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methamphetamine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690789/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rb1-against-blood-brain-barrier-damage-induced-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-tat-protein-and-methamphetamine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Juan Li, Bairui Zeng, Xiao Hu, Zhen Li, Dongxian Zhang, Genmeng Yang, Jiejie Dai, Xiaofeng Zeng
Although antiretroviral therapy has helped to improve the lives of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), these patients are often still afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to neurocognitive impairment and even dementia, and continue to hamper their quality of life. Methamphetamine abuse in HIV-1 patients poses a potential risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, because methamphetamine and HIV-1 proteins such as transactivator of transcription can synergistically damage the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684910/forensic-applications-of-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#2
REVIEW
Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
Achievements of supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection made in the field of forensic science during the last decade are reviewed. The main topics include analysis of traditional drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, methamphetamine) as well as new psychoactive substances (synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and phenethylamines), doping agents (anabolic steroids, stimulants, diuretics, analgesics etc.) and chemical warfare agents. Control of food authenticity, detection of adulteration and identification of toxic substances in food are also pointed out...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521774/overdoses-and-substance-toxicity-in-patients-admitted-to-intensive-care-units-in-a-midwestern-u-s-city
#3
Craig A Schuring, Daniel L Dodge, Tyler J Whitcomb, Geoffrey C Wall, Hayden L Smith, Greg A Hicklin
Toxic exposures with serious outcomes have increased over the last decade. Limited data exists on the pattern and outcomes of overdose-exposure patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the causes, treatments, and outcomes of toxic exposures in a mid-sized Midwestern health system. The secondary objective was to report cumulative economic costs associated with these patients. Data were obtained from medical records of patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis code of overdose admitted to the ICU at 2 teaching hospitals between August 1, 2012, and July 31, 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486419/cross-sectional-cause-of-death-comparisons-for-stimulant-and-opioid-mortality-in-san-francisco-2005-2015
#4
Caitlin Turner, Dharsan Chandrakumar, Christopher Rowe, Glenn-Milo Santos, Elise D Riley, Phillip O Coffin
BACKGROUND: Opioids and stimulants (e.g., cocaine or methamphetamine/amphetamine [MAMP]) are major contributors to acute substance toxicity deaths. Causes of stimulant death have received little attention. We sought to characterize and compare causes of death and significant contributing conditions among persons who died from acute opioid, cocaine, or MAMP toxicity. METHODS: We identified all opioid, cocaine, or MAMP deaths in San Francisco from 2005 to 2015 through the California Electronic Death Reporting System...
April 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467000/ginsenoside-re-protects-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-in-mice-via-upregulation-of-dynorphin-mediated-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-and-downregulation-of-substance-p-mediated-neurokinin-1-receptor
#5
Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Dae-Joong Kim, Hai-Quyen Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Jung Hwan Jeong, Jae Kyung Byun, Sung Kwon Ko, Guoying Bing, Jau-Shyong Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that ginsenoside Re (GRe) attenuated against methamphetamine (MA)-induced neurotoxicity via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. We also demonstrated that dynorphin possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials against dopaminergic loss, and that balance between dynorphin and substance P is important for dopaminergic neuroprotection. Thus, we examined whether GRe positively affects interactive modulation between dynorphin and substance P against MA neurotoxicity in mice...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#6
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
April 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386447/-underlying-mechanisms-of-methamphetamine-induced-self-injurious-behavior-and-lethal-effects-in-mice
#7
REVIEW
Tomohisa Mori, Toshiko Sawaguchi
Relatively high doses of psychostimulants induce neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. However the underlying neuronal mechanisms of SIB remains unclear. Dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers significantly attenuate methamphetamine-induced SIB. These findings indicate that activation of dopamine as well as NMDA receptors followed by radical formation and oxidative stress, especially when mediated by NOS activation, is associated with methamphetamine-induced SIB...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384873/acute-recreational-drug-toxicity-comparison-of-self-reports-and-results-of-immunoassay-and-additional-analytical-methods-in-a-multicenter-european-case-series
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Evangelia Liakoni, Christopher Yates, Alison M Dines, Paul I Dargan, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda, David M Wood, Florian Eyer, Matthias E Liechti
The aim of the study was to compare self-reported and analytically confirmed substance use in cases of acute recreational drug toxicity.We performed a retrospective analysis of emergency department presentations of acute recreational drug toxicity over 2 years (October 2013 to September 2015) within the European Drug Emergencies Network Plus project.Among the 10,956 cases of acute recreational drug toxicity during the study period, 831 could be included. Between the self-reported substance use and the toxicological results, the highest agreement was found for heroin (86...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354652/effect-of-centruroides-antivenom-on-reversal-of-methamphetamine-induced-hyperkinesis-and-hyperthermia-in-rats
#9
Pouran Malekzadeh, Jackie Hu, Alexander J Sandweiss, Nina Ameli, Philippe Bierny, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Todd W Vanderah, Farshad Shirazi
Context: Methamphetamine (MA) toxicity is a major health concern causing agitation, hyperkinesia, hyperthermia, and even death, affecting 24.7 million people worldwide. It has been observed that MA generates movement disorders in children similar to that of scorpion envenomation. Four cases have been reported where MA intoxication in children were both subjectively and objectively improved as indicated by the reversal of nystagmus and movement disorders following administration of Centruroides antivenom (AV) therapy...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#10
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects...
March 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200896/methamphetamine-use-with-subsequent-thyrotoxicosis-thyroid-storm-agranulocytosis-and-modified-total-thyroidectomy-a-case-report
#11
Omar Viswanath, Deanna C Menapace, Don B Headley
Thyroid storm is a rare, potentially lethal condition involving collapse of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback loop. Thyroid storm carries a significant mortality rate, thus requiring prompt identification and treatment. A 47-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of palpitations, shortness of breath, and emesis for 24 hours after using methamphetamine. Past medical history was significant for untreated hyperthyroidism. Physical examination revealed a prominent, palpable thyroid...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193063/clinical-and-autopsy-characteristics-of-fatal-methamphetamine-toxicity-in-australia
#12
Shane Darke, Johan Duflou, Julia Lappin, Sharlene Kaye
Characteristics of death attributed solely to methamphetamine toxicity (MT, n = 93) by forensic pathologists were examined and compared to cases of multiple drug toxicity (MDT, n = 634). The mean age of MT cases was 36.7 years, and 86.0% were male. Strenuous activity was reported in 12.9%. The most common witness observations were: collapse (60.3%), difficulty in breathing (36.2%), and hyperthermia (27.6%). MT cases had higher blood methamphetamine (0.54 vs. 0.11 mg/L) and amphetamine (0.04 vs. 0.02 mg/L) concentrations and lower likelihoods for opioids (12...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133010/three-fatalities-associated-with-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-pb-22-and-ab-chminaca
#13
V Angerer, S Jacobi, F Franz, V Auwärter, J Pietsch
The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095780/a-stinging-suspicion-something-was-just-not-right-methamphetamine-toxicity-in-infant-mimics-scorpion-envenomation
#14
Holly E Pariury, Aimee M Steiniger, Merlin C Lowe
The sting from Centuroides sculpturatus, commonly known as the bark scorpion, is a serious medical problem and can be potentially fatal to young children. Centuroides sculpturatus envenomation can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, often including autonomic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, and somatic motor abnormalities. We discuss a 6-month-old male infant who presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bark scorpion envenomation, later found to be secondary to methamphetamine toxicity. Emergency pediatricians should be aware of the strong similarities between scorpion envenomation and methamphetamine toxicity in pediatric patients residing in or having visited the southwestern region of the United States...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070471/-snitrosylating-protein-disulphide-isomerase-mediates-increased-expression-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-caused-by-methamphetamine-in-mouse-brain
#15
Yue Wang, Wen-Ning Xu, Xiao-Fang Wu, Lin-Nan Zhu, Hong-Hua Qiao, Ling Chen, Chao Liu, Ping-Ming Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Snitrosylation of protein disulphide isomerasec in methamphetamine (METH)-induced expression of alpha synuclein (αSN) in mouse hippocampus and striatum neurons. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized equally into saline control group, METH group, L-NNA (a NOS inhibitor) group and L-NNA plus METH group. All the agents were injected intraperitoneally at an interval of 12 h, and a total of 8 injections were administered; in L-NNA plus METH group, METH was injected 30 min after LNNA in each treatment...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036502/three-cases-of-fatal-acrylfentanyl-toxicity-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-literature
#16
Daniel C Butler, Kevin Shanks, George S Behonick, Dustin Smith, Susan E Presnell, Lee Marie Tormos
Fentanyl analogs pose a unique challenge for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The extreme potency of these analogs results in minute blood, urine and vitreous concentrations that are technically difficult to identify. This in addition to their absence from standard drug screening may potentiate a setting of apparent drug overdose without an immediately identifiable source. The following case series illustrates three such encounters with acrylfentanyl, an analog whose presence has not yet been reported in the scientific literature in the United States...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985320/multiple-drug-toxicity-involving-novel-psychoactive-substances-3-fluorophenmetrazine-and-u-47700
#18
Kayla N Ellefsen, Elizabeth A Taylor, Paul Simmons, Vickie Willoughby, Brad J Hall
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a stimulant-like novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine that has recently appeared on the recreational drug market, with limited published information. Likewise, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has gained popularity among recreational drug users and is frequently detected in postmortem casework. We present the case history, autopsy and toxicological findings of a fatality involving the designer drugs 3-FPM and U-47700 for the first time in the literature...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949027/preventive-effects-of-fructose-and-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-against-cytotoxicity-induced-by-the-psychoactive-compounds-n-methyl-5-2-aminopropyl-benzofuran-and-3-4-methylenedioxy-n-methamphetamine-in-isolated-rat-hepatocytes
#19
Yoshio Nakagawa, Toshinari Suzuki, Akiko Inomata
Psychoactive compounds, N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-MAPB) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA), are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and/or experimental animals. As previous studies suggested that these compounds elicited cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes, the protective effects of fructose and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on 5-MAPB- and MDMA-induced toxicity were studied in rat hepatocytes. These drugs caused not only concentration-dependent (0-4 mm) and time-dependent (0-3 hours) cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (reduced form; GSH) but also an increase in the oxidized form of GSH...
February 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859206/beta-blockers-and-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-pharmacological-management-of-acute-methamphetamine-related-disorders-and-toxicity
#20
John R Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
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