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War time medicine

Peter Anders Christensen
Austere care of the wounded is challenging for all Western medical professionals-nurse, medic, or physician. There can be no doubt that working for the first time, either for a nongovernment organization or in the Special Forces, you will be taking care of wounded patients outside your training and experience. You must have the ability to adapt to and overcome lack of resources and equipment, and accept standards of treatment often very different and lower than that common in western hospitals. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was asked to provide relief for the Pakistan Red Crescent in 1982 and set up the ICRC Hospital for Afghan War Wounded in Peshawar on the border to Afghanistan...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
David Loxterkamp
At the end of the Second World War, the US birth rate peaked at nearly 27 births per 1,000 population-a rate unparalleled in the previous 3 decades, and one that would not be repeated. That Boomer generation is now retiring. How do those of us caught in the wave feel about stepping back? Who will step in to replace us? And how will we replace the loss of purpose and fulfillment that comes from a career in medicine? A lengthening life expectancy has challenged many of us to consider the "second act" to our adult life...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
R Loddenkemper, N Konietzko, V Seehausen
When the National Socialists came to power in 1933, a complete paradigm shift took place in the health policy under the principle "Public interest ahead of self-interest". In the early years there was an intense discussion about whether tuberculosis (TB) is more caused by heredity or by infection. Finally, the arguments of leading TB specialists were accepted that TB is predominantly an infectious disease. In 1939, the year Germany started World War II, TB mortality was at its lowest, with only a few countries having lower rates...
February 2018: Pneumologie
Chun-Yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-Sen Shen, Hai-Jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-Wen Wang, Feng-Lei Zhu, Ru-Xiang Xu
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Ralf Forsbach, Hans-Georg Hofer
Although times were difficult in 1947/48 - with war damage, travel restrictions and the East-West conflict - the German Society for Internal Medicine not only managed to re-organise itself but also hosted its first scientific congress in that year. The DGIM members Franz Volhard and Paul Martini, who rather disapproved of the Nazi regime, played a decisive role in this process. However, a critical discussion of the NS medical crimes, which occurred just a few years ago, remained the exception. It is interesting to note that members who were persecuted by the NS regime were nevertheless willing to attend a congress that obviously provided a forum for the protagonists of the Nazi era...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Christos S S Balta, Alexia P Balanika, Olga J Carapanayiotis, Graeme Hesketh, Markos N Sgantzos
John C. Carapanayiotis was specialized in physical medicine and rehabilitation in the USA in 1948, at a time when the medical world in post-war Greece was ignorant of this specific medical specialty, and the political, economic and social backdrop was incapable of accepting and understanding the wealth of scientific knowledge that he was trying to introduce. At this point it should be noted that the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was established in Greece in 1973. John C. Carapanayiotis was a member of the American Congress of Physical Medicine during the 1950's...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Nadia Benmoussa, Kevin Hansen, Philippe Charlier
INTRODUCTION: Hippocrates, a Greek physician during the fifth century BC., is often considered the father of medicine. The Corpus Hippocraticum comprising of 58 volumes was attributed to him alone for a long time. Nowadays, it is considered that several authors contributed to its creation between 450 and 150 BC., so over a period of 300 years. The objective of our study was to develop a nosological classification of all passages treating head and neck diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We read and analyzed all volumes of the Corpus Hippocraticum in French translation and extracted all passages dealing with oto-rhino-laryngological and maxillo-facial conditions (n = 65)...
January 31, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
André Parent
Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Gijae Seo
The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Borislav Karanfilski
Academician Prof. Dr. Isak Tadzer was born a hundred years ago on December 24, 1916 in Sofia. He completed the primary and secondary education at the German College in Sofia. In 1935 he began his studies at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, which he had to stop because of the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938. He returned to Bulgaria where he continued his studies and graduated from the Medical Faculty in Sofia in 1941. During the War, 1941-1944, he was forcedly mobilized and he worked as a doctor in several villages...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Armin Skrbo, Izet Masic
The Arab cultural heritage was an era of invaluable preservation and development of numerous teachings, including biomedical sciences. The golden period of Arab medicine deserves special attention in the history of medicine and pharmacy, as it was the period of rapid translation of works from Greek and Persian cultures into Arabic. They preserved their culture, and science from decay, and then adopted them to continue building their science on theirs as a basis. After the fall of Arabian Caliphate, Arabian pharmacy, continued to persevere, and spread through Turkish Caliphate until its fall in the First World War...
June 2017: Medical Archives
Jonathan Toms
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND's campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation's origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement...
October 2017: Medical History
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen
OBJECTIVE: The American Psychosomatic Society was founded in 1942 and is celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2017. In recognizing the society's anniversary, this article provides a historical perspective on its history, the field of psychosomatic medicine in general, and anticipated future directions. METHODS: Essay and narrative review of the literature on the historic development of psychosomatic concepts and their impact on medicine over time. RESULTS: Mind-body associations have been described in the medical literature for more than 3500 years...
November 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
G Rahmani, D McNamara
Last year, the centenary of the 1916 Easter rising in Ireland was marked by a commemorative programme organised by the Irish government including both historical and cultural events. The main themes of these events were remembering the past, celebrating Irish achievements and imagining our future. Reviewing the medical literature offers an insight into a century of achievement and change in Irish medicine, captured from the unique perspective of Ireland's oldest medical journal. This manuscript examines papers published during the last 100 years of the Irish Journal of Medical Science, specifically examining the most cited paper from each year...
August 29, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Shubhada Pandya
It is customary to date provision of health services in rural India to the Report of the Bhore Committee (1946) and its descendants. It is presumed that in pre-Bhore India (the last half-century of the British era) the rural public health scenario was devoid of discerning commentators and practical effort. The presumption is misleading. Historical material shows that attempts, official and non-official, to improve rural environments and attend to the health problems of villagers were not wanting. Such efforts followed two main, sometimes intersecting, streams, namely sanitation and medical relief...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
M A Haseeb, Pascal James Imperato
John P. Craig (1923-2016) was an eminent physician-scientist, gifted educator, and greatly valued mentor. Born in West Liberty, Ohio on 29 November 1923, he attended Oberlin College, and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. This was followed by an internship at Yale University Medical Center, and then service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He was a battalion surgeon, preventive medicine officer, and epidemiologist. While in Korea, he conducted important investigations of hemorrhagic fever among American troops...
October 2017: Journal of Community Health
M Goerig, J P A H Jantzen
The life of an outstanding human being, a creative personality, will find the interest of posterity if he is acknowledged not only as a representative of his time but also decades later can be described as a formative character. This applies to Rudolf Frey who, like no other, has deeply influenced the development of German language anesthesiology after the Second World War. In the 1950s and 1960s as a visionary he already portrayed the four pillars of our discipline as the future field of work of anesthetists: anesthesiology, intensive care, emergency medicine and pain therapy...
August 2017: Der Anaesthesist
Xuan-Ming Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Xu Luo, Hai-Tao Guo, Li-Qun Zhang, Ji-Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: Military medicine is a research field that seeks to solve the medical problems that occur in modern war conditions based on public medicine theory. METHODS: We explore the main research topics of military health and medical research in the web of science™ core collection (WoSCC) from 2007 to 2016, and the goal of this work is to serve as a reference for orientation and development in military health and medicine. Based on CiteSpace III, a reference co-citation analysis is performed for 7921 papers published in the WoSCC from 2007 to 2016...
2017: Military Medical Research
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