, Brian C Lobo, Jonathan Y Ting
We describe the case of a 16-year-old male who aspirated a beverage can tab resulting in significant functional impairment. Since the introduction of beverage can opening tabs ("pop-tops" or "pull-tabs") nearly 50 years ago, five cases of their aspiration have been reported in the literature and this is the first case to report tracheal lodgment. We describe the clinical course for this patient including the inadequacy of radiographic evaluation and a significant delay in diagnosis. We highlight unique features of small aluminum foreign bodies that require consideration and mention a potential change in epidemiology associated with evolving product design...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634353/coronavirus-hku15-in-respiratory-tract-of-pigs-and-first-discovery-of-coronavirus-quasispecies-in-5-untranslated-region
#8
Patrick Cy Woo, Susanna Kp Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Candy Cy Lau, Po-Chun Wong, Franklin Wn Chow, Jordan Yh Fong, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Coronavirus HKU15 is a deltacoronavirus that was discovered in fecal samples of pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. Over the past three years, Coronavirus HKU15 has been widely detected in pigs in East/Southeast Asia and North America and has been associated with fatal outbreaks. In all such epidemiological studies, the virus was generally only detected in fecal/intestinal samples. In this molecular epidemiology study, we detected Coronavirus HKU15 in 9.6% of the nasopharyngeal samples obtained from 249 pigs in Hong Kong...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#9
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634006/testosterone-differentially-affects-t-cells-and-neurons-in-murine-and-human-models-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#10
Megan G Massa, Christina David, Stefanie Jörg, Johannes Berg, Barbara Gisevius, Sarah Hirschberg, Ralf A Linker, Ralf Gold, Aiden Haghikia
The high female-to-male sex ratio of multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence has continuously confounded researchers, especially in light of male patients' accelerated disease course at later stages of MS. Although multiple studies have concentrated on estrogenic mechanisms of disease modulation, fairly little attention has been paid to androgenic effects in a female system, and even fewer studies have attempted to dissociate hormonal effects on the neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes of MS. Herein, we demonstrate the differential effects of hormone treatment on the acute inflammatory and chronic neurodegenerative phases of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633866/tea-consumption-may-decrease-the-risk-of-osteoporosis-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#11
REVIEW
Ming Guo, Hua Qu, Lin Xu, Da-Zhuo Shi
Several epidemiological investigations have evaluated the correlation between tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. We searched for all relevant studies including cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies published from database inception to July 15, 2016, using MEDLINE EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Polled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the random-effect model...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633679/multistate-modeling-to-analyze-nosocomial-infection-data-an-introduction-and-demonstration
#12
Martin Wolkewitz, Maja von Cube, Martin Schumacher
OBJECTIVE Multistate and competing risks models have become an established and adequate tool with which to quantify determinants and consequences of nosocomial infections. In this tutorial article, we explain and demonstrate the basics of these models to a broader audience of professionals in health care, infection control, and hospital epidemiology. METHODS Using a publicly available data set from a cohort study of intensive care unit patients, we show how hospital infection data can be displayed and explored graphically and how simple formulas are derived under some simplified assumptions for illustrating the basic ideas behind multistate models...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633647/meeting-the-oral-health-needs-of-12-year-olds-in-china-human-resources-for-oral-health
#13
Xiangyu Sun, Eduardo Bernabé, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. METHODS: We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633501/epidemiology-of-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#14
Sarah E Smith, Robert Pratt, Lisa Trieu, Pennan M Barry, Dzung T Thai, Shama Desai Ahuja, Sarita Shah
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is an important global public health threat, but accurate estimates of MDR TB burden among children are lacking. Methods: We analyzed demographic, clinical and laboratory data for newly-diagnosed pediatric (<15 years) TB cases reported to the US National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) during 1993-2014. MDR TB was defined as culture-confirmed TB disease with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. To ascertain potential under-estimation of pediatric MDR TB, we surveyed high burden states for clinically-diagnosed cases treated for MDR TB...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633409/the-effect-of-pd-l1-testing-on-the-cost-effectiveness-and-economic-impact-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-second-line-treatment-of-nsclc
#15
P N Aguiar, L Perry, J Penny-Dimr, H Babiker, H Tadokoro, R A de Mello, G L Lopes
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors improve outcomes compared to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor PD-L1 receptor expression is being studied as a predictive biomarker. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of second-line treatment with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab with and without the use of PD-L1 testing for patient selection. Design: We developed a decision-analytic model to determine the cost-effectiveness of PD-L1 assessment and second-line immunotherapy versus docetaxel...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633350/accuracy-of-on-line-self-reported-weights-and-heights-by-young-adults
#16
Charoula Konstantia Nikolaou, Catherine Ruth Hankey, Michael Ernest John Lean
e-epidemiology, a convenient and low-cost research method, is becoming increasingly popular. This study seeks to validate on-line self-reported heights and weights against objectively measured data in young adults. Young adults self-reported heights and weights in an on-line lifestyle survey. These were validated using two methods: (i) measurements by staff at the primary-care clinic and (ii) measurements by a researcher within two weeks of distribution of the survey. Analyses were conducted to determine differences between the self-reported and measured heights and weights and to identify characteristics associated with under- or over-reporting of these...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633157/epidemiology-practice-of-ventilation-and-outcome-for-patients-at-increased-risk-of-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-an-observational-study-in-29-countries
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about the epidemiology and outcome of surgical patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and how intraoperative ventilation was managed in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of surgical patients at increased risk of PPCs, and to compare the intraoperative ventilation management and postoperative outcomes with patients at low risk of PPCs. DESIGN: This was a prospective international 1-week observational study using the 'Assess Respiratory Risk in Surgical Patients in Catalonia risk score' (ARISCAT score) for PPC for risk stratification...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632823/-features-of-bordetella-pertussis-bordetella-spp-infection-and-whopping-cough-in-c%C3%A3-rdoba-province-argentina
#18
Víctor O Giayetto, Sebastián Blanco, Arnaldo Mangeaud, María G Barbás, Analía Cudolá, Sandra V Gallego
INTRODUCTION: Whooping cough is a re-emerging infection in the world and Latin America. OBJECTIVE: It was considered relevant to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Bordetella spp. and Bordetella pertussis infection in Córdoba province, Argentina; evaluating, at the same time, the co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections that may be confused with whooping cough. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All whooping cough suspected cases were studied by Polimerase Chain Reaction, amplifying the repeated insertion sequence (IS) 481 and the promoter gene encoding pertussis toxin, between 2011 and 2013...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632112/the-2016-european-guideline-on-the-management-of-epididymo-orchitis
#19
Emma J Street, Edwin D Justice, Zsolt Kopa, Mags D Portman, Jonathan D Ross, Mihael Skerlev, Janet D Wilson, Rajul Patel
Epididymo-orchitis is a commonly encountered condition with a reported incidence of 2.45 cases per 1000 men in the United Kingdom. This 2016 International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections guideline provides up-to-date advice on the management of this condition. It describes the aetiology, clinical features and potential complications, as well as presenting diagnostic considerations and clear recommendations for management and follow-up. Early diagnosis and management are essential, as serious complications can include abscess formation, testicular infarction and infertility...
July 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631684/-multiple-pneumocele-associated-with-temporal-bone-hyperpneumatization
#20
E V Garov, V N Zelenkova, E A Stepanova, A S Meparishvili
The authors consider in brief epidemiology, diagnostics, and variants of the surgical treatment of the rare clinical condition pneumocele and pneumoencephalocele of the temporal bone. Diagnostic and surgical modalities for the management of multiple pneumocele associated with temporal bone hyperpneumatization are discussed.
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
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