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slow and fast twitch muscle fibers and activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767362/modeling-of-stretch-reflex-activation-considering-muscle-type
#1
Moon J Kang, Choongsoo S Shin, Hong H Yoo
Although the stretch reflex plays an important role in spasticity, so far the stretch reflex has not been sufficiently investigated. Previous stretch reflex activation models have some limitations, whereby they are not able to predict outcomes of some stretch reflex cases and do not consider uneven distribution of muscle length and stretch velocity on reflex activation. The purpose of this study was 1) to develop a modified stretch reflex activation model employing a new muscle length threshold and weighting factors for slow-twitch fiber and fast-twitch fiber, and 2) to validate the model using pendulum experiments of the lower and upper limbs...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573481/copper-pyrithione-a-booster-biocide-induces-abnormal-muscle-and-notochord-architecture-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#2
Kelly M Almond, Louis D Trombetta
The metal pyrithiones, principally zinc (ZnPT) and copper (CuPT), are replacing tributyltin (TBT) as antifouling agents. Zebrafish embryos were exposed within the first hour after fertilization to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT for 24 h. Morphological abnormalities in notochord and muscle architecture were observed at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). TEM revealed abnormal electron dense deposits in the notochord sheath and muscle fiber degeneration in animals treated with 12 µg/L of CuPT. Embryos that were exposed to 64 µg/L of CuPT displayed severe muscle fiber degeneration including abnormal A and I band patterning and altered z disk arrangement...
June 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522764/obesity-induced-discrepancy-between-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles-of-female-obese-zucker-rats
#3
Luz M Acevedo, Ana I Raya, Rafael Ríos, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Jose-Luis L Rivero
A clear picture of skeletal muscle adaptations to obesity and related comorbidities remains elusive. This study describes fiber-type characteristics (size, proportions, and oxidative enzyme activity) in two typical hind limb muscles with opposite structure and function in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lesser fiber diameter, fiber type composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of muscle fiber types were assessed in slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (tibialis cranialis) muscles of obese Zucker rats, and compared with age- (16 weeks) and sex-matched (females) lean Zucker rats (N=16/group)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#4
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474872/is-the-stiffness-of-human-muscle-and-tendon-structures-related-to-muscle-fiber-composition-in-vivo
#5
Keitaro Kubo, Daisuke Miyazaki, Hideaki Yata, Shozo Shimoju, Masaji Okada, Naoya Tsunoda
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated muscle fiber composition (time-to-peak twitch torque; TPT) and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions as well as stiffness of tendon structures in human plantar flexors. METHODS: TPT was assessed using supramaximal electrical stimulation. Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated based on changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after 50% maximal isometric contractions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161523/myomaker-is-required-for-the-fusion-of-fast-twitch-myocytes-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#6
Weibin Zhang, Sudipto Roy
During skeletal muscle development, myocytes aggregate and fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. Inhibition of myocyte fusion is thought to significantly derail the differentiation of functional muscle fibers. Despite the purported importance of fusion in myogenesis, in vivo studies of this process in vertebrates are rather limited. Myomaker, a multipass transmembrane protein, has been shown to be the first muscle-specific fusion protein essential for myocyte fusion in the mouse. We have generated loss-of-function alleles in zebrafish myomaker, and found that fusion of myocytes into syncytial fast-twitch muscles was significantly compromised...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-release
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals that contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance, and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers, an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990244/electrically-and-hybrid-induced-muscle-activations-effects-of-muscle-size-and-fiber-type
#8
Kelly Stratton, Pouran D Faghri
The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES) frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz) on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and vastus lateralis (VL)) was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles' responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations). Surface electromyography (sEMG) and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years) participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974300/s-nitrosylation-and-s-glutathionylation-of-cys134-on-troponin-i-have-opposing-competitive-actions-on-ca-2-sensitivity-in-rat-fast-twitch-muscle-fibers
#9
T L Dutka, J P Mollica, C R Lamboley, V C Weerakkody, D W Greening, G S Posterino, R M Murphy, G D Lamb
Nitric oxide is generated in skeletal muscle with activity and decreases Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus, putatively by S-nitrosylation of an unidentified protein. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this effect and its relationship to the oxidation-induced increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity in mammalian fast-twitch (FT) fibers mediated by S-glutathionylation of Cys134 on fast troponin I (TnIf). Force-[Ca(2+)] characteristics of the contractile apparatus in mechanically skinned fibers were assessed by direct activation with heavily Ca(2+)-buffered solutions...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799519/piperine-s-mitigation-of-obesity-and-diabetes-can-be-explained-by-its-up-regulation-of-the-metabolic-rate-of-resting-muscle
#10
Leonardo Nogara, Nariman Naber, Edward Pate, Marcella Canton, Carlo Reggiani, Roger Cooke
We identify a target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes, the consumption of calories by an increase in the metabolic rate of resting skeletal muscle. The metabolic rate of skeletal muscle can be increased by shifting myosin heads from the super-relaxed state (SRX), with a low ATPase activity, to a disordered relaxed state (DRX), with a higher ATPase activity. The shift of myosin heads was detected by a change in fluorescent intensity of a probe attached to the myosin regulatory light chain in skinned skeletal fibers, allowing us to perform a high-throughput screen of 2,128 compounds...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792730/time-course-of-muscle-mass-loss-damage-and-proteolysis-in-gastrocnemius-following-unloading-and-reloading-implications-in-chronic-diseases
#11
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Helena Lund-Palau, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
BACKGROUND: Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. METHODS: Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736732/conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-promotes-endurance-capacity-via-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-mechanism-in-mice
#12
Yoo Kim, Daeyoung Kim, Yeonhwa Park
Previously, it was reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with exercise training potentially improved endurance capacity via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated mechanism in mice. This study determined the role of exercise and/or CLA in endurance capacity and PPARδ-associated regulators. Male 129Sv/J mice were fed either control (soybean oil) or CLA (0.5%) containing diets for 4 weeks and were further divided into sedentary or training regimes. CLA supplementation significantly reduced body weight and fat mass independent of exercise during the experimental period...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549759/phenotypic-and-metabolic-features-of-mouse-diaphragm-and-gastrocnemius-muscles-in-chronic-lung-carcinogenesis-influence-of-underlying-emphysema
#13
Anna Salazar-Degracia, David Blanco, Mònica Vilà-Ubach, Gabriel de Biurrun, Carlos Ortiz de Solórzano, Luis M Montuenga, Esther Barreiro
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting negatively impacts the progress of chronic diseases such as lung cancer (LC) and emphysema, which are in turn interrelated. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that muscle atrophy and body weight loss may develop in an experimental mouse model of lung carcinogenesis, that the profile of alterations in muscle fiber phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry, muscle structural alterations, and nuclear apoptosis), and in muscle metabolism are similar in both respiratory and limb muscles of the tumor-bearing mice, and that the presence of underlying emphysema may influence those events...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485725/microrna-mrna-regulatory-networking-fine-tunes-the-porcine-muscle-fiber-type-muscular-mitochondrial-respiratory-and-metabolic-enzyme-activities
#14
Xuan Liu, Nares Trakooljul, Frieder Hadlich, Eduard Muráni, Klaus Wimmers, Siriluck Ponsuksili
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in diverse biological processes via regulation of gene expression including in skeletal muscles. In the current study, miRNA expression profile was investigated in longissimus muscle biopsies of malignant hyperthermia syndrome-negative Duroc and Pietrain pigs with distinct muscle metabolic properties in order to explore the regulatory role of miRNAs related to mitochondrial respiratory activity and metabolic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461772/consequences-of-late-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cachexia-on-muscle-metabolic-processes
#15
Andrew J Murton, Matthew Maddocks, Francis B Stephens, Kanagaraj Marimuthu, Ruth England, Andrew Wilcock
INTRODUCTION: The loss of muscle is common in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of this group. The exact mechanisms behind the muscle loss are unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To investigate this, 4 patients with stage IV NSCLC who met the clinical definitions for sarcopenia and cachexia were recruited, along with 4 age-matched healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis, and the key components associated with inflammation and the control of muscle protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism were assessed...
June 25, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396429/inflammatory-response-during-slow-and-fast-twitch-muscle-regeneration
#16
Malgorzata Zimowska, Paulina Kasprzycka, Katarzyna Bocian, Kamila Delaney, Piotr Jung, Kinga Kuchcinska, Karolina Kaczmarska, Daria Gladysz, Wladyslawa Streminska, Maria Anna Ciemerych
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscles are characterized by their unique ability to regenerate. Injury of a so-called fast-twitch muscle, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), results in efficient regeneration and reconstruction of the functional tissue. In contrast, slow-twitch muscle (soleus) fails to properly reconstruct and develops fibrosis. This study focuses on soleus and EDL muscle regeneration and associated inflammation. METHODS: We determined differences in the activity of neutrophils and M1 and M2 macrophages using flow cytometry and differences in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines using Western blotting and immunolocalization at different times after muscle injury...
March 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261950/essential-and-toxic-trace-element-concentrations-in-different-commercial-veal-cuts-in-spain
#17
M López-Alonso, M Miranda, J L Benedito, V Pereira, M García-Vaquero
The aim of this study was to evaluate essential and toxic element concentration of ten commercially available veal cuts, together with diaphragm, cardiac muscle and liver tissue from 10 animals of "Galician Supreme Veal". Essential trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations ranged from 0.002-55.64mg/kg between muscles. Toxic element concentrations were very low, and high numbers of samples showed unquantifiable residues of Cd and Pb...
November 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242541/atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-in-the-skeletal-muscle-function-involvement-of-the-kcnj11-kir6-2-gene-in-the-determination-of-mechanical-warner-bratzer-shear-force
#18
REVIEW
Domenico Tricarico, Maria Selvaggi, Giuseppe Passantino, Pasquale De Palo, Cataldo Dario, Pasquale Centoducati, Alessandra Tateo, Angela Curci, Fatima Maqoud, Antonietta Mele, Giulia M Camerino, Antonella Liantonio, Paola Imbrici, Nicola Zizzo
The ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K(+) ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199166/skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-using-insights-from-muscle-developmental-biology-to-dissect-targets-for-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-muscle-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jared Talbot, Lisa Maves
Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190061/reduced-force-of-diaphragm-muscle-fibers-in-patients-with-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Emmy Manders, Peter I Bonta, Jaap J Kloek, Petr Symersky, Harm-Jan Bogaard, Pleuni E Hooijman, Jeff R Jasper, Fady I Malik, Ger J M Stienen, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Frances S de Man, Coen A C Ottenheijm
Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) suffer from inspiratory muscle weakness. However, the pathophysiology of inspiratory muscle dysfunction in PH is unknown. We hypothesized that weakness of the diaphragm, the main inspiratory muscle, is an important contributor to inspiratory muscle dysfunction in PH patients. Our objective was to combine ex vivo diaphragm muscle fiber contractility measurements with measures of in vivo inspiratory muscle function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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