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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088423/effects-of-rumen-protected-capsicum-oleoresin-on-productivity-and-responses-to-a-glucose-tolerance-test-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
J Oh, M Harper, F Giallongo, D M Bravo, E H Wall, A N Hristov
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg RPC/cow per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088414/social-dominance-in-prepubertal-dairy-heifers-allocated-in-continuous-competitive-dyads-effects-on-body-growth-metabolic-status-and-reproductive-development
#3
C Fiol, M Carriquiry, R Ungerfeld
The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088413/short-communication-associations-between-feed-push-up-frequency-feeding-and-lying-behavior-and-milk-yield-and-composition-of-dairy-cows
#4
E K Miller-Cushon, T J DeVries
Feeding management factors have great potential to influence activity patterns and feeding behavior of dairy cows, which may have implications for performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of feed push-up frequency on the behavioral patterns of dairy cows, and to determine associations between behavior and milk yield and composition. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 28, parity = 1.9 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) were housed in tiestalls, milked twice per day, and offered ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration (containing, on a dry matter basis: 25% corn silage, 25% grass/alfalfa haylage, 30% high-moisture corn, and 20% protein/mineral supplement), provided twice per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088410/short-communication-sodium-salicylate-negatively-affects-rumen-fermentation-in-vitro-and-in-situ
#5
A J Carpenter, C F Vargas Rodriguez, J A B Jantz, B J Bradford
Administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to cows in early lactation has a positive effect on whole-lactation milk production but a negative effect on metabolism in some cases. The objective of this trial was to determine whether SS directly affects rumen fermentation. Experiment 1 was designed to investigate the effects of direct inclusion of SS in a 24-h batch culture, and experiment 2 was designed to test the fermentative ability of rumen fluid from heifers who had received SS. In experiment 1, we combined strained and pooled rumen fluid from 3 heifers in a 2:1 ratio with McDougall's buffer, and added 150 mL of the inoculum to each flask (n = 5/treatment) with 2...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#6
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088120/3d-architecture-of-a-graphene-comoo4-composite-for-asymmetric-supercapacitors-usable-at-various-temperatures
#7
Yaru Jiang, Xin Zheng, Xiaoqin Yan, Yong Li, Xuan Zhao, Yue Zhang
Designing and optimizing the electrode materials and studying the electrochemical performance or cycle life of the supercapacitor under different working conditions are crucial to its practical application. Herein, we proposed a rational design of 3D-graphene/CoMoO4 nanoplates by a facile two-step hydrothermal method. Owing to the high electron transfer rate of graphene and the high activity of the CoMoO4 nanoplates, the three-dimensional electrode architectures achieved remarkable electrochemical performances with high areal specific capacitance (1255...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087726/benefit-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-in-aki-role-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-rac1
#8
Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Gwennan André-Grégoire, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Sebastian M Lechner, Jérôme Cau, Sonia Prince, Peter Kolkhof, Gervaise Loirand, Vincent Sauzeau, Thierry Hauet, Frédéric Jaisser
AKI is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, there is no effective pharmacologic approach for treating or preventing AKI. In rodents, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We investigated the specific role of vascular MR in mediating AKI induced by IR. We also assessed the protective effect of MR antagonism in IR-induced AKI in the Large White pig, a model of human AKI. In mice, MR deficiency in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protected against kidney IR injury...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087352/engineering-hot-melt-extruded-solid-dispersion-for-controlled-release-of-hydrophilic-drugs
#9
Shuli Zhang, Xuan Meng, Zheng Wang, Aiping Fan, Guocheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao, Yu Tang
It is often challenging to precisely manipulate the release behavior of hydrophilic drugs that is believed to be crucial for a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. The aim of this work was to regulate the dissolution of hydrophilic drug from hot-melt extruded solid dispersion via rational screening of the pore-forming agents. Venlafaxine hydrochloride and Compritol® 888 ATO was selected as the model drug and carrier excipient, respectively. Hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP K30) were chosen as the transient pore-forming agents...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087047/rational-design-of-low-immunogenic-anti-cd25-recombinant-immunotoxin-for-t-cell-malignancies-by-elimination-of-t-cell-epitopes-in-pe38
#10
Ronit Mazor, Gilad Kaplan, Dong Park, Youjin Jang, Fred Lee, Robert Kreitman, Ira Pastan
LMB-2, is a potent recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) that is composed of scFv antibody that targets CD25 (Tac) and a toxin fragment (PE38). It is used to treat T cell leukemias and lymphomas. To make LMB-2 less immunogenic, we introduced a large deletion in domain II and six point mutations in domain III that were previously shown to reduce T cell activation in other RITs. We found that unlike other RITs, deletion of domain II from LMB-2 severely compromised its activity. Rather than deletion, we identified T cell epitopes in domain II and used alanine substitutions to identify point mutations that diminished those epitopes...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086767/quantifying-traditional-chinese-medicine-patterns-using-modern-test-theory-an-example-of-functional-constipation
#11
Minxue Shen, Yuanwu Cui, Ming Hu, Linyong Xu
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to validate a scale to assess the severity of "Yin deficiency, intestine heat" pattern of functional constipation based on the modern test theory. METHODS: Pooled longitudinal data of 237 patients with "Yin deficiency, intestine heat" pattern of constipation from a prospective cohort study were used to validate the scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the common factors of items. A multidimensional item response model was used to assess the scale with the presence of multidimensionality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081579/predicting-full-enteral-feeding-in-the-postoperative-period-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#12
Carlos Zozaya, Miryam Triana, Rosario Madero, Steven Abrams, Leopoldo Martinez, Maria Virginia Amesty, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón
Introduction The objective of the study is to examine the factors associated with time to achieve full enteral feeding after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Materials and Methods Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic data were retrospectively assessed, and uni- and multivariate Cox regression were performed to examine factors predictive of achieving full enteral feeding that was defined as time to achieve120 mL/kg/d after surgical repair. Results Of 78 infants, 66 underwent intervention before hospital discharge...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081485/the-elucidation-of-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-antigen-processing-through-the-study-of-viral-antigens
#13
REVIEW
Asha Purnima Veerappan Ganesan, Laurence C Eisenlohr
By convention, CD4(+) T cells are activated predominantly by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II-bound peptides derived from extracellular (exogenous) antigens. It has been known for decades that alternative sources of antigen, particularly those synthesized within the antigen-presenting cell, can also supply peptides but the impact on TCD4+ responses, sometimes considerable, has only recently become appreciated. This review focuses on the contributions that studies of viral antigen have made to this shift in perspective, concluding with discussions of relevance to rational vaccine design, autoimmunity and cancer immunotherapy...
January 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081008/elastic-properties-of-amorphous-t-0-75y0-75b14-t%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sc-ti-v-y-zr-nb-and-the-effect-of-o-incorporation-on-bonding-density-and-elasticity-t-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ti-zr
#14
Oliver Hunold, Philipp Keuter, Pascal Bliem, Denis Music, Friederike Wittmers, Anna L Ravensburg, Daniel Primetzhofer, Jochen M Schneider
We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080206/probiotics-d-lactic-acidosis-oxidative-stress-and-strain-specificity
#15
Luis Vitetta, Samantha Coulson, Michael Thomsen, Tony Nguyen, Sean Hall
1. The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080052/mechanochemical-tuning-of-pyrene-absorption-spectrum-using-force-probes
#16
Miguel Angel Fernández-González, Daniel Rivero, Cristina García-Iriepa, Diego Sampedro, Luis Manuel Frutos
Control of absorption spectra in chromophores is a fundamental aspect of many photochemical and photophysical processes as it constitutes the first step of the global photoinduced process. Here we explore the use of mechanical forces to modulate the light absorption process. Specifically, we develop a computational formalism for determining the type of mechanical forces permitting a global tuning of the absorption spectrum. This control extends to the excitation wavelength, absorption bands overlap and oscillator strength...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079948/induction-of-antibodies-directed-against-branched-core-o-mannosyl-glycopeptides-selectivity-complimentary-to-the-cona-lectin
#17
Jin Yu, Oliver C Grant, Christian Pett, Sabine Strahl, Robert J Woods, Ulrika Westerlind
Mammalian protein O-mannosylation comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Despite the enormous progress made, to date the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. While O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell-migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools...
January 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079371/a-binding-pose-flip-explained-via-enthalpic-and-entropic-contributions
#18
Michael Schauperl, Paul Czodrowski, Julian E Fuchs, Roland G Huber, Birgit J Waldner, Maren Podewitz, Christian Kramer, Klaus R Liedl
The anomalous binding modes of five highly similar fragments of TIE2 inhibitors, showing three distinct binding poses are investigated. We report a quantitative rationalization for the changes in binding pose based on molecular dynamics simulations. We investigated five fragments in complex with the transforming growth factor β receptor type 1 kinase domain. Analyses of these simulations using Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory (GIST), pKA calculations, and a tool to investigate enthalpic differences upon binding unraveled the various thermodynamic contributions to the different binding modes...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079368/ligand-design-for-isomer-selective-oxorhenium-v-complex-synthesis
#19
Jinyong Liu, Xiaoge Su, Mengwei Han, Dimao Wu, Danielle L Gray, John R Shapley, Charles J Werth, Timothy J Strathmann
Recently, N,N-trans Re(O)(LN-O)2X (LN-O = monoanionic N-O chelates; X = Cl or Br prior to being replaced by solvents or alkoxides) complexes have been found to be superior to the corresponding N,N-cis isomers in the catalytic reduction of perchlorate via oxygen atom transfer. However, reported methods for Re(O)(LN-O)2X synthesis often yield only the N,N-cis complex or a mixture of trans and cis isomers. This study reports a geometry-inspired ligand design rationale that selectively yields N,N-trans Re(O)(LN-O)2Cl complexes...
January 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079367/robust-responsive-and-targeted-plga-anticancer-nanomedicines-by-combining-reductively-cleavable-surfactant-and-covalent-hyaluronic-acid-coating
#20
Jintian Wu, Jian Zhang, Chao Deng, Fenghua Meng, Ru Cheng, Zhiyuan Zhong
PLGA-based nanomedicines have enormous potential for targeted cancer therapy. To boost their stability, targetability and intracellular drug release, here we developed novel multifunctional PLGA anticancer nanomedicines by combining a reductively cleavable surfactant (RCS), vitamin E-SS-oligo(methyl diglycol L-glutamate), with covalent hyaluronic acid (HA) coating. Reduction-sensitive HA-coated PLGA nanoparticles (rHPNPs) were obtained with small sizes of 55 - 61 nm and zeta potentials of -26.7 - -28.8 mV at 18...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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