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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133010/three-fatalities-associated-with-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-pb-22-and-ab-chminaca
#1
V Angerer, S Jacobi, F Franz, V Auwärter, J Pietsch
The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095780/a-stinging-suspicion-something-was-just-not-right-methamphetamine-toxicity-in-infant-mimics-scorpion-envenomation
#2
Holly E Pariury, Aimee M Steiniger, Merlin C Lowe
The sting from Centuroides sculpturatus, commonly known as the bark scorpion, is a serious medical problem and can be potentially fatal to young children. Centuroides sculpturatus envenomation can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, often including autonomic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, and somatic motor abnormalities. We discuss a 6-month-old male infant who presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bark scorpion envenomation, later found to be secondary to methamphetamine toxicity. Emergency pediatricians should be aware of the strong similarities between scorpion envenomation and methamphetamine toxicity in pediatric patients residing in or having visited the southwestern region of the United States...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070471/-snitrosylating-protein-disulphide-isomerase-mediates-increased-expression-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-caused-by-methamphetamine-in-mouse-brain
#3
Yue Wang, Wen-Ning Xu, Xiao-Fang Wu, Lin-Nan Zhu, Hong-Hua Qiao, Ling Chen, Chao Liu, Ping-Ming Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Snitrosylation of protein disulphide isomerasec in methamphetamine (METH)-induced expression of alpha synuclein (αSN) in mouse hippocampus and striatum neurons. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized equally into saline control group, METH group, L-NNA (a NOS inhibitor) group and L-NNA plus METH group. All the agents were injected intraperitoneally at an interval of 12 h, and a total of 8 injections were administered; in L-NNA plus METH group, METH was injected 30 min after LNNA in each treatment...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036502/three-cases-of-fatal-acrylfentanyl-toxicity-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-literature
#4
Daniel C Butler, Kevin Shanks, George S Behonick, Dustin Smith, Susan E Presnell, Lee Marie Tormos
Fentanyl analogs pose a unique challenge for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The extreme potency of these analogs results in minute blood, urine and vitreous concentrations that are technically difficult to identify. This in addition to their absence from standard drug screening may potentiate a setting of apparent drug overdose without an immediately identifiable source. The following case series illustrates three such encounters with acrylfentanyl, an analog whose presence has not yet been reported in the scientific literature in the United States...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#5
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985320/multiple-drug-toxicity-involving-novel-psychoactive-substances-3-fluorophenmetrazine-and-u-47700
#6
Kayla N Ellefsen, Elizabeth A Taylor, Paul Simmons, Vickie Willoughby, Brad J Hall
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a stimulant-like novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine that has recently appeared on the recreational drug market, with limited published information. Likewise, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has gained popularity among recreational drug users and is frequently detected in postmortem casework. We present the case history, autopsy and toxicological findings of a fatality involving the designer drugs 3-FPM and U-47700 for the first time in the literature...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949027/preventive-effects-of-fructose-and-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-against-cytotoxicity-induced-by-the-psychoactive-compounds-n-methyl-5-2-aminopropyl-benzofuran-and-3-4-methylenedioxy-n-methamphetamine-in-isolated-rat-hepatocytes
#7
Yoshio Nakagawa, Toshinari Suzuki, Akiko Inomata
Psychoactive compounds, N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-MAPB) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA), are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and/or experimental animals. As previous studies suggested that these compounds elicited cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes, the protective effects of fructose and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on 5-MAPB- and MDMA-induced toxicity were studied in rat hepatocytes. These drugs caused not only concentration-dependent (0-4 mm) and time-dependent (0-3 hours) cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (reduced form; GSH) but also an increase in the oxidized form of GSH...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859206/beta-blockers-and-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-pharmacological-management-of-acute-methamphetamine-related-disorders-and-toxicity
#8
John R Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835475/stroke-and-methamphetamine-use-in-young-adults-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Julia M Lappin, Shane Darke, Michael Farrell
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use and stroke are significant public health problems. Strokes among people aged below 45 years are much less common than in older age groups but have significant mortality and morbidity. Methamphetamine is a putative cause of strokes among younger people. METHODS: A review of methamphetamine-related strokes was conducted. Bibliographic databases were searched until February 2017 for articles related to methamphetamine and stroke. Both haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes were considered...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830118/two-fatal-intoxications-involving-3-methoxyphencyclidine
#10
Christie Mitchell-Mata, Brittany Thomas, Brianna Peterson, Fiona Couper
3- and 4-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP, 4-MeO-PCP), structural analogs of phencyclidine (PCP), were among the first legal PCP alternatives to show up on the novel psychoactive substances (NPS) market in Europe in the 2000s. Their structural similarities to PCP and ketamine likely contribute to their demonstrated dissociative anesthetic effects. Limited information exists in the literature about toxic and lethal concentrations of these drugs in biological samples. This case report presents the first two death cases in Washington State in which 3-MeO-PCP was identified...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792619/corticosterone-and-exogenous-glucose-alter-blood-glucose-levels-neurotoxicity-and-vascular-toxicity-produced-by-methamphetamine
#11
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Sumit Sarkar, Nysia I George, Joseph P Hanig, Kimberly A Kelly, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2 h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection...
October 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760164/acute-chemical-incidents-with-injured-first-responders-2002-2012
#12
Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Alice Yang, Maureen Orr
Introduction First responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. METHODS: We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs...
August 1, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758605/rescue-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-therapy-in-methamphetamine-toxicity
#13
Laura K Morrison, J Kromm, J Gaudet, D Zuege, B Button, F Warshawski, S N Lucyk
Complications related to methamphetamine use and abuse are common presentations seen in the emergency department. Standard management focuses on addressing the central nervous system and cardiovascular effects with the use of sedation and hemodynamic support. We describe a case report of a patient with methamphetamine toxicity and subsequent severe cardiomyopathy refractory to conventional management that responded to cardiovascular support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO). A 22-year-old female was admitted in severe cardiogenic shock following intravenous administration of methamphetamine and oral fentanyl use...
July 31, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731367/methamphetamine-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inducing-inflammatory-response
#14
Aihui Zhang, Laiwei Wu, Zilin Chen, Guoqiang Huang, Xiaohe Lu
Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors and closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. As a powerful psychostimulant and addictive drug, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina. This study investigated the effect of Meth at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by Meth on 661 W cells after coculturing with RAW264.7 macrophage...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724276/fatal-small-intestinal-ischemia-due-to-methamphetamine-intoxication-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-results
#15
Hamid Attaran
Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#16
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661099/self-administration-of-methamphetamine-alters-gut-biomarkers-of-toxicity
#17
Amanda Flack, Amanda L Persons, Sharanya M Kousik, T Celeste Napier, Anna Moszczynska
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly abused psychostimulant that is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This enhanced vulnerability likely relates to the toxic effects of METH that overlap with PD pathology, for example, aberrant functioning of α-synuclein and parkin. In PD, peripheral factors are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. For example, α-synuclein levels in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are elevated, and this precedes the onset of motor symptoms...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645061/the-neurochemical-consequences-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#18
Andrew Johansen, Lisa M McFadden
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive substance that is used in both males and females. Few preclinical studies have focused on understanding sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of contingent METH. The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of METH self-administration. METHODS: Male and female adult rats were given extended access to METH or saline self-administration for 7d...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621212/methamphetamine-causes-neurotoxicity-by-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inflammatory-response
#19
X Li, F Wu, L Xue, B Wang, J Li, Y Chen, T Chen
Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in the neuronal system. The present study investigated the effect of Meth at subtoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its underlying toxicity to neuronal cells...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#20
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
October 2017: Aging Cell
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