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Stress in dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453337/p66shc-signaling-mediates-diabetes-related-cognitive-decline
#1
Yohei Minami, Noriyuki Sonoda, Eiichi Hayashida, Hiroaki Makimura, Makoto Ide, Noriko Ikeda, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yoshihiro Seki, Yasutaka Maeda, Shigenobu Kanba, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Accumlating evidence have suggested that diabetes mellitus links dementia, notably of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Several studies have shown oxidative stress (OS) to be one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here we show OS involvement in brain damage in a diabetic animal model that is at least partially mediated through an AD-pathology-independent mechanism apart from amyloid-β accumulation. We investigated the contribution of the p66Shc signaling pathway to diabetes-related cognitive decline using p66Shc knockout (-/-) mice...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446123/associations-between-csf-cortisol-and-csf-norepinephrine-in-cognitively-normal-controls-and-patients-with-amnestic-mci-and-ad-dementia
#2
Lucy Y Wang, Murray A Raskind, Charles W Wilkinson, Jane B Shofer, Carl Sikkema, Patricia Szot, Joseph F Quinn, Douglas R Galasko, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of Alzheimer disease (AD) on the relationship between the brain noradrenergic system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis (HPA). Specifically, relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) and CSF cortisol were examined in cognitively normal participants and participants with AD dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We hypothesized that there would a positive association between these 2 measures in cognitively normal controls and that this association would be altered in AD...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439332/early-and-selective-activation-and-subsequent-alterations-to-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-down-syndrome-mouse-models
#3
Chiara Lanzillotta, Antonella Tramutola, Shelby Meier, Frederick Schmitt, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, Fabio Di Domenico, Jose F Abisambra
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans, which results from the triplication of chromosome 21. DS individuals have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology and dementia by the age of 40 due to the triplication of several genes involved in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau tangles. Further, DS and AD are characterized by the aberrant accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins resulting from over-burdened protein quality control systems...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439325/prediction-and-early-detection-of-alzheimer-s-dementia-professional-disclosure-practices-and-ethical-attitudes
#4
Mark Schweda, Anna Kögel, Claudia Bartels, Jens Wiltfang, Anja Schneider, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Biomarker-supported testing for preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) finds its way into clinical practice. Professional attitudes and practices regarding disclosure and ethical issues are controversial in many countries. OBJECTIVES: Against this background, the objective was to survey the actual practice and the attitudes of physicians in German hospitals and memory clinics in order to explore possible practical insecurities and ethical concerns...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436880/cotard-s-syndrome-triggered-by-fear-in-a-patient-with-intellectual-disability-causal-or-casual-link
#5
Fabrizio Sottile, Rosaria De Luca, Lilla Bonanno, Giuseppina Finzi, Carmela Casella, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cotard's syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disease characterized by a variety of nihilistic delusions, commonly associated with several psychotic and major affective disorders, and neurological diseases, including stroke, dementia, and mental retardation. A 39-year-old male with mental retardation developed Cotard's syndrome, following an important episode of fear. During admission to our neurological unit, the patient underwent an accurate assessment, including neuroradiological, clinical, and neuropsychological examinations...
February 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433392/the-protective-effects-of-gardenia-jasminoides-fructus-gardenia-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-mouse-cognitive-impairment-and-neurotoxicity
#6
Cai-Xia Zang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Lin Li, Han-Yu Yang, Lu Wang, Yang Yu, Xiao-Liang Wang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Dan Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. Although the exact causes of AD have not yet been fully elucidated, cholinergic dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been recognized as influential factors. Current drugs that are designed to address only a single target are unable to mitigate or prevent the progression of this complicated disease, so new disease-modifying drugs are urgently needed. Chinese herbs with thousand years of effective usage might be a good source for potential drugs...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425965/the-small-heat-shock-proteins-especially-hspb4-and-hspb5-are-promising-protectants-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424252/the-impact-of-respite-programming-on-caregiver-resilience-in-dementia-care-a-qualitative-examination-of-family-caregiver-perspectives
#8
Emily Roberts, Kristopher M Struckmeyer
Family members with a relative with dementia often experience what has been called the "unexpected career of caregiver" and face multifaceted, complex, and stressful life situations that can have important consequences. This exploratory study was designed to address this major public health challenge through the lens of caregiver resilience and caregiver respite programming. While many caregivers report that they derive significant emotional and spiritual rewards from their caregiving role, many also experience physical and emotional problems directly related to the stress and demands of daily care...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423193/alzheimer-s-disease-hypothesis-and-related-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoguang Du, Xinyi Wang, Meiyu Geng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause for dementia. There are many hypotheses about AD, including abnormal deposit of amyloid β (Aβ) protein in the extracellular spaces of neurons, formation of twisted fibers of tau proteins inside neurons, cholinergic neuron damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc., and many anti-AD drugs based on these hypotheses have been developed. In this review, we will discuss the existing and emerging hypothesis and related therapies...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419364/perspectives-and-insights-from-vietnamese-american-mental-health-professionals-on-how-to-culturally-tailor-a-vietnamese-dementia-caregiving-program
#10
Van Ta Park, Khue Nguyen, Yvonne Tran, Gwen Yeo, Quyen Tiet, Joyce Suen, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about dementia and caregiving among the rapidly growing Vietnamese American population. This qualitative study elicited insights on culturally tailoring an intervention to address mental health needs in Vietnamese American dementia caregivers from Vietnamese American mental health professionals. METHODS: Eight Vietnamese American mental health professionals were interviewed to explore: experiences working with and needs of the community; Vietnamese attitudes toward treatment; and acculturation in Vietnamese caregiving...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415688/risk-of-dementia-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-a-nationwide-population-based-case-control-study
#11
Chao-Ming Hung, Ying-Chun Li, Han-Jung Chen, Kang Lu, Cheng-Loong Liang, Po-Chou Liliang, Yu-Duan Tsai, Kuo-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between primary insomnia and dementia using a Taiwanese population-based database. METHODS: This case-control study involved a subset of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims. We included 51,734 patients who were diagnosed with primary insomnia from 2002 to 2004 as the test group and 258,715 nonprimary insomnia participants aged 20 years or older as the reference group. We excluded patients under 20 and those with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and/or sleep disorders caused by organic lesion(s), drugs, or alcohol...
February 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414991/positive-age-beliefs-protect-against-dementia-even-among-elders-with-high-risk-gene
#12
Becca R Levy, Martin D Slade, Robert H Pietrzak, Luigi Ferrucci
One of the strongest risk factors for dementia is the ε4 variant of the APOE gene. Yet, many who carry it never develop dementia. The current study examined for the first time whether positive age beliefs that are acquired from the culture may reduce the risk of developing dementia among older individuals, including those who are APOE ε4 carriers. The cohort consisted of 4,765 Health and Retirement Study participants who were aged 60 or older and dementia-free at baseline. As predicted, in the total sample those with positive age beliefs at baseline were significantly less likely to develop dementia, after adjusting for relevant covariates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412844/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-elderly
#13
REVIEW
Rebekah J Jakel
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur at any point in the life span and can last for decades. Chronic PTSD can affect quality of life and have a negative impact on physical function and health in the elderly and may be associated with premature aging and dementia. It is critical that clinicians screen for trauma-based symptoms and to treat as appropriate.
March 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411261/amentoflavone-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-cellular-and-rat-model
#14
Chao Chen, Bin Li, Guangqing Cheng, Xiaoni Yang, Ningning Zhao, Ran Shi
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, is the most common cause of senile dementia. This study aimed to investigate whether amentoflavone (AF), a biflavonoid compound, could exert neuroprotective activities against AD. The AD model was established by the intracranial injection of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in rat models. The effect of AF on cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze test. Cell survival and apoptosis in the hippocampal region in an animal model were detected using Nissl staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick-end labeling assay, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408763/multiple-pharmacological-activities-of-caesalpinia-crista-against-aluminium-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats-relevance-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sunil K Ravi, Balenahalli Narasingappa Ramesh, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (MECC) on aluminium-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Co-administration with MECC significantly and dose dependently ameliorated the aluminium-dependent cognitive impairment, AChE hyperactivity and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and in the frontal cortex of rat brain...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407524/metabolic-inflammatory-vascular-comorbidity-in-psychiatric-disorders-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-seh-as-a-possible-new-target
#16
REVIEW
W Swardfager, M Hennebelle, D Yu, B D Hammock, A J Levitt, K Hashimoto, A Y Taha
The common and severe psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and changes in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism. Those pathways are implicated in the premature development of vascular and metabolic comorbidities, which account for considerable morbidity and mortality, including increased dementia risk. During endoplasmic reticulum stress, the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme converts anti-inflammatory fatty acid epoxides generated by cytochrome p450 enzymes into their corresponding and generally less anti-inflammatory, or even pro-inflammatory, diols, slowing the resolution of inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400127/glucocerebrosidase-and-parkinson-disease-molecular-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
Roberta Balestrino, Anthony H V Schapira
Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterised by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms. In the last 20 years, more than 20 genes have been identified as causes of parkinsonism. Following the observation of higher risk of PD in patients affected by Gaucher disease, a lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene, it was discovered that mutations in this gene constitute the single largest risk factor for development of idiopathic PD. Patients with PD and GBA mutations are clinically indistinguishable from patients with idiopathic PD, although some characteristics emerge depending on the specific mutation, such as slightly earlier onset...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394331/vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-hypertension
#18
Rhian M Touyz, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Francisco J Rios, Livia L Camargo, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Anders Arner, Augusto C Montezano
Hypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex interacting systems such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), sympathetic nervous system, immune activation and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function...
January 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390999/organizational-factors-associated-with-readiness-for-change-in-residential-aged-care-settings
#19
Kathryn von Treuer, Gery Karantzas, Marita McCabe, David Mellor, Anastasia Konis, Tanya E Davison, Daniel O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Organizational change is inevitable in any workplace. Previous research has shown that leadership and a number of organizational climate and contextual variables can affect the adoption of change initiatives. The effect of these workplace variables is particularly important in stressful work sectors such as aged care where employees work with challenging older clients who frequently exhibit dementia and depression. METHODS: This study sought to examine the effect of organizational climate and leadership variables on organizational readiness for change across 21 residential aged care facilities...
February 1, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385819/caregivers-interactions-with-health-care-services-mediator-of-stress-or-added-strain-experiences-and-perceptions-of-informal-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-a-qualitative-study
#20
Despina Laparidou, Jo Middlemass, Terence Karran, A Niroshan Siriwardena
Background There are an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia in 2015, being cared for usually by family members or friends (informal caregivers). The challenges faced by informal caregivers often lead to increased levels of stress, burden and risk of care-recipient institutionalisation. Aim The overarching aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of informal caregivers of people with dementia when interacting with the health care system, and whether the support received acted as a mediator of caregiver stress...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
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