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Clinical epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806866/molecular-screening-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-typing-of-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mcv-from-genital-specimens-between-2012-and-2015
#1
Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Amir Hossein Mohseni, Hossein Keyvani, Narges Ghobadi
Background: The present study is the first comprehensive report of the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in Iran based on the molecular technique for differentiation and typing of the MCV1 and MCV2. Methods: Patients were diagnosed as having tumor-like genital warts less than 5 mm in diameter, and HIV seronegative samples were chosen for this cross-sectional study. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to identify MCV following clinical examination. Typing of the MCV-positive specimens was performed in the SNP A27451G region of MC021L gene...
August 15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#2
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806609/sleep-disturbances-in-young-and-middle-aged-adults-empirical-patterns-and-related-factors-from-an-epidemiological-survey
#3
Wulf Rössler, Vladeta AjdacicGross, Nick Glozier, Stephanie Rodgers, Helene Haker, Mario Müller
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that sleep disorders are highly associated with other mental health problems. However, sleep problems even below the diagnostic threshold of sleep disorders are very common in the general population, which highly affects wellbeing and functioning. In order to broaden the focus beyond those severe cases we explored empirical patterns across the whole spectrum of sleep problems as well as associated clinical and other factors. METHOD: A representative community sample of N=1274 residents from the canton of Zurich was interviewed for sleep problems and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders as well as was given a number of mental health-related psychometrical checklists...
July 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806562/zika-virus-induced-neurological-critical-illness-in-latin-america-severe-guillain-barre-syndrome-and-encephalitis
#4
Sebastián U Ugarte, Angel Ricardo V Arenas, Bruno C Alvarez, Angela Cubides, Angélica F Luna, Max Arroyo-Parejo, Cayri E Acuña, Agamenón V Quintero, Orlando Ch Villareal, Oscar S Pinillos, Elías Vieda, Manuel Bello, Susana Peña, Carmelo Dueñas-Castell, Gloria M V Rodriguez, Jorge L M Ranero, Rosa L M López, Sandra G Olaya, José C Vergara, Ana Tandazo, Juan P S Ospina, Igor M Leyton Soto, R A Fowler, John C Marshall
Zika virus (ZIKAV) is classically described as causing minor symptoms in adult patients, however neurologic complications have been recognized. The recent outbreak in Central and South America has resulted in serious illness in some adult patients. We report adult patients in Latin America diagnosed with ZIKAV infection admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS: Multicenter, prospective case series of adult patients with laboratory diagnosis of ZIKAV in 16 ICUs in 8 countries. RESULTS: Between December 1st 2015 and April 2nd 2016, 16 ICUs in 8 countries enrolled 49 critically ill patients with diagnosis of ZIKAV infection...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806363/clinical-epidemiology-of-single-versus-multiple-substance-use-disorders-polysubstance-use-disorder
#5
Ish P Bhalla, Elina A Stefanovics, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: While research on substance abuse has largely focused on people who have a single substance use disorder (SUD), many people abuse multiple substances. Studies have yet to examine the distinctive characteristics of patients diagnosed with more than 1 SUD and how those with polysubstance use disorder (PSUD) differ from those with a single SUD. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data from fiscal year 2012 were used to compare veterans diagnosed 1 SUD to veterans diagnosed with 2-3, and >3 SUDs on demographic characteristics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, medical and psychiatric service utilization, and psychotropic medication fills...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806283/expanding-the-scope-of-quality-measurement-in-surgery-to-include-non-operative-care-results-from-the-acs-nsqip-emergency-general-surgery-pilot
#6
Michael W Wandling, Clifford Y Ko, Paul E Bankey, Chris Cribari, H Gill Cryer, Jose J Diaz, Therese M Duane, S Morad Hameed, Matthew M Hutter, Michael H Metzler, Justin L Regner, Patrick M Reilly, H David Reines, Jason L Sperry, Kristan L Staudenmayer, Garth H Utter, Marie L Crandall, Karl Y Bilimoria, Avery B Nathens
BACKGROUND: Patients managed non-operatively have been excluded from risk-adjusted benchmarking programs, including the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Consequently, optimal performance evaluation is not possible for specialties like emergency general surgery (EGS) where non-operative management is common. We developed a multi-institutional EGS clinical data registry within ACS NSQIP that includes patients managed non-operatively to evaluate variability in non-operative care across hospitals and identify gaps in performance assessment that occur when only operative cases are considered...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806141/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-saudi-arabia-a-comprehensive-overview
#7
Abuzaid A Abuzaid, Abdalmohsin M Abdoon, Mohamed A Aldahan, Abdullah G Alzahrani, Raaft F Alhakeem, Abdullah M Asiri, Mohamed H Alzahrani, Ziad A Memish
Despite the great efforts by health authorities in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) continues to be a major public health problem in the country. Many risk factors make KSA prone to outbreaks and epidemics; among these, rapid urbanization and the huge population movement are the most important. The disease is endemic in many parts of KSA, with the majority of cases concentrated in six regions, including Al-Qaseem, Riyadh, Al-Hassa, Aseer, Ha'il, and Al-Madinah. Leishmania major (L...
August 14, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805570/swallowing-dysfunctions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Janine A Simons
Dysphagia is a very frequent and highly relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) for quality of life, morbidity, and remaining lifetime, which is unfortunately widely underdiagnosed and underestimated regarding patients' centered care. Especially in early stages, the causal association between disease and swallowing disabilities remains unnoticed, which may be accounted for by the inability of caregivers and physicians to detect subtle swallowing problems and by the low self-awareness among PD patients...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804947/periodontitis-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-population-based-cohort-investigation-in-the-study-of-health-in-pomerania
#9
Aderonke A Akinkugbe, Gary D Slade, A Sidney Barritt, Steven Offenbacher, Astrid Petersmann, Thomas Kocher, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle, Henry Völzke, Gerardo Heiss, Birte Holtfreter
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20-30% of adults with risk factors like obesity and insulin resistance putatively acting through chronic low-grade inflammation. Because periodontitis elicits low-grade inflammation, we hypothesized that it could contribute to NAFLD occurrence. Objective To investigate epidemiologic associations between periodontitis and the incidence of NAFLD among 2,623 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania METHODS: Periodontitis at baseline was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, 1-30%, ≥30%) with 1) clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥3mm; 2) probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4mm...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#10
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803838/current-epidemiology-of-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacilli-in-pediatric-patients-in-turkey
#11
Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu, Mustafa Senol Akin, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Asiye Bicakcigil, Banu Sancak, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms has led to a reemergence in worldwide. This study attempted to investigate the changes in resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to different classes of antibiotics and treatment options in invasive infections. METHODS: We performed this study retrospectively between January 2012 and January 2017 in our tertiary care university hospital. A total of 302 patients with Gram-negative bacterial bacteremia and meningitis were defined...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803775/pulmonary-function-in-patients-with-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#12
Kensuke Uraguchi, Shin Kariya, Seiichiro Makihara, Mitsuhiro Okano, Takenori Haruna, Aiko Oka, Rumi Fujiwara, Yohei Noda, Kazunori Nishizaki
OBJECTIVE: There is a close relationship between upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. Chronic rhinosinusitis patients frequently have lung diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis is considered a refractory and intractable subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, there has been no report on pulmonary function in patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this study is to examine the pulmonary function in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients, and evaluate clinical factors associated with the pulmonary function of these patients...
August 10, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803587/the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-now-the-dominant-cause-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-in-central-australia
#13
E Macmorran, S Harch, E Athan, S Lane, S Tong, L Crawford, S Krishnaswamy, S Hewagama
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803163/-hirschsprung-associated-enterocolitis-observational-study-in-a-paediatric-emergency-care-unit
#14
Margarita Sellers, Clara Udaondo, Bárbara Moreno, Gonzalo Martínez-Alés, Jesús Díez, Leopoldo Martínez, María de Ceano-Vivas
INTRODUCTION: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants with Hirschsprung's disease. The fact that the symptoms are so variable and unspecific leads to a slow or incorrect diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with the diagnosis, as well as to evaluate the subsequent management of children with suspected Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis in a paediatric emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients with Hirschsprung's disease who were seen in a paediatric emergency department between April 2011 and November 2015 due to clinical symptoms compatible with enterocolitis...
August 9, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802941/the-epidemiology-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-cohort-and-other-studies
#15
Elena Katunina, Nataliya Titova
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) were recognized by James Parkinson himself and are now considered to be an integral part of PD. While clinical assessment had focused on prevalence and severity of individual NMS such as dementia and depression, work in the last decade has concentrated on global or holistic assessment of NMS using validated tools such as the NMS questionnaire and NMS scale. These studies from cohorts of varying sizes have allowed comparison of NMS across different disease stages, duration, age, and ethnicity in PD...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802188/risk-of-uterine-cancer-for-brca1-and-brca2-mutation-carriers
#17
Y C Lee, R L Milne, S Lheureux, M Friedlander, S A McLachlan, K L Martin, M Q Bernardini, C Smith, S Picken, S Nesci, J L Hopper, K A Phillips
BACKGROUND: Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a clinically relevant elevated risk of uterine cancer has implications for risk-reducing surgery. AIM: This multicentre, prospective cohort study assessed uterine cancer risk for mutation carriers compared with the general population. METHODS: Eligible mutation carriers were enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) cohort study, had a uterus present and no history of uterine cancer at cohort entry...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801837/blunt-injuries-related-to-equestrian-sports-results-from-an-international-prospective-trauma-database-analysis
#18
Christian D Weber, Anthony R Nguyen, Rolf Lefering, Martijn Hofman, Frank Hildebrand, Hans-Christoph Pape
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the nature, management, and outcome of major injuries related to equestrian sports and to define the at-risk groups for serious and life-threatening injuries. METHODS: We analyzed demographic, pre-hospital, clinical, and outcome data from an international population-based prospective trauma database (TraumaRegister DGU®). Patients with major injuries (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥9 points) related to equestrian sports activities were included (January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2012)...
August 11, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801832/simultaneous-measurement-of-total-estradiol-and-testosterone-in-human-serum-by-isotope-dilution-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Hui Zhou, Yuesong Wang, Matthew Gatcombe, Jacob Farris, Julianne C Botelho, Samuel P Caudill, Hubert W Vesper
Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone-related disorders in patient care and translational research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps...
August 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801716/-plastic-surgery-reconstruction-of-the-adult-buried-penis-option-or-obligation
#20
REVIEW
S Mühlstädt, P Anheuser, N Mohammed, A D Bach
The adult buried penis afflicts the patient with shame and is also potentially associated with considerable urogenital complications. Due to obesity, chronic urogenital lymphedema or subsequent inflammatory urogenital conditions, such as a lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, the clinical appearance of the adult buried penis is extremely variable. Epidemiological data are non-existent. Therapeutically, a combination of various plastic surgery procedures is often necessary for the best esthetic and functional results...
August 11, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
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