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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910600/development-of-a-neural-network-technique-for-kstar-thomson-scattering-diagnostics
#1
Seung Hun Lee, J H Lee, I Yamada, Jae Sun Park
Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ(2) method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ(2) method...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909262/overcoming-the-limits-of-evidence-on-effective-multisectoral-nutrition-policy
#2
Madhu Kumar Marasini, Ssansa Mugenyi
The multisectoral approach has evolved as a popular instrument to attain nutrition goals and targets. But as policy makers, we need timely, relevant, and accurate information in order to effectively support these plans. This commentary comes from the members of the nutrition secretariats at the National Planning Commission in Nepal and the Office of the Prime Minister in Uganda on availability and use of evidence and the nutrition policy cycle. As has been highlighted in this supplement, some of the challenges we have faced include tracking nutrition spending and limited human resource capacity...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909030/the-college-science-learning-cycle-an-instructional-model-for-reformed-teaching
#3
Michelle Withers
Finding the time for developing or locating new class materials is one of the biggest barriers for instructors reforming their teaching approaches. Even instructors who have taken part in training workshops may feel overwhelmed by the task of transforming passive lecture content to engaging learning activities. Learning cycles have been instrumental in helping K-12 science teachers design effective instruction for decades. This paper introduces the College Science Learning Cycle adapted from the popular Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 5E to help science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty develop course materials to support active, student-centered teaching approaches in their classrooms...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#4
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908159/a-preclinical-microbeam-facility-with-a-conventional-x-ray-tube
#5
Stefan Bartzsch, Craig Cummings, Stephan Eismann, Uwe Oelfke
PURPOSE: Microbeam radiation therapy is an innovative treatment approach in radiation therapy that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide and a few hundreds of micrometer spaced planar x-ray beams as treatment fields. In preclinical studies these fields efficiently eradicated tumors while normal tissue could effectively be spared. However, development and clinical application of microbeam radiation therapy is impeded by a lack of suitable small scale sources. Until now, only large synchrotrons provide appropriate beam properties for the production of microbeams...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907897/cost-effectiveness-of-embryo-transfer-strategies-a-decision-analytic-model-using-long-term-costs-and-consequences-of-singletons-and-multiples-born-as-a-consequence-of-ivf
#6
M M J van Heesch, A D I van Asselt, J L H Evers, M A H B M van der Hoeven, J C M Dumoulin, C E M van Beijsterveldt, G J Bonsel, R H M Dykgraaf, J B van Goudoever, C Koopman-Esseboom, W L D M Nelen, K Steiner, P Tamminga, N Tonch, H L Torrance, C D Dirksen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the cost-effectiveness of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) versus double embryo transfer (DET) strategies from a societal perspective, when applying a time horizon of 1, 5 and 18 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: From a short-term perspective (1 year) it is cost-effective to replace DET with single embryo transfer; however when intermediate- (5 years) and long-term (18 years) costs and consequences are incorporated, DET becomes the most cost-effective strategy, given a ceiling ratio of €20 000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906748/evolving-therapies-for-hepatitis-c-virus-in-chronic-kidney-disease-the-beginning-of-a-new-era
#7
Craig E Gordon, Claudia Nader
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection using new classes of agents, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), with a focus on the evidence for their use in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4-5, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: DAA agents target-specific proteins involved in the hepatitis C virus life cycle and interrupt viral replication. Sustained virologic response, a marker of viral eradication, occurs in more than 90% of patients treated with DAA agents in the general population...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906681/sirna-mediated-suppression-of-collagen-type-iv-alpha-2-col4a2-mrna-inhibits-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#8
He Jing Song, Guan Hong, Jianbo Yang, Zheng Duo, Fu Li, Chen Wei Cai, Luo Xue Ying, Mao You Sheng, Ou Yang YiWen, Pan Yue, Chang Zou
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more aggressive than other breast cancer subtypes. Collagen type IV alpha 2 (COL4A2), a major component of the basement membrane, dynamically influences a wide range of biological processes, including cancer pathogenesis and progression. This study evaluated the effects of COL4A2 siRNA delivered by lentiviral vector to TNBC cells. COL4A2 siRNA lenti-viral vector was constructed and transfected into MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The COL4A2 mRNA levels were quantified by RT-PCR...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906655/methodology-considerations-in-phase-mapping-of-human-cardiac-arrhythmias
#9
Ramya Vijayakumar, Sunil K Vasireddi, Phillip S Cuculich, Mitchell N Faddis, Yoram Rudy
BACKGROUND: Phase analysis of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, has gained interest because of the ability to detect organized stable drivers (rotors) and target them for therapy. However, the lack of methodology details in publications on the topic has resulted in ongoing debate over the phase mapping technique. By comparing phase maps and activation maps, we examined advantages and limitations of phase mapping. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven subjects were enrolled...
November 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906189/distinct-outcomes-of-crl-nedd8-pathway-inhibition-reveal-cancer-cell-plasticity
#10
Anastasia V Rulina, Frédérique Mittler, Patricia Obeid, Sophie Gerbaud, Laurent Guyon, Eric Sulpice, Frédérique Kermarrec, Nicole Assard, Monika E Dolega, Xavier Gidrol, Maxim Y Balakirev
Inhibition of protein degradation by blocking Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) is a new approach in cancer therapy though of unknown risk because CRL inhibition may stabilize both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. Probing CRLs in prostate cancer cells revealed a remarkable plasticity of cells with TMPRSS2-ERG translocation. CRL suppression by chemical inhibition or knockdown of RING component RBX1 led to reversible G0/G1 cell cycle arrest that prevented cell apoptosis. Conversely, complete blocking of CRLs at a higher inhibitor dose-induced cytotoxicity that was amplified by knockdown of CRL regulator Cand1...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906159/persistent-microbiome-alterations-modulate-the-rate-of-post-dieting-weight-regain
#11
Christoph A Thaiss, Shlomik Itav, Daphna Rothschild, Mariska Meijer, Maayan Levy, Claudia Moresi, Lenka Dohnalová, Sofia Braverman, Shachar Rozin, Sergey Malitsky, Mally Dori-Bachash, Yael Kuperman, Inbal Biton, Arieh Gertler, Alon Harmelin, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Asaph Aharoni, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
In tackling the obesity pandemic, significant efforts are devoted to the development of effective weight reduction strategies, yet many dieting individuals fail to maintain a long-term weight reduction, and instead undergo excessive weight regain cycles. The mechanisms driving recurrent post-dieting obesity remain largely elusive. Here, we identify an intestinal microbiome signature that persists after successful dieting of obese mice, which contributes to faster weight regain and metabolic aberrations upon re-exposure to obesity-promoting conditions and transmits the accelerated weight regain phenotype upon inter-animal transfer...
November 24, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904478/neuro-rejuvenation-for-neuronal-function
#12
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Richard K Lee
Neurodegenerative eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cause irreversible vision loss in millions of patients worldwide, creating serious medical, economic and social issues. Like other mammalian central nervous system tracts, optic nerve intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal growth and its surrounding environment is also non-permissive to regeneration. Any axonal damage also triggers a vicious cycle of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Exploring methods that can enhance RGCs survival and promote axonal regeneration will not only enable vision restoration for millions of patients, but also shed light on the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904401/comparison-of-cultivable-acetic-acid-bacterial-microbiota-in-organic-and-conventional-apple-cider-vinegar
#13
Aleksandra Štornik, Barbara Skok, Janja Trček
Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903282/start-now-a-comprehensive-skills-training-programme-for-female-adolescents-with-oppositional-defiant-and-conduct-disorders-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Linda Kersten, Martin Prätzlich, Sandra Mannstadt, Katharina Ackermann, Gregor Kohls, Helena Oldenhof, Daniel Saure, Katrin Krieger, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Arne Popma, Christine M Freitag, Robert L Trestman, Christina Stadler
BACKGROUND: In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands...
December 1, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903128/postoperative-outcome-of-body-core-temperature-rhythm-and-sleep-wake-cycle-in-third-ventricle-craniopharyngiomas
#15
Matteo Zoli, Luisa Sambati, Laura Milanese, Matteo Foschi, Marco Faustini-Fustini, Gianluca Marucci, Dario de Biase, Giovanni Tallini, Annagrazia Cecere, Francesco Mignani, Carmelo Sturiale, Giorgio Frank, Ernesto Pasquini, Pietro Cortelli, Diego Mazzatenta, Federica Provini
OBJECTIVE One of the more serious risks in the treatment of third ventricle craniopharyngiomas is represented by hypothalamic damage. Recently, many papers have reported the expansion of the indications for the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to be used for these tumors as well. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of sleep-wake cycle and body core temperature (BCT), both depending on hypothalamic control, in patients affected by craniopharyngiomas involving the third ventricle that were surgically treated via an EEA...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902743/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-spirulina-platensis-in-response-to-low-temperature-stress
#16
Qingye Li, Rong Chang, Yijun Sun, Bosheng Li
Low temperature (LT) is one of the most important abiotic stresses that can significantly reduce crop yield. To gain insight into how Spirulina responds to LT stress, comprehensive physiological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Significant decreases in growth and pigment levels as well as excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes were observed in response to LT stress. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify changes in protein abundance in Spirulina under LT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900923/-the-infection-risk-scan-in-clinical-practice-improving-infection-prevention-and-antibiotic-use-through-transparency
#17
I Willemsen, J A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVE: The increase in Highly Resistant Micro-Organisms (HRMO) in hospitals and nursing homes requires an intensification of infection prevention measures. This paper describes a new, standardised approach to infection prevention and monitoring of antibiotic use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. METHOD: The Infection RIsk Scan (IRIS) measures a number of objectifiable variables in the field of infection prevention, including the dissemination of HRMO, the use of antibiotics and indwelling medical devices, environmental contamination, hand hygiene and personal hygiene of healthcare workers, and various infection control preconditions...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899966/analysis-of-the-molecular-mechanism-of-osteosarcoma-using-a-bioinformatics-approach
#18
Jianxun Yang, Ning Wang
The aim of this study was to explore the underlying molecular mechanism related to the process and progression of osteosarcoma (OS). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The pathway and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, as well as transcription factor, tumor-associated gene and tumor suppressor gene analyses were performed to investigate the functions of DEGs. Next, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and module analysis was further assessed by cluster analysis with the overlapping neighborhood expansion (Cluster ONE) cytoscape plug-in...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899794/the-impact-of-digital-technology-on-health-of-populations-affected-by-humanitarian-crises-recent-innovations-and-current-gaps
#19
Sandra Mesmar, Reem Talhouk, Chaza Akik, Patrick Olivier, Imad H Elhajj, Shady Elbassuoni, Sarah Armoush, Joumana Kalot, Madeline Balaam, Aline Germani, Hala Ghattas
Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899542/pulse-oximetry-beyond-spo2
#20
Dean R Hess
Newer pulse oximetry technology is available that uses multiple wavelengths of light and is thereby able to measure more than 2 forms of hemoglobin, including carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO), methemoglobin (SpMet), and total hemoglobin (SpHb). Several studies have shown relatively low bias, but poor precision, for SpCO compared with HbCO. Evaluations of SpMet have been conducted primarily in normal subjects. Clinical evaluations of SpHb suggest that it might not yet be accurate enough to make transfusion decisions...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
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