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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535588/pedogenic-knowledge-aided-modelling-of-soil-inorganic-carbon-stocks-in-an-alpine-environment
#1
Ren-Min Yang, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Lai-Ming Huang, Feng Liu, Jin-Ling Yang, Yu-Guo Zhao, De-Cheng Li, Gan-Lin Zhang
Accurate estimation of soil carbon is essential for accounting carbon cycling on the background of global environment change. However, previous studies made little contribution to the patterns and stocks of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in large scales. In this study, we defined the structure of the soil depth function to fit vertical distribution of SIC based on pedogenic knowledge across various landscapes. Soil depth functions were constructed from a dataset of 99 soil profiles in the alpine area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535395/a-zinc-chloride-doped-adhesive-facilitates-sealing-at-the-dentin-interface-a-confocal-laser-microscopy-study
#2
Manuel Toledano, Raquel Osorio, Estrella Osorio, Inmaculada Cabello, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Fátima S Aguilera
The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of Zn-doping of dental adhesives and mechanical load cycling on the micromorphology of the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone (of sound and caries affected dentin). The investigation considered two different Zn-doped adhesive approaches and evaluated the interface using a doubled dye fluorescent technique and a calcium chelator fluorophore under a confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sound and carious dentin-resin interfaces of unloaded specimens were deficiently resin-hybridized, in general...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534792/neural-ailc-for-error-tracking-against-arbitrary-initial-shifts
#3
Mingxuan Sun, Tao Wu, Lejian Chen, Guofeng Zhang
This paper concerns with the adaptive iterative learning control using neural networks for systems performing repetitive tasks over a finite time interval. Two standing issues of such iterative learning control processes are addressed: one is the initial condition problem and the other is that related to the approximation error. Instead of the state tracking, an error tracking approach is proposed to tackle the problem arising from arbitrary initial shifts. The desired error trajectory is prespecified at the design stage, suitable to different tracking tasks...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534615/origins-of-water-molecules-in-the-photosystem-ii-crystal-structure
#4
Naoki Sakashita, Hiroshi C Watanabe, Takuya Ikeda, Keisuke Saito, Hiroshi Ishikita
The cyanobacterial photosystem II (PSII) crystal structure includes more than 1300 water molecules in each monomer unit; however, their precise roles in water oxidation are unclear. To understand the origins of water molecules in the PSII crystal structure, the accessibility of bulk water molecules to channel inner spaces in PSII was investigated using the water-removed PSII structure and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The inner space of the channel that proceeds toward the D1-Glu65/D2-Glu312 pair (E65/E312 channel) was entirely filled with water molecules from the bulk region...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534408/modulation-of-the-conformational-dynamics-of-apo-adenylate-kinase-through-a-%C3%AF-cation-interaction
#5
Ritaban Halder, Rabindra Nath Manna, Sandipan Chakraborty, Biman Jana
Large scale conformational transition from open to closed state of adenylate kinase (ADK) is essential for its catalytic cycle. Apo-ADK undergoes conformational transition in such a way that closely resembles open to closed conformational transition. Here, equilibrium simulations, free energy simulations, QM/MM calculations in combination with several bioinformatics approaches have been used to explore the molecular origin of this conformational transition in apo-ADK. Apart from its conventional open state, E...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534393/simple-approach-to-high-performance-stretchable-heaters-based-on-kirigami-patterning-of-conductive-paper-for-wearable-thermotherapy-applications
#6
Nam-Su Jang, Kang-Hyun Kim, Sung-Hun Ha, Soo-Ho Jung, Hye Moon Lee, Jong-Man Kim
Recent efforts to develop stretchable resistive heaters open up the possibility for their use in wearable thermotherapy applications. Such heaters should have high electrothermal performance and stability to be used practically, and the fabrication must be simple, economic, reproducible, and scalable. Here we present a simple yet highly efficient way of producing high-performance stretchable heaters, which is based on a facile kirigami pattering (the art of cutting and folding paper) of a highly conductive paper for practical wearable thermotherapy...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533367/data-driven-modeling-reveals-cell-behaviors-controlling-self-organization-during-myxococcus-xanthus-development
#7
Christopher R Cotter, Heinz-Bernd Schüttler, Oleg A Igoshin, Lawrence J Shimkets
Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated multicellular behavior. Known for its social developmental cycle, the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses coordinated movement to generate three-dimensional aggregates called fruiting bodies...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533365/prediction-of-disease-activity-in-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-p-selectin
#8
Antoine Philippe Fournier, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Maxime Gauberti, Gilles Defer, Denis Vivien, Fabian Docagne, Richard Macrez
New strategies for detecting disease activity in multiple sclerosis are being investigated to ameliorate diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Today, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to diagnose and monitor multiple sclerosis, no imaging tools exist to predict the evolution of disease and the efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that molecular MRI targeting the endothelial adhesion molecule P-selectin unmasks the pathological events that take place in the spinal cord of mice subjected to chronic or relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532544/-progress-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-combined-with-surgery-in-non-small-cell%C3%A2-lung-cancer
#9
Yaqi Wang, Xing Wang, Shi Yan, Yue Yang, Nan Wu
Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading form of cancer in terms of both incidence and cancer-related deaths. For patients with resectable IIIa/N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), guidelines in and abroad recommend multidisciplinary team treatment, including surgery and chemotherapy, radiotherapy or other comprehensive treatment. Newly published evidences prove that neoadjuvant therapy can improve outcomes of NSCLC patients significantly, with advangtages in tolerability and compliance medication...
May 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#10
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531964/non-electron-transfer-chain-mitochondrial-defects-differently-regulate-hif-1%C3%AE-degradation-and-transcription
#11
Antonina N Shvetsova, Daniela Mennerich, Juha M Kerätär, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Thomas Kietzmann
Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α). While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#12
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530823/nanomechanically-visualizing-drug-cell-interaction-at-the-early-stage-of-chemotherapy
#13
Yun-Long Wu, Wilfried Engl, Benhui Hu, Pingqiang Cai, Wan Ru Leow, Nguan Soon Tan, Chwee Teck Lim, Xiaodong Chen
A detailed understanding of chemotherapy is determined by the response of cell to the formation of the drug-target complex and its corresponding sudden or eventual cell death. However, visualization of this early but important process, encompassing the fast dynamics as well as complex network of molecular pathways, remains challenging. Herein, we report that the nanomechanical traction force is sensitive enough to reflect the early cellular response upon the addition of chemotherapeutical molecules in a real-time and non-invasive manner, due to interactions between chemotherapeutic drug and its cytoskeleton targets...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530540/novel-n-mustard-benzimidazoles-benzothiazoles-hybrids-synthesis-and-anticancer-evaluation
#14
Dilip P Detroja, Tai-Lin Chen, Yi-Wen Lin, Tsai-Yi Yen, Ming-Hsi Wu, Tung-Hu Tsai, Krunal Maheriya, Rajesh Kakadiya, Te-Chang Lee, Anamik Shah, Tsann-Long Su
BACKGROUND: Bendamustine, an N-mustard-benzoimidazole hybrid conjugate, was recently approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the short half-life of bendamustine may limit its clinical applications. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to design and synthesize compounds with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile. METHODS: We synthesized a series of hybrid molecules comprising a phenyl N-mustard moiety and benzothiazole or benzimidazole scaffold linked via an ureido linker and evaluated their antitumor activity and plasma stability...
May 22, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#15
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530014/microrna-30a-5p-promotes-replication-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-through-enhancing-autophagy-by-targeting-14-3-3
#16
Xiaomin Wang, Xianglan Xu, Wei Wang, Zhengyu Yu, Libin Wen, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy and microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in regulating virus-host interactions and can restrict or facilitate viral replication. In the present study we examined whether a functional relationship exists between autophagy, miRNA and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection, using several approaches. We demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between PCV2 infection and autophagy in 3D4/21 cells and autophagy induced by PCV2 infection triggered PCV2 replication...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#17
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529584/anti-microrna-21-221-and-microrna-199a-transfected-by-ultrasound-microbubbles-induces-the-apoptosis-of-human-hepatoma-hepg2-cells
#18
Xinmin Guo, Shunhua Guo, Liwen Pan, Li Ruan, Yingshi Gu, Jichuang Lai
Gene therapy, particularly microRNA (miRNA), is a promising candidate in the treatment of cancer; however, it is challenging to develop gene delivery systems. Ultrasound microbubbles have been used for gene delivery with excellent results. The present study aimed to investigate the transfection efficiency of HepG2 cells using ultrasound microbubbles. The effects of three miRNAs (miR-21, miR-221 and miR-199a) on HepG2 cells were also determined by performing ultrasound microbubble-mediated gene transfection...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#19
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529337/dynamic-chromatin-technologies-from-individual-molecules-to-epigenomic-regulation-in-cells
#20
REVIEW
Olivier Cuvier, Beat Fierz
The establishment and maintenance of chromatin states involves multiscale dynamic processes integrating transcription factor and multiprotein effector dynamics, cycles of chemical chromatin modifications, and chromatin structural organization. Recent developments in genomic technologies are emerging that are enabling a view beyond ensemble- and time-averaged properties and are revealing the importance of dynamic chromatin states for cell fate decisions, differentiation and reprogramming at the single-cell level...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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