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Communication and Alzheimer's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661268/degradation-or-aggregation-the-ramifications-of-post-translational-modifications-on-tau
#1
Seoyoung Park, Jung Hoon Lee, Min Jae Lee
Tau protein is encoded in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene and contributes to the stability of microtubules in axons. Despite of its basic isoelectric point and high solubility, tau is often found in intraneuronal filamentous inclusions such as paired helical filaments (PHFs), which are the primary constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). This pathological feature is the nosological entity termed "tauopathies" which notably include Alzheimer's disease (AD). A proteinaceous signature of all tauopathies is hyperphosphorylation of the accumulated tau, which has been extensively studied as a major pharmacological target for AD therapy...
April 17, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660443/cell-to-cell-communication-by-extracellular-vesicles-focus-on-microglia
#2
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Giorgio Bergamini, Lawrence Rajendran
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648443/shedding-light-on-the-molecular-pathology-of-amyloid-plaques-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-using-multimodal-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#3
Ibrahim Kaya, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
Senile plaques formed by aggregated amyloid β peptides are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which have been suggested to be the primary influence triggering the AD pathogenesis and the rest of the disease process. However, neurotoxic Aβ aggregation and progression are associated with a wide range of enigmatic biochemical, biophysical and genetic processes. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a label-free method to elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of intact molecules in biological tissue sections...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627763/-lipid-raft-aging-in-the-human-frontal-cortex-during-nonpathological-aging-gender-influences-and-potential-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Mario Díaz, Noemí Fabelo, Isidre Ferrer, Raquel Marín
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane domains featured by distinctive biochemical composition and physicochemical properties compared with the surrounding plasma membrane. These microstructures are associated not only with cellular signaling and communication in normal nerve cells but also with pathological processing of amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease. Using lipid rafts isolated from human frontal cortex in nondemented subjects aging 24 to 85 years, we demonstrate here that lipid structure of lipid rafts undergo significant alterations of specific lipid classes and phospholipid-bound fatty acids as brain cortex correlating with aging...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619740/nicotine-modulates-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Juan A Godoy, Angel G Valdivieso, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Mitochondria are widely recognized as fundamental organelles for cellular physiology and constitute the main energy source for different cellular processes. The location, morphology, and interactions of mitochondria with other organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), have emerged as critical events capable of determining cellular fate. Mitochondria-related functions have proven particularly relevant in neurons; mitochondria are necessary for proper neuronal morphogenesis and the highly energy-demanding synaptic transmission process...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#6
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615954/microbiome-mediated-upregulation-of-microrna-146a-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
The first indication of a potential mechanistic link between the pathobiology of the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and its contribution to the pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) came a scant 4 years ago (1). Ongoing research continues to strengthen the hypothesis that neurotoxic microbial-derived components of the GI tract microbiome can cross aging GI tract and blood-brain barriers and contribute to progressive proinflammatory neurodegeneration, as exemplified by the AD-process...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608380/the-alzheimer-s-disease-home-hospice-knowledge-scale-development-validity-and-reliability
#8
Pnina Sela-Katz, Perla Werner
BACKGROUND: Several instruments are available to assess knowledge about hospice care, but none specifically address knowledge about home hospice for persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM: To develop and validate the Alzheimer's Disease Home Hospice Knowledge Scale (AD-HHK-S). METHODS: A total of 107 Israeli family caregivers of persons with dementia (mean age=71.2; 73% female) participated in the study. RESULTS: The AD-HHK-S included 28 true/false items assessing 3 areas of knowledge: knowledge about hospice, knowledge about home hospice, and knowledge about home hospice for AD...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575574/no-effects-without-causes-the-iron-dysregulation-and-dormant-microbes-hypothesis-for-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#9
Douglas B Kell, Etheresia Pretorius
Since the successful conquest of many acute, communicable (infectious) diseases through the use of vaccines and antibiotics, the currently most prevalent diseases are chronic and progressive in nature, and are all accompanied by inflammation. These diseases include neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), vascular (e.g. atherosclerosis, pre-eclampsia, type 2 diabetes) and autoimmune (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis) diseases that may appear to have little in common. In fact they all share significant features, in particular chronic inflammation and its attendant inflammatory cytokines...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562522/untold-new-beginnings-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Catia M Teixeira, Noemí Pallas-Bazarra, Marta Bolós, Julia Terreros-Roncal, Jesús Ávila, María Llorens-Martín
Neurogenesis occurs in a limited number of brain regions during adulthood. Of these, the hippocampus has attracted great interest due to its involvement in memory processing. Moreover, both the hippocampus and the main area that innervates this structure, namely the entorhinal cortex, show remarkable atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process that continuously gives rise to newborn granule neurons in the dentate gyrus. These cells coexist with developmentally generated granule neurons in this structure, and both cooperative and competition phenomena regulate the communication between these two types of cells...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552561/of-microbes-and-minds-a-narrative-review-on-the-second-brain-aging
#11
REVIEW
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550981/combining-drug-and-music-therapy-in-patients-with-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-study
#12
Anna Rita Giovagnoli, Valentina Manfredi, Letizia Schifano, Chiara Paterlini, Annalisa Parente, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair language, but active music therapy (AMT) and memantine (M) can improve communication. This study aimed to clarify whether adding AMT to M may improve language in comparison with drugs alone in patients with moderate AD on stable therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). Forty-five AD patients treated with stable dose of AchEI were randomized to receive AMT plus M 20 mg/day or M 20 mg/day for 24 weeks. The Severe Impairment Battery-Language (SIB-l), SIB, Mini Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Lubben Social Network Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks assessed language (primary variable) and overall cognitive, psycho-behavior, social, and functional aspects (secondary variables)...
March 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548847/simultaneous-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-flutemetamol-pet-suggests-local-correlation-of-iron-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-as-an-indicator-of-cognitive-performance-at-high-age
#13
J M G van Bergen, X Li, F C Quevenco, A F Gietl, V Treyer, R Meyer, A Buck, P A Kaufmann, R M Nitsch, P C M van Zijl, C Hock, P G Unschuld
The accumulation of β-amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and recently published data suggest that increased brain iron burden may reflect pathologies that synergistically contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. While preclinical disease stages are considered most promising for therapeutic intervention, the link between emerging AD-pathology and earliest clinical symptoms remains largely unclear. In the current study we therefore investigated local correlations between iron and β-amyloid plaques, and their possible association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543435/a%C3%AE-42-protofibrils-interact-with-and-are-trafficked-through-microglial-derived-microvesicles
#14
Lisa K Gouwens, Mudar S Ismail, Victoria A Rogers, Nathan T Zeller, Evan C Garrad, Fatima S Amtashar, Nyasha J Makoni, David C Osborn, Michael R Nichols
Microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes comprise a class of cell-secreted particles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs). These cargo-holding vesicles mediate cell-to-cell communication and have recently been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two types of EVs are distinguished by the mechanism of cell release and their size, with the smaller exosomes and the larger MVs ranging from 30 to 100 nm and 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, respectively. MV numbers are increased in AD and appear to interact with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the primary protein component of the neuritic plaques in the AD brain...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541381/identification-of-prefrontal-cortex-protein-alterations-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Maria Garranzo-Asensio, Pablo San Segundo-Acosta, Javier Martínez-Useros, Ana Montero-Calle, María Jesús Fernández-Aceñero, Anna Häggmark-Månberg, Alberto Pelaez-Garcia, Mayte Villalba, Alberto Rabano, Peter Nilsson, Rodrigo Barderas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in developed countries. A better understanding of the events taking place at the molecular level would help to identify novel protein alterations, which might be used in diagnosis or for treatment development. In this study, we have performed the high-throughput analysis of 706 molecules mostly implicated in cell-cell communication and cell signaling processes by using two antibody microarray platforms. We screened three AD pathological groups -each one containing four pooled samples- from Braak stages IV, V and VI, and three control groups from two healthy subjects, five frontotemporal and two vascular dementia patients onto Panorama and L-Series antibody microarrays to identify AD-specific alterations not common to other dementias...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538492/analysis-of-the-linguistic-profile-in-down-syndrome-using-the-arizona-battery-for-communication-disorders-of-dementia-a-pilot-study
#16
Cláudia Lopes Carvalho, Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro Belan, Leila Regina de Castro, Márcia Radanovic
PURPOSE: To characterize the linguistic profile of adults and elderly with Down Syndrome (DS) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). METHODS: Thirty adult individuals with DS were evaluated through the MoCA cognitive battery, four functional scales (Pfeffer, Lawton-IADL, Katz-IADL and IQCODE) and the ABCD battery, which evaluates Mental State, Episodic Memory, Linguistic Expression, Linguistic Comprehension and Visuospatial Construction...
March 12, 2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535679/milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-8-pretreatment-attenuates-apoptosis-and-inflammation-via-the-integrin-%C3%AE-3-pathway-after-surgical-brain-injury-in-rats
#17
Yicai Xiao, Gaofeng Li, Yujie Chen, Yuchun Zuo, Kauthar Rashid, Tibiao He, Hua Feng, John H Zhang, Fei Liu
Iatrogenic brain injury inevitably occurs in neurosurgical operations, leading to brain edema, ischemia, intracranial hematoma, and other postoperative complications, eventually worsening neurological outcomes of patients. If apoptotic cells are not rapidly eliminated by phagocytic engulfment, they may communicate with surrounding cells to undergo secondary necrosis and releasing toxic signals. Recent studies have shown that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8), which promotes phagocytosis and inhibits inflammation, is an endogenous protective factor in response to brain infarction, Alzheimer's disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and prion disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531009/-communication-melatonin-hyperhomocysteinemia-thioretinaco-ozonide-adenosylmethionine-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aging-and-dementia
#18
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516757/determining-stability-in-connected-speech-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Ashleigh Beales, Anne Whitworth, Jade Cartwright, Peter K Panegyres, Robert T Kane
PURPOSE: Using connected speech to assess progressive language disorders is confounded by uncertainty around whether connected speech is stable over successive sampling, and therefore representative of an individual's performance, and whether some contexts and/or language behaviours show greater stability than others. METHOD: A repeated measure, within groups, research design was used to investigate stability of a range of behaviours in the connected speech of six individuals with primary progressive aphasia and three individuals with Alzheimer's disease...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504837/information-communication-and-online-tool-needs-of-hispanic-family-caregivers-of-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-dementias
#20
Sarah Iribarren, Samantha Stonbraker, Niurka Suero-Tejeda, Maribel Granja, José A Luchsinger, Mary Mittelman, Suzanne Bakken, Robert J Lucero
PURPOSE: To identify the information and communication needs of Hispanic family caregivers for individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) and the manner in which online tools may meet those needs. METHODS: We conducted 11 participatory design sessions with 10 English- and 14 Spanish-speaking urban-dwelling Hispanic family caregivers and gathered data using a survey, collage assemblage, and audio and video recordings. Four investigators analyzed transcripts of audio recordings with a coding framework informed by several conceptual models...
March 5, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
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