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Minimal pairs

T W Pike, F Mushtaq, R P Mann, P Chambers, G Hall, J E Tomlinson, R Mir, R M Wilkie, M Mon-Williams, J P A Lodge
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest that the way in which surgeons prepare for a procedure (warm up) can affect performance. Operating lists present a natural experiment to explore this phenomenon. The aim was to use a routinely collected large data set on surgical procedures to understand the relationship between case list order and operative performance. METHOD: Theatre lists involving the 35 procedures performed most frequently by senior surgeons across 38 private hospitals in the UK over 26 months were examined...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Weiwei Zhao, Mingda Li, Cui-Zu Chang, Jue Jiang, Lijun Wu, Chaoxing Liu, Jagadeesh S Moodera, Yimei Zhu, Moses H W Chan
The exact mechanism responsible for the significant enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature ( T c ) of monolayer iron selenide (FeSe) films on SrTiO3 (STO) over that of bulk FeSe is an open issue. We present the results of a coordinated study of electrical transport, low temperature electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) measurements on FeSe/STO films of different thicknesses. HAADF-STEM imaging together with EELS mapping across the FeSe/STO interface shows direct evidence of electrons transferred from STO to the FeSe layer...
March 2018: Science Advances
Xuanyan Jia, Jianyun Yao, Zengqiang Gao, Guangfeng Liu, Yuhui Dong, Xiaoxue Wang, Heng Zhang
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacteria are small genetic modules that regulate various cellular activities, including cell growth and death. The two-gene module encoding a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) domain and a cognate MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferase) domain has been predicted to represent a novel type II TA system prevalent in archaea and bacteria. However, the neutralization mechanism and cellular targets of the TA family remain unclear. The toxin SO_3166 having a HEPN domain and its cognate antitoxin SO_3165 with an MNT domain constitute a typical type II TA system that regulates cell motility and confers plasmid stability in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS)...
March 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jo Frost, Fiona Robinson, Judi Hibberd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysphagia in adults arises from a range of causes including acquired neurological disorders and some cancers. Previous research has suggested that treatment using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) when used in conjunction with conventional therapy is effective. This review describes the recent literature and a small prospective case series carried out in the United Kingdom. This study contributed to support National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance for clinicians who wish to include NMES in a rehabilitation programme for dysphagic patients, specifically with reference to safety and the impact on swallowing function of this intervention...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are frequently used to assess corticospinal and intercortical activities. Trial to trial variance of the potentials is commonly observed, and averages of multiple MEPs are usually reported. Multiple trials have resources implications and are not compatible with some experimental protocols. This study investigated the minimum number of MEPs required to reliably assess corticospinal excitability (CSE), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intercortical facilitation (ICF), within and between sessions...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Konstadinos Plestis, Oleg Orlov, Vishal N Shah, Joshua Wong, Matthew Thomas, Alon Aharon, Cinthia Orlov, Georgia Panagopoulos, Scott Goldman
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) can be technically demanding and may lead to prolonged operative time. We evaluated the intraoperative and postoperative patient outcomes following implementation of 2 facilitating technologies (FT) in MIAVR: the Cor-Knot titanium fastener and Custodiol-histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution. METHODS: A total of 299 patients underwent MIAVR from 2008 to 2016; 172 (57.5%) patients were included in the FT group and 127 (42...
March 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Frederic Strobl, Anita Anderl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Diploid transgenic organisms are either hemi- or homozygous. Genetic assays are, therefore, required to identify the genotype. Our AGameOfClones vector concept uses two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs. Cre-mediated recombination leads to hemizygous individuals that carry only one marker. In the following generation, heterozygous descendants are identified by the presence of both markers and produce homozygous progeny that are selected by the lack of one marker...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Jian Liu, Fuzhong Ouyang, Zhihao Zhao, Ruifang Gao, Rui Shi, Enhui Wu, Rui Lv, Guoqiang Xu
A dual maleimides (DuMal) tagging method has been developed for both relative and absolute quantitation of cysteine-containing peptides (CCPs) in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We choose a pair of maleimides with the minimal difference in their chemical structures, including N-Methylmaleimide (NMM) and N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM), which allow for tagging CCPs in the Michael Addition reaction with a high efficiency rapidly (~minutes). We have validated that the DuMal Tagging technique is sensitive and reliable in quantitative analysis of CCPs...
March 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Erik Summerside, Reza Shadmehr, Alaa A Ahmed
Making a movement may be thought of as an economic decision in which one spends effort in order to acquire reward. Time discounts reward, which predicts that the magnitude of reward should affect movement vigor: we should move faster, spending greater effort, when there is greater reward at stake. Indeed, saccade peak velocities are greater and reaction-times are shorter when a target is paired with reward. Here, we focused on human reaching and asked whether movement kinematics were affected by expectation of reward...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jin Ho Choi, Sang Hyub Lee, Young Hoon Choi, Jinwoo Kang, Woo Hyun Paik, Dong-Won Ahn, Ji Kon Ryu, Yong-Tae Kim
Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation (EUS-EA) is a recently introduced treatment for pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). However, clinical benefits such as survival gain and maintenance of quality of life (QOL) have not been fully established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of EUS-EA compared with the natural course (NC) of PCLs. Methods: This retrospective comparative study of patients with PCLs investigated an EUS-EA group ( n = 118) and an NC group ( n = 428)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Yi-Tzu Chang, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chieh Huang, Wan-Yu Shih, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ping-Yi Wu, Ling-Fu Meng, Chen-Chi Chen, Ching-I Wang
BACKGROUND: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence. METHODS: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools...
March 13, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Ryan R Birks, Michael P Kowaleski
OBJECTIVES:  The purpose of this study is to compare the load at failure and mode of failure between (1) tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and combined TPLO and tibial tuberosity transposition (TPLO-TTT) (Phase I) and (2) TPLO-TTT and tibial tuberosity transposition (TTT) (Phase II). METHODS:  Seven pairs of cadaveric tibiae were tested in each of the Phase I (TPLO vs. TPLO-TTT) and Phase II (TPLO-TTT vs. TTT) experiments. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to one of two groups for each experimental phase...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Britta Eklund, Burkard Watermann
A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as μg metal/cm2 . Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dulce B Vargas-Landin, Jahnvi Pflüger, Ryan Lister
Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) enables the detection of DNA methylation at single base-pair resolution. The treatment of DNA with sodium bisulfite allows the discrimination of methylated and unmethylated cytosines, but the power of this technology can be limited by the input amounts of DNA and the length of DNA fragments due to DNA damage caused by the desulfonation process. Here, we describe a WGBS library preparation protocol that minimizes the loss and damage of DNA, generating high quality libraries amplified with fewer PCR cycles, and hence data with fewer PCR duplicates, from lower amounts of input material...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jong Min Park, So-Yeon Park, Hong-Gyun Wu, Jung-In Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in quality of the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with couch-shift between arcs by half of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf width. METHODS: A total of 22 patients with head-and-neck cancer were retrospectively selected. Since the smallest MLC leaf width was 5 mm in this study, the couch was shifted by 2.5 mm in the longitudinal-direction between arcs to increase the resolution of fluence map. A total of three types of VMAT plans were generated for each patient; the three types of plans were a two-full-arc plan without couch-shift (NS plan), a two-half-arc-pair plan with couch-shift (HAS plan), and a two-full-arc pair plan with couch-shift (FAS plan)...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Shaunak Kar, Andrew D Ellington
T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) is one of the preferred workhorses for recombinant gene expression, owing in part to its high transcriptional activity and the fact that it has a small (17 base-pair), easily manipulated promoter. Furthermore, the fact that T7 RNAP is largely orthogonal to most hosts enables its use in a wide variety of contexts. However, the high activity of the enzyme also often leads to an increased fitness burden on the host, limiting the predictability of its interactions with and impact on physiology, and potentially leading to mutations to constructs...
March 5, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Sherine Presley, Susan X Day
As a heterogeneous population, Asian Americans are typically studied as homogenous, as opposed to making distinctions among nationalities and first languages. The current study examined whether ethnic/language match and mismatch among 150 Asian client/counselor pairs predicted successful completion of counseling and number of treatment sessions while controlling for counseling dropout and retention predictors such as socioeconomic status and acculturation. The participant data were obtained from a deidentified database of clients and counselors at a community mental health center for Asian Americans in the Southwest region of the United States...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Services
Azam Qureshi, Haoxing Chen, Osamah Saeedi, Mona A Kaleem, Gianna Stoleru, Jordan Margo, Sachin Kalarn, Janet L Alexander
PURPOSE: In this novel study, we demonstrate a standardized imaging and measurement protocol of anterior segment (AS) structures with reliability analysis using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and ImageJ software. METHODS: Ten pediatric and young adult patients undergoing examination under anesthesia for AS pathology were imaged using UBM. Four trained observers analyzed 20 images using ImageJ. Forty-five structural parameters were measured. Those that relied on the trabecular-iris angle (TIA) as a reference landmark were labeled TIA-dependent (TD) and all others were labeled non-TIA dependent (NTD)...
March 7, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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