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Communication and Alzheimer's disease

F Ruffinatti, L Tapella, I Gregnanin, A Stevano, G Chiorino, P L Canonico, C Distasi, A A Genazzani, D Lim
BACKGROUND: It is well known that alterations in astrocytes occur in Alzheimer's Disease and reactive astrogliosis is one of the hallmarks of the disease. Recently, data has emerged that suggests that alterations in astrocytes may also occur early in the pathogenesis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present work was to characterize the transcriptional alterations occurring in cultured astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mouse pups compared to control non-transgenic mice...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Patricia Miranda-Azpiazu, Stavros Panagiotou, Gin Jose, Sikha Saha
Blood brain barrier (BBB) cells play key roles in the physiology and pathology of the central nervous system (CNS). BBB dysfunction is implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The BBB consists of capillary endothelial cells, pericytes encircling the endothelium and surrounding astrocytes extending their processes towards it. Although there have been many attempts to develop in vitro BBB models, the complex interaction between these cell types makes it extremely difficult to determine their individual contribution to neurotoxicity in vivo...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
You-Wei Lin, Chi-Yi Lin
The ubiquity of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones and peripherals has brought tremendous convenience to our daily life. In recent years, Bluetooth beacons have also been gaining popularity in implementing a variety of innovative location-based services such as self-guided systems in exhibition centers. However, the broadcast-based beacon technology can only provide unidirectional communication. In case smartphone users would like to respond to the beacon messages, they have to rely on their own mobile Internet connections to send the information back to the backend system...
May 21, 2018: Sensors
S Akila Parvathy Dharshini, Y-H Taguchi, M Michael Gromiha
The selective vulnerability of distinct regions of the brain is a critical factor in neurodegenerative disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurons in hippocampus situated in medial temporal lobe are immensely damaged. Identifying tissue-specific variants is essential in order to perceive the selective vulnerability in AD. In current work, we aligned mRNA-seq data with HG19/HG38 genomic assembly and identified specific variations present in temporal, frontal and other lobes of the AD using sequence alignment map tools...
June 4, 2018: Genomics
P Kutschar, K Lex, J Osterbrink, S Lorenzl
BACKGROUND: Adequate pain management and palliative care structures are of significant importance in residential nursing homes. Whilst professional pain treatment and palliative care measures are frequently implemented for residents with oncological diseases, this is often not the case for residents with neurological disorders. Such a potential undertreatment is even more challenging when the means of interaction and communication with affected persons are aggravated by impairments in cognitive function...
June 5, 2018: Der Schmerz
Arunima Banerjee, Janet L Paluh, Amitava Mukherjee, K Gaurav Kumar, Archisman Ghosh, Mrinal K Naskar
Aim: In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), molecular changes spanning multiple subcellular compartments of the neuron contribute to neurodegeneration and altered axonal signaling. Computational modeling of end-to-end linked events benefit mechanistic analysis and can be informative to understand disease progression and accelerate development of effective therapies. In the calcium-amyloid beta model of AD, calcium ions that are an important regulator of neuronal function undergo dysregulated homeostasis that disrupts cargo loading for neurotrophic signaling along axonal microtubules (MTs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Panchanan Maiti, Gary Leo Dunbar
Progressive accumulation of misfolded amyloid proteins in intracellular and extracellular spaces is one of the principal reasons for synaptic damage and impairment of neuronal communication in several neurodegenerative diseases. Effective treatments for these diseases are still lacking but remain the focus of much active investigation. Despite testing several synthesized compounds, small molecules, and drugs over the past few decades, very few of them can inhibit aggregation of amyloid proteins and lessen their neurotoxic effects...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tongxing Wang, Lu Han, Xiaorui Zhang, Rongrong Wu, Xiaorui Cheng, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Growing evidence shows that the neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network plays an important role in maintaining and modulating body function and the homeostasis of the internal environment. The disequilibrium of NIM in the body is closely associated with many diseases. In the present study, we first collected a core dataset of NIM signaling molecules based on our knowledge and obtained 611 NIM signaling molecules. Then, we built a NIM molecular network based on the MetaCore database and analyzed the signaling transduction characteristics of the core network...
May 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Min Song, Minseok Kang, Hyeonsu Lee, Yong Jeong, Se-Bum Paik
Various patterns of neural activity are observed in dynamic cortical imaging data. Such patterns may reflect how neurons communicate using the underlying circuitry to perform appropriate functions; thus it is crucial to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of the observed neural activity patterns. In general, however, neural activities are highly nonlinear and complex, so it is a demanding job to analyze them quantitatively or to classify the patterns of observed activities in various types of imaging data...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Venexia M Walker, Neil M Davies, Patrick G Kehoe, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Drugs for dementia have been available in England since 1997. Since their launch, there have been several changes to national guidelines and initiatives that may have influenced prescribing. These include changes in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance, several government dementia strategies, the addition of dementia to the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and the expiry of drug patents. Despite this, there has been little research into the effect of these events on prescribing...
May 29, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Javad Masoumi, Morteza Abbasloui, Reza Parvan, Daryoush Mohammadnejad, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Abolfazl Barzegari, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high outbreak rates. It is estimated that about 35 million individuals around the world suffered from dementia in 2010. AD is expected to increase twofold every 20 years and, by 2030, approximately 65 million people could suffer from this illness. AD is determined clinically by a cognitive impairment and pathologically by the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, toxic free radicals and inflammatory mediators in the brain...
May 23, 2018: Neuropeptides
Masateru Matsushita, Yusuke Yatabe, Asuka Koyama, Akiko Katsuya, Daisuke Ijichi, Yusuke Miyagawa, Hiroto Ikezaki, Noboru Furukawa, Manabu Ikeda, Mamoru Hashimoto
INTRODUCTION: To keep up appearances, people with dementia sometimes pretend to know the correct answer, as seen during administration of neuropsychological tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). These saving appearance responses (SARs) of people with dementia often lead to caregivers and/or medical staff underestimating the severity of dementia and impede proper early initiation of treatment. However, most descriptions of SARs are based on empirical knowledge of clinicians...
2018: PloS One
Sally Hunter, Nadja Smailagic, Carol Brayne
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a clinicopathologically defined syndrome leading to cognitive impairment. Following the recent failures of amyloid-based randomized controlled trials to change the course of AD, there are growing calls for a re-evaluation of basic AD research. Epidemiology offers one approach to integrating the available evidence. Here we examine relationships between evidence from population-based, clinicopathological studies of brain aging and a range of hypotheses from all areas of AD research...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, Selva Rivas-Arancibia
In a state of oxidative stress, there is an increase of reactive species, which induce an altered intracellular signaling, leading to dysregulation of the inflammatory response. The inability of the antioxidant defense systems to modulate the proinflammatory response is key to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work is to review the effect of the state of oxidative stress on the loss of regulation of the inflammatory response on the microglia and astrocytes, the induction of different CD4+ T cell populations in neuroinflammation, as well as its role in some neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Anna Carotenuto, Raffaele Rea, Enea Traini, Giovanna Ricci, Angiola Maria Fasanaro, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Approximately 46.8 million people are living with dementia worldwide and their number will grow in the next years. Any potential treatment should be administered as early as possible because it is important to provide an early cognitive assessment and to regularly monitor the mental function of patients. Information and communication technologies can be helpful to reach and follow patients without displacing them, but there may be doubts about the reliability of cognitive tests performed by telemedicine...
May 11, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Stephen Corbett, Alexandre Courtiol, Virpi Lummaa, Jacob Moorad, Stephen Stearns
The Industrial Revolution and the accompanying nutritional, epidemiological and demographic transitions have profoundly changed human ecology and biology, leading to major shifts in life history traits, which include age and size at maturity, age-specific fertility and lifespan. Mismatch between past adaptations and the current environment means that gene variants linked to higher fitness in the past may now, through antagonistic pleiotropic effects, predispose post-transition populations to non-communicable diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, cancer and coronary artery disease...
May 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA)...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Julia Herber, Jasenka Njavro, Regina Feederle, Ute Schepers, Ulrike Müller, Stefan Bräse, Stephan Müller, Stefan F Lichtenthaler
The cell surface proteome is dynamic and has fundamental roles in cell signaling. Many surface membrane proteins are proteolytically released into a cell's secretome, where they can have additional functions in cell-cell-communication. Yet, it remains challenging to determine the surface proteome and to compare it to the cell secretome, in particular under serum-containing cell culture conditions. Here, we set-up and evaluated the 'surface-spanning protein enrichment with click sugars' (SUSPECS) method for cell surface membrane glycoprotein biotinylation, enrichment and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry...
May 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Wha Jin Lee, Cheol E Han, Iman Aganj, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong
Recent advances in neuroimaging technology have shown that rich club organization in human brain networks plays a crucial role in global communication and cognitive functionality. In this study, we investigated rich club organization within white matter structural brain networks in two common types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). We recruited 30 AD patients ([11C] Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET positive), 39 SVaD patients (PiB negative), and 72 age-, gender-, and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) subjects...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rocco Marchitelli, Marco Aiello, Arnaud Cachia, Mario Quarantelli, Carlo Cavaliere, Alfredo Postiglione, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Patrizia Montella, Graziella Milan, Marco Salvatore, Elena Salvatore, Jean Claude Baron, Sabina Pappatà
Simultaneously evaluating resting-state brain glucose metabolism and intrinsic functional activity has potential to impact the clinical neurosciences of Alzheimer Disease (AD). Indeed, integrating such combined information obtained in the same physiological setting may clarify how impairments in neuroenergetic and neuronal function interact and contribute to the mechanisms underlying AD. The present study used this multimodality approach to investigate, by means of a hybrid PET/MR scanner, the coupling between glucose consumption and intrinsic functional activity in 23 patients with AD-related cognitive impairment ranging from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to mild-moderate AD (aMCI/AD), in comparison with a group of 23 healthy elderly controls...
April 27, 2018: NeuroImage
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