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Stress in dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#1
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521309/care-transitions-and-adult-day-services-moderate-the-longitudinal-links-between-stress-biomarkers-and-family-caregivers-functional-health
#2
Yin Liu, David M Almeida, Michael J Rovine, Steven H Zarit
BACKGROUND: Stress biomarkers have been linked to health and well-being. There are, however, few studies on how dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system actually affects functional health of family caregivers of persons with dementia. Further, it is not clear whether and how factors affecting caregiving stressor exposures such as care transitions and adult day services (ADS) use may affect such association. OBJECTIVE: First, to examine the association of daily stress biomarkers and functional health over time among family caregivers of persons with dementia...
May 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521305/bushen-yizhi-formula-ameliorates-cognitive-dysfunction-through-sirt1-er-stress-pathway-in-samp8-mice
#3
Shi-Jie Zhang, Ting-Ting Xu, Lin Li, Yu-Min Xu, Zi-Ling Qu, Xin-Chen Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Yi Luo, Na-Chuan Luo, Ping Lu, Ya-Fei Shi, Xin Yang, Qi Wang
The Chinese formula Bushen-Yizhi (BSYZ) has been reported to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction. However the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we employ an aging model, SAMP8 mice, to explore whether BSYZ could protect dementia through SIRT1/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Morris water maze and the fearing condition test results show that oral administration of BSYZ (1.46 g/kg/d, 2.92 g/kg/d and 5.84 g/kg/d) and donepezil (3 mg/kg/d) shorten the escape latency, increase the crossing times of the original position of the platform and the time spent in the target quadrant, and increase the freezing time...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516276/p2x7-receptor-pannexin-1-interaction-mediates-extracellular-alpha-synuclein-induced-atp-release-in-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Anna Wilkaniec, Magdalena Gąssowska, Grzegorz A Czapski, Magdalena Cieślik, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Agata Adamczyk
Abnormalities of alpha-synuclein (ASN), the main component of protein deposits (Lewy bodies), were observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. These alterations include increase in the levels of soluble ASN oligomers in the extracellular space. Numerous works have identified several mechanisms of their toxicity, including stimulation of the microglial P2X7 receptor leading to oxidative stress. While the significant role of purinergic signaling-particularly, P2 family receptors-in neurodegenerative disorders is well known, the interaction of extracellular soluble ASN with neuronal purinergic receptors is yet to be studied...
May 17, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#5
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515159/intermittent-fasting-pretreatment-prevents-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#6
Yuan Hu, Ying Yang, Miao Zhang, Min Deng, Jun-Jian Zhang
Background: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) pretreatment can prevent vascular cognitive dysfunction remains unknown to our knowledge.Objective: We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of IF pretreatment on cognitive dysfunction in a permanent 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model.Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding for 12 wk before 2VO surgery. Rats in the IF protocol underwent alternative-day feed deprivation (FD). Memory of the animals was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition (NOR) test 6 wk after the surgery...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#7
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511279/blast-associated-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-military-as-a-potential-trigger-for-dementia-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#8
James Hasoon
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) resulting from blast exposures have significantly affected US military personnel throughout the world, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan. From 2000-2016, more than 350,000 military service members were diagnosed with a TBI. Since the majority of blast-related TBIs are classified as mild with no definitive findings on physical examination or diagnostic studies, it is difficult to accurately diagnose individuals inflicted with such injuries. There are likely far more mild TBIs that remain undiagnosed in the military...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508101/in-depth-clinico-pathological-examination-of-rna-foci-in-a-large-cohort-of-c9orf72-expansion-carriers
#9
Mariely DeJesus-Hernandez, NiCole A Finch, Xue Wang, Tania F Gendron, Kevin F Bieniek, Michael G Heckman, Aliaksei Vasilevich, Melissa E Murray, Linda Rousseau, Rachael Weesner, Anthony Lucido, Meeia Parsons, Jeannie Chew, Keith A Josephs, Joseph E Parisi, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve, Neill R Graff-Radford, Jan de Boer, Yan W Asmann, Leonard Petrucelli, Kevin B Boylan, Dennis W Dickson, Marka van Blitterswijk, Rosa Rademakers
A growing body of evidence suggests that a loss of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) expression, formation of dipeptide-repeat proteins, and generation of RNA foci contribute to disease pathogenesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Although the levels of C9ORF72 transcripts and dipeptide-repeat proteins have already been examined thoroughly, much remains unknown about the role of RNA foci in C9ORF72-linked diseases. As such, we performed a comprehensive RNA foci study in an extensive pathological cohort of C9ORF72 expansion carriers (n = 63)...
May 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503675/costs-of-a-staff-communication-intervention-to-reduce-dementia-behaviors-in-nursing-home-care
#10
Kristine N Williams, Padmaja Ayyagari, Yelena Perkhounkova, Marjorie J Bott, Ruth Herman, Ann Bossen
CONTEXT: Persons with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias experience behavioral symptoms that frequently result in nursing home (NH) placement. Managing behavioral symptoms in the NH increases staff time required to complete care, and adds to staff stress and turnover, with estimated cost increases of 30%. The Changing Talk to Reduce Resistivenes to Dementia Care (CHAT) study found that an intervention that improved staff communication by reducing elderspeak led to reduced behavioral symptoms of dementia or resistiveness to care (RTC)...
2017: Journal of Nursing Home Research Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503094/the-nature-characteristics-and-associations-of-care-home-staff-stress-and-wellbeing-a-national-survey
#11
Muhammad Saiful Islam, Christine Baker, Peter Huxley, Ian T Russell, Michael S Dennis
BACKGROUND: The majority of residents in care homes in the United Kingdom are living with dementia or significant memory problems. Caring in this setting can be difficult and stressful for care staff who work long hours, have little opportunity for training, are poorly paid and yet subject to high expectation. This may affect their mental and physical wellbeing, cause high rates of staff turnover and absenteeism, and affect the quality of care they provide. The main objective of this survey was to explore the nature, characteristics and associations of stress in care home staff...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499310/ellagic-acid-administration-negated-the-development-of-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficit-in-rats
#12
Nitin Bansal, Pushplata Yadav, Manish Kumar
Rampant production of pro-oxidants and inadequate antioxidant availability in brain exert oxidative stress, which in synergism with impaired glucose metabolism and inflammation leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Ellagic acid (EGA) is a phenolic compound present in various fruits and is reported to possess robust antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of EGA administration on streptozotocin (STZ) induced dementia in rats. Bilateral intracerebroventricle (ICV) injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) was given to Wistar rats (200 g) on day 1 and 3...
May 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498162/effectiveness-of-psychosocial-interventions-on-the-psychological-health-and-wellbeing-of-family-carers-of-people-with-dementia-following-residential-care-placement-a-systematic-review-protocol
#13
Deborah Brooks, Elaine Fielding, Elizabeth Beattie, Helen Edwards, Sonia Hines
The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on the psychological health and emotional wellbeing of family carers of people with dementia who have moved into residential care.More specifically, the objectives are to determine the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on any of these family carer outcomes after placement in residential care: burden, anxiety, stress, depression, guilt, grief and loss, quality of life and satisfaction with the care of the person with dementia...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498150/effect-of-insulin-on-spatial-memory-in-aluminum-chloride-induced-dementia-in-rats
#14
Madhavan Nampoothiri, Nitesh Kumar, Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Nampurath Gopalan Kutty, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
Latest reports suggest the involvement of insulin in modulating memory. A few published in-vitro studies favor the antidementia effect of insulin. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic role of insulin and its combination with glucose and its possible mechanism(s) in an aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced cognitive dysfunction model in rodents, with a special focus on memory centers namely, the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to AlCl3 (175 mg/kg orally) for 60 days...
June 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495476/studies-on-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-mechanism-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-metabolomics-and-hippocampal-proteomics
#15
Weiwei Lin, Jianmei Zhang, Yanmeng Liu, Ruijun Wu, Haisong Yang, Xiaobo Hu, Xiaomei Ling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia, but precise diagnosis and treatment are not sufficient so far. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers and therapeutic targets for diagnosis and better understanding of AD. As a result, lysophosphatidylcholine and intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism including sphinganine-1-phosphate, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine in plasma were annotated as potential biomarkers by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS. Besides, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) including GstA3, Gstm1, Gstm5, Gstm3, Gstk1 and Gstp1 were significantly enhanced in AD hippocampus by using label free nano-LC-MS/MS...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483271/-mindful-neuropsychology-mindfulness-based-cognitive-remediation
#16
E Bulzacka, S Lavault, A Pelissolo, C Bagnis Isnard
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction...
May 5, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483100/caregiver-burden-in-alzheimer-type-dementia-and-psychosis-a-comparative-study-from-india
#17
P Sinha, N G Desai, O Prakash, S Kushwaha, C B Tripathi
BACKGROUND: Caregiver burden in dementia is an important area of research. Providing care for a relative can be a potent source of chronic stress and can have deleterious consequences for both the physical and emotional health of caregivers. This study aims to evaluate the burden of care in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer-type dementia and compare it with elderly psychosis; and to also study the factors that influence burden of care in Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: Thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of Alzheimer-type dementia were compared with thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of psychosis...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482684/21st-century-diseases-commonly-rare-and-rarely-common
#18
Sylvia Daunert, Gurusingham Sitta Sittampalam, Pascal Joseph Goldschmidt-Clermont
Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/ 2014.). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity...
May 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482635/the-anti-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-neuroprotective-properties-of-a-novel-tricyclic-pyrone-molecule
#19
Izumi Maezawa, Bende Zou, Jacopo Di Lucente, William S Cao, Conrado Pascual, Sahani Weerasekara, Man Zhang, Xinmin Simon Xie, Duy H Hua, Lee-Way Jin
There is an urgent unmet need for new therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Therapeutic approaches targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) and its downstream toxicities have become major strategies in AD drug development. We have taken a rational design approach and synthesized a class of tricyclic pyrone (TP) compounds that show anti-Aβ and other neuroprotective actions. The in vivo efficacy of a lead TP named CP2 to ameliorate AD-like pathologies has been shown in mouse models...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479719/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-cape-prevents-development-of-stz-icv-induced-dementia-in-rats
#20
Manish Kumar, Devinder Kaur, Nitin Bansal
BACKGROUND: Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation severely affect the normal physiology of neurons and lead to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polyphenols proved a boon in the prevention of dementia due to their antioxidant and neuroprotective potential. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural polyphenolic compound attributed with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of CAPE on experimental dementia in rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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