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methamphetamine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859206/beta-blockers-and-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-pharmacological-management-of-acute-methamphetamine-related-disorders-and-toxicity
#1
John R Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835475/stroke-and-methamphetamine-use-in-young-adults-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Julia M Lappin, Shane Darke, Michael Farrell
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use and stroke are significant public health problems. Strokes among people aged below 45 years are much less common than in older age groups but have significant mortality and morbidity. Methamphetamine is a putative cause of strokes among younger people. METHODS: A review of methamphetamine-related strokes was conducted. Bibliographic databases were searched until February 2017 for articles related to methamphetamine and stroke. Both haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes were considered...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830118/two-fatal-intoxications-involving-3-methoxyphencyclidine
#3
Christie Mitchell-Mata, Brittany Thomas, Brianna Peterson, Fiona Couper
3- and 4-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP, 4-MeO-PCP), structural analogs of phencyclidine (PCP), were among the first legal PCP alternatives to show up on the novel psychoactive substances (NPS) market in Europe in the 2000s. Their structural similarities to PCP and ketamine likely contribute to their demonstrated dissociative anesthetic effects. Limited information exists in the literature about toxic and lethal concentrations of these drugs in biological samples. This case report presents the first two death cases in Washington State in which 3-MeO-PCP was identified...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792619/corticosterone-and-exogenous-glucose-alter-blood-glucose-levels-neurotoxicity-and-vascular-toxicity-produced-by-methamphetamine
#4
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Sumit Sarkar, Nysia I George, Joseph P Hanig, Kimberly A Kelly, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760164/acute-chemical-incidents-with-injured-first-responders-2002-2012
#5
Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Alice Yang, Maureen Orr
Introduction First responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. METHODS: We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs...
August 1, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758605/rescue-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-therapy-in-methamphetamine-toxicity
#6
Laura K Morrison, J Kromm, J Gaudet, D Zuege, B Button, F Warshawski, S N Lucyk
Complications related to methamphetamine use and abuse are common presentations seen in the emergency department. Standard management focuses on addressing the central nervous system and cardiovascular effects with the use of sedation and hemodynamic support. We describe a case report of a patient with methamphetamine toxicity and subsequent severe cardiomyopathy refractory to conventional management that responded to cardiovascular support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO). A 22-year-old female was admitted in severe cardiogenic shock following intravenous administration of methamphetamine and oral fentanyl use...
July 31, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731367/methamphetamine-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inducing-inflammatory-response
#7
Aihui Zhang, Laiwei Wu, Zilin Chen, Guoqiang Huang, Xiaohe Lu
Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors and closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. As a powerful psychostimulant and addictive drug, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina. This study investigated the effect of Meth at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by Meth on 661 W cells after coculturing with RAW264.7 macrophage...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724276/fatal-small-intestinal-ischemia-due-to-methamphetamine-intoxication-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-results
#8
Hamid Attaran
Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#9
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661099/self-administration-of-methamphetamine-alters-gut-biomarkers-of-toxicity
#10
Amanda Flack, Amanda L Persons, Sharanya M Kousik, T Celeste Napier, Anna Moszczynska
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly abused psychostimulant that is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This enhanced vulnerability likely relates to the toxic effects of METH that overlap with PD pathology, for example, aberrant functioning of α-synuclein and parkin. In PD, peripheral factors are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. For example, α-synuclein levels in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are elevated, and this precedes the onset of motor symptoms...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645061/the-neurochemical-consequences-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#11
Andrew Johansen, Lisa M McFadden
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive substance that is used in both males and females. Few preclinical studies have focused on understanding sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of contingent METH. The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of METH self-administration. METHODS: Male and female adult rats were given extended access to METH or saline self-administration for 7d...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621212/methamphetamine-causes-neurotoxicity-by-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inflammatory-response
#12
X Li, F Wu, L Xue, B Wang, J Li, Y Chen, T Chen
Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in the neuronal system. The present study investigated the effect of Meth at subtoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its underlying toxicity to neuronal cells...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#13
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#14
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603836/rates-characteristics-and-circumstances-of-methamphetamine-related-death-in-australia-a-national-7-year-study
#15
Shane Darke, Sharlene Kaye, Johan Duflou
AIMS: Assess trends in the number, and mortality rates, of methamphetamine-related death in Australia, 2009-2015; 2. Assess the characteristics, and the cause, manner and circumstances of death; and 3. Assess the blood methamphetamine concentrations and the presence of other drugs in methamphetamine-related death. DESIGN: Analysis of cases of methamphetamine-related death retrieved from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). SETTING: Australia...
June 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589520/role-of-mitochondria-in-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-involvement-in-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-pro-apoptosis-a-review
#16
Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Phuong-Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recently been shown to contribute to dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553166/recombinant-aav8-mediated-intrastriatal-gene-delivery-of-cdnf-protects-rats-against-methamphetamine-neurotoxicity
#17
Lizheng Wang, Zixuan Wang, Xiaoyu Xu, Rui Zhu, Jinpeng Bi, Wenmo Liu, Xinyao Feng, Hui Wu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Wei Kong, Bin Yu, Xianghui Yu
Methamphetamine (METH) exerts significant neurotoxicity in experimental animals and humans when taken at high doses or abused chronically. Long-term abusers have decreased dopamine levels, and they are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, few medications are available to treat the METH-induced damage of neurons. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been previously shown to reduce the dopamine-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of METH. However, the effect of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), which has been reported to be more specific and efficient than GDNF in protecting dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity, in attenuating METH neurotoxicity has not been determined...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457879/the-role-of-system-xc-in-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-in-mice
#18
Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Dae-Joong Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hideyo Sato, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Yukio Yoneda, Hyoung-Chun Kim
The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc(-), Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens...
April 27, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428365/interaction-and-transport-of-methamphetamine-and-its-primary-metabolites-by-organic-cation-and-multidrug-and-toxin-extrusion-transporters
#19
David J Wagner, Jennifer E Sager, Haichuan Duan, Nina Isoherranen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and para-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OHMA)...
July 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363605/genetic-or-pharmacological-depletion-of-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-protects-against-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-induced-by-methamphetamine-in-mice
#20
Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Anh-Thu Mai, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Ji Hoon Jeong, Catherine Ledent, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Emmanuel S Onaivi, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Accumulating evidence suggests that cannabinoid ligands play delicate roles in cell survival and apoptosis decisions, and that cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) modulate dopaminergic function. However, the role of CB1R in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo remains elusive. Multiple high doses of MA increased phospho-ERK and CB1R mRNA expressions in the striatum of CB1R (+/+) mice. These increases were attenuated by CB1R antagonists (i.e., AM251 and rimonabant), an ERK inhibitor (U0126), or dopamine D2R antagonist (sulpiride)...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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