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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185969/joseph-buford-pennybacker-cbe-md-frcs-1907-1983-continuing-sir-hugh-cairns-oxford-legacy-and-pioneer-of-the-modern-management-of-cerebral-abscesses
#1
REVIEW
Ravindran Visagan, Harold Ellis
The authors examine the life and contribution of Joseph Buford Pennybacker to British neurosurgery and the modern management of cerebral abscesses. Pennybacker's inspirational journey began with him aspiring to Ephraim McDowell. It saw him cross the Atlantic, learn medicine at Edinburgh, train in neurology at Queen Square in London and learn neurosurgery under Sir Hugh Cairns in Oxford. He navigated a successful career through World War Two and together with Cairns established the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford as a highly esteemed neurosurgical unit...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154920/high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-the-clone-wars
#2
REVIEW
Aleksander Salomon-Perzyński, Magdalena Salomon-Perzyńska, Bogdan Michalski, Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta
BACKGROUND: The last 5 years' studies using next-generation sequencing provided evidences that many types of solid tumors present spatial and temporal genetic heterogeneity and are composed of multiple populations of genetically distinct subclones that evolve over time following a pattern of branched evolution. The evolutionary nature of cancer has been proposed as the major contributor to drug resistance and treatment failure. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge about the clonal evolution of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and discuss the challenge that clonal evolution poses for efforts to achieve an optimal cancer control...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123275/role-of-forensic-odontology-in-the-indian-armed-forces-an-unexplored-arena
#3
REVIEW
Karandeep Singh Arora, Prabhpreet Kaur
Forensic odontology (FO) is a branch of forensic medicine that in the interest of justice deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence. Teeth can survive in most conditions encountered at death and during decomposition, even when the body is exposed to extreme forces and/or temperatures. FO is being practiced worldwide since 1775, after which it has not only become an integral part of the judicial system of the developed countries but also been adopted by the armed forces and investigative agencies of these countries...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103999/-a-research-on-confucian-scholar-practicing-medicine-at-the-turn-of-the-jin-and-yuan-dynasties
#4
Y Q Li
After the rising of the Yuan Dynasty by defeating the Jin and Southern Song Dynasties, there were huge influences on the life of the Confucian scholars. A large number of Confucian scholar practiced medicine actively or passively. They practiced medicine in order to live safely in war time; or turned into the officials, with only a few of them even became senior officials. Some Confucian scholars changed their household registration by using the medical profession, and improved the identity and status in the society...
September 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103979/-foreign-firms-and-dissemination-of-western-medicine-in-china-before-the-opium-war
#5
L P He, L Wang
From the beginning of the 19th century to the Opium War, by taking the advantages of free entering and departing China, and to protect themselves, the foreign firms introduced vaccination technique into China. This is the beginning of the introduction of western medicine to China. After 1807, following the arrival of protestant missionaries, foreign firms became the stronghold for the missionaries to conceal their missionary status so as to propagate the principles of Christianity. With the aid of the business firms employee's legal identity, the missionaries started their activities of delivering western medicines and practices...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090336/medical-feminism-working-mothers-and-the-limits-of-home-finding-a-balance-between-self-care-and-other-care-in-cross-cultural-debates-about-health-and-lifestyle-1952-1956
#6
Frederick Cooper
Post-war medical debates about the psychiatric consequences of married women's economic behaviour witnessed far more divergence and collision between perspectives than has often been acknowledged. Practitioners who approached women primarily as facilitators of family health-as wives and mothers-were mistrustful of the competing demands presented by paid employment. They were faced by a growing spectrum of opinion, however, which represented women as atrophying in the confines of domestic life, and which positioned work as a therapeutic act...
July 12, 2016: Palgrave Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071601/applications-of-nuclear-physics
#7
A C Hayes
Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion...
February 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060984/-saints-in-medicine-during-the-great-wars-of-the-twentieth-century
#8
María Agustina Martini, Bárbara C Finn, Julio E Bruetman, Pablo Young
In the political and social context of World War periods and unstoppable technological advances, health professionals in the early twentieth century tried to orientate the practice of medicine towards a modern anthropological concept close to the biomedical perspective, which defends the dignity of a person. Threatened by the risks represented by collectivism and the meanness of the prevailing repressive governments, a personal struggle for the defense of life aroused, which was socially expressed by the advent of bioethics, psychoanalytic theories and the concept that environment has an important role in people’s health and welfare...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042342/the-landscape-of-clinical-trials-evaluating-the-theranostic-role-of-pet-imaging-in-oncology-insights-from-an-analysis-of-clinicaltrials-gov-database
#9
Yu-Pei Chen, Jia-Wei Lv, Xu Liu, Yuan Zhang, Ying Guo, Ai-Hua Lin, Ying Sun, Yan-Ping Mao, Jun Ma
In the war on cancer marked by personalized medicine, positron emission tomography (PET)-based theranostic strategy is playing an increasingly important role. Well-designed clinical trials are of great significance for validating the PET applications and ensuring evidence-based cancer care. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive landscape of the characteristics of PET clinical trials using the substantial resource of ClinicalTrials.gov database. We identified 25,599 oncology trials registered with ClinicalTrials...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027163/the-business-of-health-physics-jobs-in-a-changing-market
#10
Matthew P Moeller
The health physics profession was born abruptly when once rare and precious radioactive materials became commonplace. The technological advancements that triggered an industrial complex and ended World War II demanded radiation safety on an unprecedented scale. Until then, protective measures against radiation were largely absent in laboratories. Over the subsequent decades, health physicists began protecting people and the environment in a wide range of settings including medical, research, and industrial...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843745/bibliometric-analysis-of-medicine-related-publications-on-poverty-2005-2015
#11
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Poverty is a global problem. The war against poverty requires not only financial support, but also poverty-related research to pinpoint areas of high need of intervention. In line with international efforts to fight poverty and negative consequences, we carried out this study to give a bibliometric overview of medicine-related literature on poverty. Such a s study is an indicator of the extent of interaction of various international key players on the war against poverty-related health problems...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833990/pro-memoria-professor-boles%C3%A5-aw-ja%C3%A5-owy-1906-1943-mortui-viventes-obligant-the-livings-are-obligated-to-the-dead
#12
Andrzej Wincewicz
Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751612/nephrology-as-it-was-then-but-is-not-now
#13
Garabed Eknoyan
Diseases of the kidney are old, but the discipline dedicated to their study, nephrology, is barely more than 50 years old. As recounted in this recollection of those events, the rudiments of what would become nephrology emerged in the time between the 2 World Wars from basic studies of normal kidney function and flourished after the integration of their methodologies into clinical medicine thereafter. Although shaped by studies of kidney function in the 1960s, it was the subsequent advent of dialysis that fueled the growth of nephrology well into the 21st century...
January 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716776/a-dynamic-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-for-military-personnel-and-veterans
#14
Navid Ghaffarzadegan, Alireza Ebrahimvandi, Mohammad S Jalali
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679751/plastic-surgery-challenges-in-war-wounded-i-flap-based-extremity-reconstruction
#15
Jennifer M Sabino, Julia Slater, Ian L Valerio
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679469/cooperation-and-conflict-faction-problem-of-western-medicine-group-in-modern-china
#16
Jeongeun Jo
After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556916/lung-cancer-among-native-and-foreign-born-swedes-histopathology-treatment-and-survival
#17
Hirsh Koyi, Gunnar Hillerdal, Olov Andersson, Hans Högberg, Eva Brandén
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, including Sweden. Several studies have shown that socioeconomic status affects the risk, treatment, and survival of LC. Due to immigration after Second World War, foreign-born people constitute 12.5% of the Swedish population. We wanted to investigate if there were any differences in LC management, treatment and survival among the foreign-born Swedes (FBS) compared to the native Swedish population (NatS) in Stockholm...
November 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526564/-fighters-against-the-exclusion-of-women-in-medicine-the-israeli-organization-of-women-doctors-and-its-chairwoman-dr-shoshana-szkop-frankel
#18
Zipora Shehory-Rubin
In 1938, some 40 Israeli women doctors met in the home of Dr. Hannah Jacob-Peller in Tel-Aviv, to consider the possibility of forming an association of women doctors to represent their interests. They chose Dr. Jacob-Peller as chairwoman, decided that the organization's center would be in Tel-Aviv and that they would hold meetings on socio-professional matters and offer a lecture program. World War II delayed the official creation of the association, only achieved in 1948, when 673 female practitioners were registered...
May 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488445/-kurt-seidel-1914-1990-between-medicine-and-politics
#19
W Keitel, G Wolf
Prof. Dr. med. Kurt Seidel played an outstanding role in the post-war history of rheumatology in eastern Germany. This is documented by the textbook articles and review articles written by him, by the foundation and leadership over many years of the working and research group of rheumatology in Jena, by his role in the formation of the divided society of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and by the preparation of its chronical in 1984. An appreciation of his achievements against the background of the scientific political circumstances prevailing at that time is documented through a dissertation...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476277/chromatographic-techniques-in-pharmaceutical-analysis-in-poiand-history-and-the-presence-on-the-basis-of-papers-published-in-selected-polish-pharmaceutical-journals-in-xx-century
#20
Maciej Bilek, Jacek Namieśnik
For a long time, chromatographic techniques and techniques related to them have stimulated the development of new procedures in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. The newly developed methods, characterized by improved metrological parameters, allow for more accurate testing of, among others, the composition of raw materials, intermediates and final products. The chromatographic techniques also enable studies on waste generated in research laboratories and factories producing pharmaceuticals and parapharmaceuticals...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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