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War time medicine

Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Poverty is a global problem. The war against poverty requires not only financial support, but also poverty-related research to pinpoint areas of high need of intervention. In line with international efforts to fight poverty and negative consequences, we carried out this study to give a bibliometric overview of medicine-related literature on poverty. Such a s study is an indicator of the extent of interaction of various international key players on the war against poverty-related health problems...
2016: SpringerPlus
Andrzej Wincewicz
Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Garabed Eknoyan
Diseases of the kidney are old, but the discipline dedicated to their study, nephrology, is barely more than 50 years old. As recounted in this recollection of those events, the rudiments of what would become nephrology emerged in the time between the 2 World Wars from basic studies of normal kidney function and flourished after the integration of their methodologies into clinical medicine thereafter. Although shaped by studies of kidney function in the 1960s, it was the subsequent advent of dialysis that fueled the growth of nephrology well into the 21st century...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Navid Ghaffarzadegan, Alireza Ebrahimvandi, Mohammad S Jalali
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer M Sabino, Julia Slater, Ian L Valerio
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Jeongeun Jo
After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
Hirsh Koyi, Gunnar Hillerdal, Olov Andersson, Hans Högberg, Eva Brandén
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, including Sweden. Several studies have shown that socioeconomic status affects the risk, treatment, and survival of LC. Due to immigration after Second World War, foreign-born people constitute 12.5% of the Swedish population. We wanted to investigate if there were any differences in LC management, treatment and survival among the foreign-born Swedes (FBS) compared to the native Swedish population (NatS) in Stockholm...
November 2016: Acta Oncologica
Zipora Shehory-Rubin
In 1938, some 40 Israeli women doctors met in the home of Dr. Hannah Jacob-Peller in Tel-Aviv, to consider the possibility of forming an association of women doctors to represent their interests. They chose Dr. Jacob-Peller as chairwoman, decided that the organization's center would be in Tel-Aviv and that they would hold meetings on socio-professional matters and offer a lecture program. World War II delayed the official creation of the association, only achieved in 1948, when 673 female practitioners were registered...
May 2016: Harefuah
W Keitel, G Wolf
Prof. Dr. med. Kurt Seidel played an outstanding role in the post-war history of rheumatology in eastern Germany. This is documented by the textbook articles and review articles written by him, by the foundation and leadership over many years of the working and research group of rheumatology in Jena, by his role in the formation of the divided society of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and by the preparation of its chronical in 1984. An appreciation of his achievements against the background of the scientific political circumstances prevailing at that time is documented through a dissertation...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Maciej Bilek, Jacek Namieśnik
For a long time, chromatographic techniques and techniques related to them have stimulated the development of new procedures in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. The newly developed methods, characterized by improved metrological parameters, allow for more accurate testing of, among others, the composition of raw materials, intermediates and final products. The chromatographic techniques also enable studies on waste generated in research laboratories and factories producing pharmaceuticals and parapharmaceuticals...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
J M McDonald
This year, 2016, marks the centenary of some of the worst battles of World War I. It is timely to reflect on the experiences of those who lived through those events, and the significant effects on the development of anaesthesia that occurred as a result. War has been a catalyst that has accelerated the development of medicine and surgery throughout history. The challenges of the Western Front, with its massive numbers of injured, saw progress in the understanding and management of trauma and shock, and significant improvement in the provision of anaesthesia and the training of anaesthesia providers...
July 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Y H Sun
Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University)...
January 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Ting Lei, Evgenii Belykh, Alexander B Dru, Kaan Yagmurlu, Ali M Elhadi, Peter Nakaji, Mark C Preul
Chen Jingrun (1933-1996), perhaps the most prodigious mathematician of his time, focused on the field of analytical number theory. His work on Waring's problem, Legendre's conjecture, and Goldbach's conjecture led to progress in analytical number theory in the form of "Chen's Theorem," which he published in 1966 and 1973. His early life was ravaged by the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Cultural Revolution. On the verge of solving Goldbach's conjecture in 1984, Chen was struck by a bicyclist while also bicycling and suffered severe brain trauma...
July 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Sultan Ayoub Meo
To highlight the prevalence and future projections of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The systematic analytic study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from Dec 2014 to April 2015. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including ISI-web of science, PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence". Total 46 peer reviewed papers were selected and examined...
June 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
D Ondruš, J Kaušitz
The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Farooq A Rathore, Saeed B Ayaz, Sahibzada N Mansoor, Ali R Qureshi, Muhammad Fahim
INTRODUCTION : The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. MATERIALS & METHODS : A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan...
2016: Curēus
Mariusz Goniewicz, Krzysztof Goniewicz
The paper discusses the historical perspective - from ancient to modern times - on the evolution of military medicine and its support during the wars and battles as well as its impact on the development of civilian health care and emergency medical services. Indicated breakthroughs related to conducting military operations and pointed to the visionaries who have developed new paradigms of medical care, including programs designed to assess the health status of patients, treatment in the battlefield, medical transport, anesthesia, surgery and emergency procedures...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sharon Gail Cox, Abdus Burahee, Amanda Lucier, Chamara Fernando, Stanley Mugambi Machoki
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections represent one of the challenging problems of modern medicine. Healthcare providers play an important role in the transmission of these infections on their hands, clothing and equipment. Modern security systems require personnel to wear clearly displayed identity (ID) tags, and to have an easily accessible access disc. These access and ID tags are often worn around the neck on a lanyard, and could possibly harbour bacteria and be a vector for cross-infection...
May 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Peter S Spencer, Valerie S Palmer, Glen E Kisby
Pathological changes of the aging brain are expressed in a range of neurodegenerative disorders that will impact increasing numbers of people across the globe. Research on the causes of these disorders has focused almost exclusively on genetics, while strategies for prevention envision drug-induced slowing or arresting disease advance before its clinical appearance. We discuss a strategic shift that seeks to identify the environmental causes or contributions to neurodegeneration, and the vision of primary disease prevention by removing or controlling exposure to culpable agents...
April 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology
François Boller, Daniel Birnbaum
With few exceptions, neurology was nonexistent in the United States until the Civil War years. From 1861 to 1865, the United States saw a bitter armed conflict between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederate States or Confederacy), and during those years, neurology was born in the United States. In 1861, Silas Weir Mitchell, together with George Morehouse and William Keen, opened and operated the first neurological hospital in Philadelphia, with the backing of the Surgeon General William Hammond...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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