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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232710/stabilizing-patterns-in-time-neural-network-approach
#1
Nadav Ben-Shushan, Misha Tsodyks
Recurrent and feedback networks are capable of holding dynamic memories. Nonetheless, training a network for that task is challenging. In order to do so, one should face non-linear propagation of errors in the system. Small deviations from the desired dynamics due to error or inherent noise might have a dramatic effect in the future. A method to cope with these difficulties is thus needed. In this work we focus on recurrent networks with linear activation functions and binary output unit. We characterize its ability to reproduce a temporal sequence of actions over its output unit...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232627/the-phenomenology-of-cell-size-control
#2
REVIEW
Kurt M Schmoller
Cells control their size through an intricate balance of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Extensive work on unicellular model organisms revealed that cell-size-dependent cell cycle progression accounts for major aspects of cell size regulation and provided insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, elaborate live-cell imaging approaches still reveal new phenomenological observations that challenge our simplified models of size regulation and raise the question of what determines optimal cell size...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232465/new-treatments-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
E Pujade-Lauraine
In targeting DNA repair pathways of the most genomic instable cancer, poly-(adenosine diphosphate [ADP])-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) have been demonstrated as the most effective drug since platinum in high grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy is strongly pushing the door of ovarian cancer and has the ambition to change the fate of this deadly disease when combined with chemotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor or PARPi. The activity of PARPi could also be improved by modulators of the cell cycle, which are required to give time enough for DNA repair...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232402/chagas-disease-vector-blood-meal-sources-identified-by-protein-mass-spectrometry
#4
Judith I Keller, Bryan A Ballif, Riley M St Clair, James J Vincent, M Carlota Monroy, Lori Stevens
Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231184/novel-approach-for-improving-the-performance-of-si-based-anodes-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Mehrnoosh Sadeghipari, Alireza Mashayekhi, Shamsoddin Mohajerzadeh
Herein, we report successful deposition of aluminum oxide films on the silicon nanowires (SiNWs) to realize core shell silicon-based lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes. By means of a reactive ion etching (RIE), it has been possible to form an ultra-thin layer of Al2O3 on SiNWs through hydrogen plasma. This deposition technique leads to the formation of tiny holes on the surface of the Al2O3 layer while introducing the pore sites into the inner silicon material without damaging the whole structure. SiNW@Al2O3 core shell nanostructures were used as the effective anode materials and showed a superior electrochemical performance compared to conventional SiNWs...
December 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230988/-evaluation-of-brodifacoum-induced-toxicity-by-metabonomics-approach-based-on-hplc-tof-ms
#6
H Yan, X Y Zhuo, B H Shen, P Xiang, M Shen
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the metabolic changes in urine of rats with brodifacoum intoxication, and to reveal the molecular mechanism of brodifacoum-induced toxicity on rats. METHODS: By establishing a brodifacoum poisoning rats model, the urine metabolic profiling data of rats were acquired using high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). The orthogonal partial least squares analysis-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied for the multivariate statistics and the discovery of differential metabolites closely related to toxicity of brodifacoum...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230669/p21waf1-cip1-and-p27kip1-are-correlated-with-the-development-and-invasion-of-prolactinoma
#7
Wei Dong, Jianhua Li, Qian Liu, Chunhui Liu, Chuzhong Li, Guidong Song, Haibo Zhu, Hua Gao, Yazhuo Zhang
Cell cycle control can prevent excessive proliferative response in the pituitary homeostasis. Cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) are modulated by cyclins or Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 and p27, which can regulate cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phases. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels and the promoter region methylation status of p21 and p27 in prolactinomas (PRL) and analyze their association with clinicopathologic features. We found high-p21 level cases were featured by 5/23 and H-scores 142...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230649/investigating-monsoon-and-post-monsoon-variabilities-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-a-mangrove-ecosystem
#8
Anwesha Ghosh, Punyasloke Bhadury
In mangrove environments, bacterioplankton communities constitute an important component of aquatic biota and play a major role in ecosystem processes. Variability of bacterioplankton communities from Sundarbans mangrove, located in the Indian subcontinent in South Asia and sits on the apex of Bay of Bengal, was investigated over monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The study was undertaken in two stations in Sundarbans using 16S rRNA clone library and Illumina MiSeq approaches with focus on the functionally important members that participate in coastal biogeochemical cycling...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230527/lefty2-inhibits-endometrial-receptivity-by-downregulating-orai1-expression-and-store-operated-ca2-entry
#9
Madhuri S Salker, Yogesh Singh, Ruban R Peter Durairaj, Jing Yan, Md Alauddin, Ni Zeng, Jennifer H Steel, Shaqiu Zhang, Jaya Nautiyal, Zoe Webster, Sara Y Brucker, Diethelm Wallwiener, B Anne Croy, Jan J Brosens, Florian Lang
Early embryo development and endometrial differentiation are initially independent processes, and synchronization, imposed by a limited window of implantation, is critical for reproductive success. A putative negative regulator of endometrial receptivity is LEFTY2, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family. LEFTY2 is highly expressed in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, coinciding with the closure of the window of implantation...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230360/skin-temperature-and-reproductive-condition-in-wild-female-chimpanzees
#10
Guillaume Dezecache, Claudia Wilke, Nathalie Richi, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
Infrared thermal imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in veterinary medicine, in particular for evaluating reproductive processes. Here, we explored differences in skin temperature of twenty female chimpanzees in Budongo Forest, Uganda, four of which were pregnant during data collection. Based on previous literature in other mammals, we predicted increased skin temperature of maximally swollen reproductive organs of non-pregnant females when approaching peak fertility. For pregnant females, we made the same prediction because it has been argued that female chimpanzees have evolved mechanisms to conceal pregnancy, including swellings of the reproductive organs, conspicuous copulation calling, and solicitation of male mating behaviour, to decrease the infanticidal tendencies of resident males by confusing paternity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230285/cellular-senescence-associated-immune-responses-in-liver-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Tim F Greten, Tobias Eggert
Cellular senescence is a stress-induced cell-cycle arrest program that prevents malignant transformation of senescent cells following oncogenic pathway activation and DNA damage. Senescent cells are metabolically active and secrete cytokines and chemokines that shape the function and composition of their microenvironment. These cytokines can recruit immune cells such as lymphocytes and myeloid cells that depending on the context can either promote or inhibit liver tumor development and progression. Accordingly, pharmacologically targeting of secreted cytokines or reprogramming the expression of these cytokines in senescent cells represents a promising approach to skew senescence-associated immune responses toward cancer cell killing...
October 2017: Hepatic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230200/from-genes-to-ecosystems-in-microbiology-modeling-approaches-and-the-importance-of-individuality
#12
REVIEW
Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Caroline M Plugge, Clara Prats, Johan H J Leveau, Weiwen Zhang, Ferdi L Hellweger
Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230079/development-of-a-food-composition-database-to-monitor-changes-in-packaged-foods-and-beverages
#13
Jennifer M Poti, Emily Yoon, Bridget Hollingsworth, Jessica Ostrowski, Julie Wandell, Donna R Miles, Barry M Popkin
In order to monitor nutritional changes in the US food supply and assess potential impact on individual dietary intake, an approach was developed to enhance existing standard food composition tables with time-varying product- and brand-specific information for barcoded packaged foods. A "Crosswalk" was formed between barcoded products and USDA foodcodes in a time-specific manner, such that sales-weighted average nutritional profiles were generated for each foodcode based on corresponding products (275,000 to 350,000 per 2-year cycle)...
December 2017: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228905/evaluation-of-methods-and-marker-systems-in-genomic-selection-of-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis-jacq
#14
Qi Bin Kwong, Chee Keng Teh, Ai Ling Ong, Fook Tim Chew, Sean Mayes, Harikrishna Kulaveerasingam, Martti Tammi, Suat Hui Yeoh, David Ross Appleton, Jennifer Ann Harikrishna
BACKGROUND: Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals...
December 11, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228663/targeting-plk1-as-a-novel-chemopreventive-approach-to-eradicate-preneoplastic-mucosal-changes-in-the-head-and-neck
#15
D Vicky de Boer, Sanne R Martens-de Kemp, Marijke Buijze, Marijke Stigter-van Walsum, Elisabeth Bloemena, Ralf Dietrich, C René Leemans, Victor W van Beusechem, Boudewijn J M Braakhuis, Ruud H Brakenhoff
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and local relapses thereof develop in preneoplastic fields in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract. These fields are characterized by tumor-associated genetic changes, are frequently dysplastic and occasionally macroscopically visible. Currently, no adequate treatment options exist to prevent tumor development. Array-based screening with a panel of tumor-lethal small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as essential for survival of preneoplastic cells...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226554/controllable-solid-electrolyte-interphase-in-nickel-rich-cathodes-by-an-electrochemical-rearrangement-for-stable-lithium-ion-batteries
#16
Junhyeok Kim, Jieun Lee, Hyunsoo Ma, Hu Young Jeong, Hyungyeon Cha, Hyomyung Lee, Youngshin Yoo, Minjoon Park, Jaephil Cho
The layered nickel-rich materials have attracted extensive attention as a promising cathode candidate for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, they have been suffering from inherent structural and electrochemical degradation including severe capacity loss at high electrode loading density (>3.0 g cm-3 ) and high temperature cycling (>60 °C). In this study, an effective and viable way of creating an artificial solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the cathode surface by a simple, one-step approach is reported...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226488/rechargeable-aqueous-zinc-ion-battery-based-on-porous-framework-zinc-pyrovanadate-intercalation-cathode
#17
Chuan Xia, Jing Guo, Yongjiu Lei, Hanfeng Liang, Chao Zhao, Husam N Alshareef
In this work, a microwave approach is developed to rapidly synthesize ultralong zinc pyrovanadate (Zn3 V2 O7 (OH)2 ·2H2 O, ZVO) nanowires with a porous crystal framework. It is shown that our synthesis strategy can easily be extended to fabricate other metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc-ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 mA h g-1 at current densities of 50 and 3000 mA g-1 , respectively...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226176/holistic-segmentation-of-the-lung-in-cine-mri
#18
William Kovacs, Nathan Hsieh, Holger Roth, Chioma Nnamdi-Emeratom, W Patricia Bandettini, Andrew Arai, Ami Mankodi, Ronald M Summers, Jianhua Yao
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a childhood-onset neuromuscular disease that results in the degeneration of muscle, starting in the extremities, before progressing to more vital areas, such as the lungs. Respiratory failure and pneumonia due to respiratory muscle weakness lead to hospitalization and early mortality. However, tracking the disease in this region can be difficult, as current methods are based on breathing tests and are incapable of distinguishing between muscle involvements. Cine MRI scans give insight into respiratory muscle movements, but the images suffer due to low spatial resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225906/patient-engagement-in-kidney-research-opportunities-and-challenges-ahead
#19
REVIEW
Amber O Molnar, Moumita Barua, Ana Konvalinka, Kara Schick-Makaroff
Purpose of Review: Patient engagement in research is increasingly recognized as an important component of the research process and may facilitate translation of research findings. To heighten awareness on this important topic, this review presents opportunities and challenges of patient engagement in research, drawing on specific examples from 4 areas of Canadian kidney research conducted by New Investigators in the Kidney Research Scientist Core Education and National Training (KRESCENT) Program...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225500/multi-scale-mechanics-of-granular-solids-from-grain-resolved-x-ray-measurements
#20
R C Hurley, S A Hall, J P Wright
This work discusses an experimental technique for studying the mechanics of three-dimensional (3D) granular solids. The approach combines 3D X-ray diffraction and X-ray computed tomography to measure grain-resolved strains, kinematics and contact fabric in the bulk of a granular solid, from which continuum strains, grain stresses, interparticle forces and coarse-grained elasto-plastic moduli can be determined. We demonstrate the experimental approach and analysis of selected results on a sample of 1099 stiff, frictional grains undergoing multiple uniaxial compression cycles...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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