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Stress in dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#1
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#2
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210868/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-new-emerging-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetologist-s-perspective
#3
Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199036/edaravone-attenuates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#4
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
Alzheimer's disease is a major cause of dementia worldwide. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, is reported to be neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic edaravone administration on intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced cognitive impairment in male Wistar rats. Cognitive impairment was developed by single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection bilaterally on day 1. Edaravone (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was administered for 28 days. Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess cognitive functions at baseline and on days 14 and 28...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197542/the-proline-arginine-dipeptide-from-hexanucleotide-repeat-expanded-c9orf72-inhibits-the-proteasome
#5
Rahul Gupta, Matthews Lan, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Won Hoon Choi, Nathaniel Safren, Sami Barmada, Min Jae Lee, Robert Kalb
An intronic hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation in the C9ORF72 gene is the most common cause of familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and is found in ∼7% of individuals with apparently sporadic disease. Several different diamino acid peptides can be generated from the HRE by noncanonical translation (repeat-associated non-ATG translation, or RAN translation), and some of these peptides can be toxic. Here, we studied the effects of two arginine containing RAN translation products [proline/arginine repeated 20 times (PR20) and glycine/arginine repeated 20 times (GR20)] in primary rat spinal cord neuron cultures grown on an astrocyte feeder layer...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176625/protective-effects-of-huang-lian-jie-du-tang-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-rats
#6
Wenbin Wu, Shuling Xie, Bin Li, Kun Yang, Xuehui Liu, Baiyang Li
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration and is the most common cause of dementia. Extracellular β-amyloid deposit in senile plaques is the most characteristic pathological hallmark. β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is associated with neurodegeneration and involved in memory impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. It can also induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in neurodegeneration and immune response...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170104/an-adapted-mindfulness-intervention-for-people-with-dementia-in-care-homes-feasibility-pilot-study
#7
A Churcher Clarke, J M Y Chan, J Stott, L Royan, A Spector
OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are common in dementia. There is a need to develop effective psychosocial interventions. This study sought to develop a group-based adapted mindfulness programme for people with mild to moderate dementia in care homes and to determine its feasibility and potential benefits. METHODS: A manual for a 10-session intervention was developed. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention plus treatment as usual (n = 20) or treatment as usual (n = 11)...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169814/examen-de-la-port%C3%A3-e-des-connaissances-sur-les-concepts-du-toucher-et-du-massage-et-de-leurs-effets-sur-l%C3%A2-agitation-et-le-stress-des-personnes-%C3%A3-g%C3%A3-es-hospitalis%C3%A3-es-atteintes-de-d%C3%A3-mence
#8
Corinne Schaub, Armin von Gunten, Diane Morin
<ce:para>This scoping review examines the effects of touch/massage on agitation and stress in aged hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. This intervention is multidimensional, at the edges of medical neurosciences, nursing sciences, and social sciences. This review is primarily supported by a biological model of social relations, describing the interconnection between cognition, affect, and endocrine aspects of attachment modes. It is also guided by nursing sciences conceptualizations which anchors touch/massage in the heart of nursing practice...
October 27, 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164766/biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#9
Vasileios Mantzavinosa, Athanasios Alexiou, Nigel H Greig, Mohammad A Kamal
The dramatic increase in the population with dementia expected in the next decades is accompanied by the establishment of novel and innovated methods that will offer accurate and efficient detection of the disease in its early stages. While Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, by the time is typically diagnosed substantial neuronal loss and neuropathological lesions can damaged many brain regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the main risk factors that affect and increase Alzheimer's disease progression over time even in cases with no significant memory impairment present...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164355/analysis-of-the-appropriateness-of-off-label-antipsychotic-use-for-mental-health-indications-in-a-veteran-population
#10
Jacob T Painter, Richard Owen, Kathy L Henderson, Mark S Bauer, Dinesh Mittal, Teresa J Hudson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of antipsychotic (AP) use in veterans is for nonapproved indications (i.e., off-label prescribing). Not all off-label use is necessarily detrimental to patients, however, and in certain situations, off-label prescribing could be considered justifiable. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which off-label AP prescribing in a veteran population was potentially appropriate. DESIGN: Expert panel and retrospective analysis...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164279/calcipotriol-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-by-a-calbindin-d28k-dependent-mechanism
#11
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158298/administration-of-bovine-casein-derived-peptide-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-alzheimer-disease-model-mice
#12
Li-Juan Min, Yodai Kobayashi, Masaki Mogi, Kana Tsukuda, Akio Yamada, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Jun Iwanami, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Masatsugu Horiuchi
There is a growing interest in identifying natural food ingredients that may serve to prevent dementia such as that due to Alzheimer disease (AD). Peptides derived from food proteins have been demonstrated to have various physiological activities such as a hypotensive action. Recent findings have indicated possible associations of hypertension with AD progression, and suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with potential to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) may reduce the risk of AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152479/inhibitor-of-phosphodiestearse-4-improves-memory-deficits-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-mouse-models-of-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#13
Amit Kumar, Nirmal Singh
The study investigates the potential of Rolipram a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor in cognitive deficits induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 3mg/kg intracerebroventricularly) and natural ageing in mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to evaluate learning and memory of the animals. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity was also estimated. The brain activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation...
January 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152160/new-or-worsening-symptoms-and-signs-in-community-dwelling-persons-with-dementia-incidence-and-relation-to-use-of-acute-medical-services
#14
Philip D Sloane, Christopher H Schifeling, Anna S Beeber, Kimberly T Ward, David Reed, Lisa P Gwyther, Bobbi Matchar, Sheryl Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To understand the range of symptoms that present to family caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). DESIGN: Six-month longitudinal prospective study to identify the incidence of new or worsening symptoms and their association with acute care medical service use. SETTING: Community-based sample of volunteers from multiple states. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 patient-caregiver dyads with a range of dementia severity...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140738/stress-in-childhood-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-and-cortisol-levels-in-older-age
#15
Mathew A Harris, Simon R Cox, Caroline E Brett, Ian J Deary, Alasdair M J MacLullich
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking+45min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study...
January 31, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131209/potential-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ana García-Blanco, Miguel Baquero, Máximo Vento, Esperanza Gil, Luis Bataller, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
The high and increasing incidence of Alzheimer Disease (AD) worldwide is a major global concern. Classical diagnosis is carried out in the dementia phase, often in the moderate stages when treatment efficacy is limited. Nowadays, early diagnosis, even in pre-dementia stages, is possible in selected cases within an appropriate clinical setting, employing cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample analysis and neuroimaging procedures. In spite of the accurate diagnosis achieved by novel CSF biomarkers or positron emission tomography beta-amyloid tracers, these tests are invasive and expensive...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112502/phase-to-phase-with-tdp-43
#17
Yulong Sun, Avijit Chakrabartty
TDP-43 is a dimeric nuclear protein that plays a central role in RNA metabolism. In recent years, this protein has become a focal point of research in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) disease spectrum, as pathognomonic inclusions within affected neurons contain post-translationally modified TDP-43. A key question in TDP-43 research involves determining the mechanisms and triggers that cause TDP-43 to form pathological aggregates. This review gives a brief overview of the physiological and pathological roles of TDP-43 and focuses on the structural features of its protein domains and how they may contribute to normal protein function and to disease...
January 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106550/factors-underpinning-caregiver-burden-in-frontotemporal-dementia-differ-in-spouses-and-their-children
#18
Cassandra Kaizik, Jashelle Caga, Julieta Camino, Claire M O'Connor, Colleen McKinnon, Jan R Oyebode, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Eneida Mioshi
The objectives of this observational study were to (1) compare spousal and child caregiver burden; (2) compare co-resident and live-out child caregiver burden; and (3) investigate factors influencing spousal and child caregiver burden. Data was collected from 90 caregivers of people with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) recruited from the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group (Frontier) at Neuroscience Research, Australia. Of this caregiver group, 43 were spousal caregivers and 47 were child caregivers. Caregiver burden and emotional state were evaluated using the short Zarit Burden Interview and the short version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104710/protocol-of-a-feasibility-study-for-cognitive-assessment-of-an-ageing-cohort-within-the-southeast-asia-community-observatory-seaco-malaysia
#19
Devi Mohan, Blossom C M Stephan, Pascale Allotey, Carol Jagger, Mark Pearce, Mario Siervo, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101460/captopril-and-valsartan-may-improve-cognitive-function-through-potentiation-of-the-brain-antioxidant-defense-system-and-attenuation-of-oxidative-nitrosative-damage-in-stz-induced-dementia-in-rat
#20
Yasaman Arjmand Abbassi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Mahsa Sarami Foroshani, Javad Raouf Sarshoori
Purpose: Previous findings have shown the crucial roles of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since RAS inhibitors may have beneficial effects on dementia and cognitive function in elderly people, the aim of present study was to examine the neuroprotective actions of captopril and valsartan on memory function and neuronal damage in experimental model of AD. Methods: Adult forty male Wistar rats (220-280g) were randomly divided into 5 groups; Control, Vehicle, Alzheimer and treatment groups...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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