Read by QxMD icon Read

Clinical epidemiology

Bengt Zöller, Xinjun Li, Henrik Ohlsson, Jianguang Ji, Ashfaque A Memon, Peter J Svensson, Karolina Palmér, Björn Dahlbäck, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Familial aggregation (clustering) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the clustering of VTE within a family. Though several genes, such as antithrombin, protein C, protein S, factor V, and prothrombin are associated with the familial clustering of VTE, these loci only partially explain the familial aggregation of VTE. The epidemiology of the familial aggregation of VTE exhibits typical characteristics of complex traits. The family history of VTE in first-degree relatives is associated with a two to three times increased familial relative risk (FRR)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
David G Cox, Elsa Curtit, Gilles Romieu, Pierre Fumoleau, Maria Rios, Hervé Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Patrick Soulié, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Thierry Petit, Isabelle Tennevet, David Assouline, Marie-Christine Mathieu, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Ariane Darut-Jouve, Jean-Marc Ferrero, Carole Tarpin, Christelle Lévy, Valérie Delecroix, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Oana Cojocarasu, Jérôme Meunier, Jean-Yves Pierga, Céline Faure-Mercier, Hélène Blanché, Mourad Sahbatou, Anne Boland, Delphine Bacq, Céline Besse, Jean-François Deleuze, Iris Pauporté, Gilles Thomas, Xavier Pivot
Genetic polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk. Clinical and epidemiological observations suggest that clinical characteristics of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor or HER2 status, are also influenced by hereditary factors. To identify genetic variants associated with pathological characteristics of breast cancer patients, a Genome Wide Association Study was performed in a cohort of 9365 women from the French nationwide SIGNAL/PHARE studies (NCT00381901/RECF1098). Strong association between the FGFR2 locus and ER status of breast cancer patients was observed (ER-positive n=6211, ER-negative n=2516; rs3135718 OR=1...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Fumika Mi-Ichi, Hiroki Yoshida, Shinjiro Hamano
Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica infection and can produce a broad range of clinical signs, from asymptomatic cases to patients with obvious symptoms. The current epidemiological and clinical statuses of amebiasis make it a serious public health problem worldwide. The Entamoeba life cycle consists of the trophozoite, the causative agent for amebiasis, and the cyst, the form responsible for transmission. These two stages are connected by "encystation" and "excystation." Hence, developing novel strategies to control encystation and excystation will potentially lead to new measures to block the transmission of amebiasis by interrupting the life cycle of the causative agent...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Rates of acute kidney injury in most settings remain high and in some settings are increasing. Moreover, outcomes associated with acute kidney injury remain relatively poor. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of acute kidney injury and discusses possible interventions based on these advances. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute kidney injury is not a disease with a single etiology and clinical course but rather a loose collection of syndromes whose unifying phenotype is an acute loss of glomerular filtration...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Reza Yazdani, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency. Although more patients with SIgAD are asymptomatic, selected patients suffer from different clinical complications such as pulmonary infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and malignancy. Pathogenesis of SIgAD is still unknown, however, a defective terminal differentiation of B-cells and defect in switching to IgA-producing plasma cells are presumed to be responsible. Furthermore, some cytogenic defects and monogenic mutations are associated with SIgAD...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Timothy Lahey, C Fordham von Reyn
Tuberculosis infects millions of people worldwide and remains a leading global killer despite widespread neonatal administration of the tuberculosis vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG has clear and sustained efficacy, but after 10 years, its efficacy appears to wane, at least in some populations. Fortunately, there are many new tuberculosis vaccines in development today, some in advanced stages of clinical trial testing. Here we review the epidemiological need for tuberculosis vaccination, including evolving standards for administration to at risk individuals in developing countries...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari M Kitahata, Katherine K Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the US. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, in order to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Luba Nalysnyk, Philip Rotella, Jason C Simeone, Alaa Hamed, Neal Weinreb
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were: (1) to heighten awareness of Gaucher disease (GD), a rare lysosomal storage disorder with highly heterogeneous patterns of organ involvement and disease severity, to clinicians most likely to encounter these patients, and; (2) to summarize the published evidence on GD epidemiology which is essential to accurately depict the total societal burden of this rare worldwide disorder. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the published evidence on the epidemiology of GD...
October 20, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
C O'Connor, M G Kiernan, C Finnegan, J Powell, L Power, N H O'Connell, C P Dunne
BACKGROUND: The Mid-West of Ireland has higher than average national rates of invasive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) bloodstream infections and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), with increasing numbers of ESBL isolates detected in community-dwelling patients. AIMS: To conduct a point prevalence study in a convenience sample of the Mid-West population with the aim of determining the extent of ESBL colonisation. METHODS: Utilising anonymised community stool samples that had completed routine analysis, we conducted a point prevalence study over a 4-week period on all samples that met defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 24, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Balaji K Tamarappoo, Allan L Klein
Post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) occurs in a subgroup of patients who have undergone cardiothoracic surgery and is characterized by fever, pleuritic pain, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. It is associated with significant morbidity, and the leading complications include tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. Epidemiologic studies have found that PPS often occurs among younger patients; however, there is a lack of comprehensive risk stratification. It is therefore important to be able to identify patients who are at high risk for developing this disease...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Hamidreza Roohafza, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Hamid Afshar, Zahra Erfani, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Chad S Cox, Summer J Decker, Mark Rolfe, Todd R Hazelton, Carlos A Rojas
Lobar torsion is well documented after pneumonectomy, but is very rare after lung transplant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of lobar torsion after lung transplant. In our case, bronchoscopies and chest radiographs were inconclusive; however, CT scan clearly demonstrated findings consistent with right middle lobe torsion. We review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. We also propose that if a clinical picture could be secondary to torsion and bronchoscopies and chest x ray are inconclusive that a CT scan should be obtained as soon as possible since early recognition increases the likelihood of being able to successfully detorse the lung and avoid lobectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Can Hasdemir
Atrial arrhythmias are being increasingly recognized in inherited arrhythmogenic disorders particularly in patients with Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Atrial arrhythmias in inherited arrhythmogenic disorders have significant epidemiologic, clinical, and prognostic implications. There has been progress in the understanding of underlying genetic characteristics and the mechanistic link between atrial arrhythmias and inherited arrhythmogenic disorders. Appropriate management of these patients is of paramount importance...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
Jianfei Fu, Lunpo Wu, Mengjie Jiang, Dan Li, Ting Jiang, Zhongwu Hong, Fan Wang, Shuguang Li
BACKGROUND: The features related to the prognosis of patients with mucinous breast cancer (MBC) remain controversial. We aimed to explore the prognostic factors of MBC and develop a nomogram for predicting survival outcomes. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched to identify 139611 women with resectable breast cancer from 1990 to 2007. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier methods. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were calculated using the Life-Table method...
2016: PloS One
Paola Catastini, Serena Di Marco, Maria Furriolo, Carmela Genovese, Alessia Grande, Eugenia Iacinti, Rosa Danila Iusco, Rita Maria Vittoria Nobili, Rita Pescini, Roberto Ragni, Roberto Randazzo, Cristiana Risso, Paola Tabarini, Cesare Braggion, Salvatore De Masi, Kathleen S McGreevy
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis, like other chronic diseases, is a risk factor for the development of elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in Italian patients with CF and their parents. METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaires were administered to a sample of patients and their parents recruited at the cystic fibrosis centers in Italy...
October 19, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Samara Ribeiro da Silva, Yara Juliano, Neil Ferreira Novo, Ilan Weinfeld
Objective: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of dental undergraduate students about oral cancer. Methods: The students were divided into two groups according to semester attended in the undergraduate course: Group A, the first semester; and Group B, seventh semester. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about epidemiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, therapeutic solutions and oral self-examination. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test, the Cochran's G test and Kendall's concordance test were used, with significance level set at 0...
July 2016: Einstein
Pedro Nazareth Aguiar, Gustavo Trautman Stock, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Michelle Samora de Almeida, Hakaru Tadokoro, Bárbara de Souza Gutierres, Douglas Antônio Rodrigues
Objective: To assess aspects related to cancer in indigenous population. Methods: This is a retrospective study developed in a public university hospital. We included patients with 18 or more years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors, and followed between 2005 and 2015. Clinical features were assessed by descriptive statistics, and survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression. Results: Fifty patients were included...
July 2016: Einstein
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"