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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195302/testing-biomechanical-models-of-human-lumbar-lordosis-variability
#1
Eric R Castillo, Connie Hsu, Ross W Mair, Daniel E Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Lumbar lordosis (LL) is a key adaptation for bipedalism, but factors underlying curvature variations remain unclear. This study tests three biomechanical models to explain LL variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adults (15 male, 15 female) were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standing posture analysis was conducted, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was assessed. Three measures of LL were compared. The trunk's center of mass was estimated from external markers to calculate hip moments (Mhip ) and lumbar flexion moments...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173931/the-immediate-effects-of-exercise-using-the-functional-re-adaptive-exercise-device-on-lumbopelvic-kinematics-in-people-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#2
A Winnard, D Debuse, M Wilkinson, R Tahmosybayat, N Caplan
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles is associated with low back pain (LBP). The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) has shown potential as a non-specific LBP intervention by automatically recruiting LM and TrA. Loss or lordosis and altered lumbopelvic positioning has also been linked to LBP and is often trained within LM and TrA interventions. The effect that FRED exercise has on lumbopelvic positioning and lumbar lordosis is unknown...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166701/aligning-yoga-with-its-evolving-role-in-health-care
#3
Avinash R Patwardhan
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that yoga has beneficial effects in mitigating the impact of certain diseases. As a result, efforts are being made to medicalize yoga and use it within integrative medicine as a therapy. However, there are substantial shortcomings in the practice, policy, and research of yoga that undermine its optimal use. Yoga as a modality functions within a context. Therefore, it is important to occasionally step back and examine the entirety of the context from a high vantage to assess whether the tactical and programmatic endeavors are aligned with the strategic intended purpose...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153459/total-hip-arthroplasty-in-the-spinal-deformity-population-does-degree-of-sagittal-deformity-affect-rates-of-safe-zone-placement-instability-or-revision
#4
Edward M DelSole, Jonathan M Vigdorchik, Ran Schwarzkopf, Thomas J Errico, Aaron J Buckland
BACKGROUND: Changes in spinal alignment and pelvic tilt alter acetabular orientation in predictable ways, which may have implications on stability of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients with sagittal spinal deformity represent a subset of patients who may be at particularly high risk of THA instability because of postural compensation for abnormal spinal alignment. METHODS: Using standing stereoradiography, we evaluated the spinopelvic parameters, acetabular cup anteversion, and inclination of 139 THAs in 107 patients with sagittal spinal deformity...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132971/effects-of-a-wearable-type-lumbosacral-support-for-low-back-pain-among-hospital-workers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Yutaka Yabe, Hiroyuki Yamada, Takashi Watanabe, Kenji Kanazawa, Masashi Koide, Takuya Sekiguchi, Hirokazu Hatano, Eiji Itoi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a new wearable type of lumbosacral support on low back pain. METHODS: A total of 121 healthcare workers participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups and the former wore the support with signals of compression on the back by poor posture for the first 3 months. The control group remained on a waiting list for the first 3 months. Medical history, musculoskeletal symptoms, feeling in good posture, sleep habits, psychological distress, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) were evaluated...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127994/hydrodynamic-analysis-of-human-swimming-based-on-vof-method
#6
Jie-Min Zhan, Tian-Zeng Li, Xue-Bin Chen, Y S Li
A 3-D numerical model, based on the Navier-Strokes equations and the RNG k-ε turbulence closure, for studying hydrodynamic drag on a swimmer with wave-making resistance taken into account is established. The volume of fluid method is employed to capture the undulation of the free surface. The simulation strategy is evaluated by comparison of the computed results with experimental data. The computed results are in good agreement with data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of the swimmer's head position and gliding depth on the drag force at different velocities are then investigated...
January 27, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126694/relationships-among-spinal-mobility-and-sagittal-alignment-of-spine-and-lower-extremity-to-quality-of-life-and-risk-of-falls
#7
Yoshinori Ishikawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Michio Hongo, Yuji Kasukawa, Daisuke Kudo, Yoichi Shimada
Spinal deformities can affect quality of life (QOL) and risk of falling, but no studies have explored the relationships of spinal mobility and sagittal alignment of spine and the lower extremities simultaneously. Purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship of those postural parameters to QOL and risk of falling. The study evaluated 110 subjects (41 men, 69 women; mean age, 73 years). Upright and flexion and extension angles for thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and spinal inclination were evaluated with SpinalMouse(®)...
January 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122432/functional-neuroanatomy-for-posture-and-gait-control
#8
REVIEW
Kaoru Takakusaki
Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069258/reference-values-for-human-posture-measurements-based-on-computerized-photogrammetry-a-systematic-review
#9
Ana Freire Macedo Ribeiro, Anke Bergmann, Thiago Lemos, Antônio Guilherme Pacheco, Maitê Mello Russo, Laura Alice Santos de Oliveira, Erika de Carvalho Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to review the literature to identify reference values for angles and distances of body segments related to upright posture in healthy adult women with the Postural Assessment Software (PAS/SAPO). METHODS: Electronic databases (BVS, PubMed, SciELO and Scopus) were assessed using the following descriptors: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, physical therapy, postural alignment, postural assessment, and physiotherapy...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035656/the-internal-representation-of-head-orientation-differs-for-conscious-perception-and-balance-control
#10
Brian H Dalton, Brandon G Rasman, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
KEY POINTS: We tested perceived head-on-feet orientation and the direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses in passively and actively held head-turned postures. The direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head-on-feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively held head-turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head-on-feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller. A prolonged actively held head-turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular-evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033550/alignment-in-social-interactions
#11
M Gallotti, M T Fairhurst, C D Frith
According to the prevailing paradigm in social-cognitive neuroscience, the mental states of individuals become shared when they adapt to each other in the pursuit of a shared goal. We challenge this view by proposing an alternative approach to the cognitive foundations of social interactions. The central claim of this paper is that social cognition concerns the graded and dynamic process of alignment of individual minds, even in the absence of a shared goal. When individuals reciprocally exchange information about each other's minds processes of alignment unfold over time and across space, creating a social interaction...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987469/investigation-of-associations-between-recurrence-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-spinal-posture-alignment-a-quantitative-cross-sectional-study
#12
Janette Z Canales, Juliana T Fiquer, Rodolfo N Campos, Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza, Ricardo Alberto Moreno
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between poor spinal posture and the recurrence of major depressive episodes and severity of symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This was a cross-sectional quantitative study of MDD patients. Outpatients were recruited from consecutive admissions at a mood disorders unit of a tertiary psychiatric hospital. Of 136 MDD patients, 72 (53 women, 19 men; mean age, 42.4±9.1years) met all the criteria and completed the study. Forty-one patients were classified with a recurrent episode (RE) of MDD and 31 with a single episode (SE)...
December 12, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964875/characteristics-of-spinopelvic-alignment-in-parkinson-s-disease-comparison-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#13
Kei Watanabe, Toru Hirano, Keiichi Katsumi, Masayuki Ohashi, Hirokazu Shoji, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Akiyoshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Ishikawa, Ryoko Koike, Naoto Endo, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Takayoshi Shimohata
PURPOSE: The characteristics and pathogenesis of spinopelvic alignment in Parkinsons's disease (PD) patients-including differences compared to non-PD subjects and their relationships with the severity of PD-have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of spinopelvic alignment in patients with PD. METHODS: Forty-eight PD patients complaining of chronic low back pain were included (PD group). The PD condition, determined using the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score; radiographic spinopelvic alignment; lumbar range of motion (ROM); and low back pain-related quality of life assessments were evaluated...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933108/postural-orientation-and-equilibrium-processes-associated-with-increased-postural-sway-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#14
Zheng Wang, Rami R Hallac, Kaitlin C Conroy, Stormi P White, Alex A Kane, Amy L Collinsworth, John A Sweeney, Matthew W Mosconi
BACKGROUND: Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912154/limb-dominance-foot-orientation-and-functional-asymmetry-during-walking-gait
#15
John D Polk, Rebecca M Stumpf, Karl S Rosengren
While healthy gait is often characterized as, or assumed to be symmetric, consistent asymmetries often exist. In this study, we test the hypotheses that asymmetries in lower limb function, as measured by ground reaction force characteristics, may be explained by differences in foot orientation or limb dominance. Peak ground reaction force (GRF) measurements, and impulses were obtained for thirty-six healthy subjects with simultaneous kinematic estimates of foot posture. Three gait tasks were performed: subjects walked i) with normal foot orientation, ii) with feet laterally rotated (outward), and iii) with feet aligned in the direction of movement (straight)...
November 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#16
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895518/single-leg-squats-can-predict-leg-alignment-in-dancers-performing-ballet-movements-in-turnout
#17
Luke S Hopper, Nahoko Sato, Andries L Weidemann
The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893476/comparison-of-muscle-involvement-and-posture-between-the-conventional-deadlift-and-a-walk-in-style-deadlift-machine
#18
Benjamin J Snyder, Courtney P Cauthen, Scott R Senger
The deadlift exercise is one of the most effective exercises for developing lower-body strength; however, technique errors can lead to low back injuries. The use of a 'walk-in' deadlift machine removes the weight bar by using a lever system with independent handles on either side of the body. Theoretically, this would allow alignment of the load with the center of gravity, encouraging a more upright torso and decreasing the involvement of the low back extensors. This study compared trunk angle, knee angle and electrical activity of key muscles between the conventional deadlift (CDL) and two foot positions (ball of foot or toe alignment) with pronated grip, (called BallPro and ToePro) of a walk-in deadlift machine among high-skilled and low-skilled lifters...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877123/mobility-and-upright-posture-are-associated-with-different-aspects-of-cognition-in-older-adults
#19
Rajal G Cohen, Anita N Vasavada, Michelle M Wiest, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objectives: Aging is associated with cognitive decline, including visuomotor and memory concerns, and with motor system changes, including gait slowing and stooped posture. We investigated the associations of visuomotor performance and episodic memory with motor system characteristics in healthy older adults. Methods: Neurologically healthy older adults (N = 160, aged 50-89) completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Cognitive variables were grouped by principal components analysis (PCA) into two components: visuomotor performance and verbal episodic memory...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876481/physical-effects-of-unilateral-mastectomy-on-spine-deformity
#20
Savaş Serel, Zeynep Yasavur Tuzlalı, Zehra Akkaya, Çağlar Uzun, Burak Kaya, Sancar Bayar
OBJECTIVE: Mastectomy is known to effect body posture after a change in the center of gravity of women due to a missing breast. Although previous studies on short-term postural changes in mastectomy patients using photogrammetry or Moiré topography suggested ipsilateral inclination of the trunk, our clinical observations during breast reconstruction surgeries indicated a contralateral shoulder elevation in women with unilateral mastectomy. Because the change in body posture can affect spinal alignment, we aimed to evaluate the long-term physical effects of unilateral mastectomy on spine deformity by radiographic examination...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
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