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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335427/laxative-effects-of-total-diterpenoids-extracted-from-the-roots-of-euphorbia-pekinensis-are-attributable-to-alterations-of-aquaporins-in-the-colon
#1
Kuilong Wang, Lian Liu, Jianyu Huang, Hongli Yu, Hao Wu, Yu Duan, Xiaobing Cui, Xingde Zhang, Liping Liu, Wei Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of total diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis (TDEP) on the mouse colon and to clarify the mechanism. Dried powdered roots of E. pekinensis were extracted with chloroform, and then the extract (6.7 g) was subjected to column chromatography and preparative TLC, giving TDEP. Using the HPLC-DAD method, the purity of TDEP was determined as 85.26%. Mice were orally administered with TDEP (3.942, 19.71 and 39.42 mg/kg), after which fecal water content and colon water content were examined...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#2
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297654/role-of-pore-lining-residues-in-defining-the-rate-of-water-conduction-by-aquaporin-0
#3
Patrick O Saboe, Chiara Rapisarda, Shreyas Kaptan, Yu-Shan Hsiao, Samantha R Summers, Rita De Zorzi, Danijela Dukovski, Jiaheng Yu, Bert L de Groot, Manish Kumar, Thomas Walz
Compared to other aquaporins (AQPs), lens-specific AQP0 is a poor water channel, and its permeability was reported to be pH-dependent. To date, most water conduction studies on AQP0 were performed on protein expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the results may therefore also reflect effects introduced by the oocytes themselves. Experiments with purified AQP0 reconstituted into liposomes are challenging because the water permeability of AQP0 is only slightly higher than that of pure lipid bilayers. By reconstituting high amounts of AQP0 and using high concentrations of cholesterol to reduce the permeability of the lipid bilayer, we improved the signal-to-noise ratio of water permeability measurements on AQP0 proteoliposomes...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295351/when-size-matters-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-channel-as-a-volume-sensor-rather-than-an-osmo-sensor
#4
Trine L Toft-Bertelsen, David Krízaj, Nanna MacAulay
Transient receptor potential channel 4 of the vanilloid subfamily (TRPV4) is activated by a diverse range of molecular cues, such as heat, lipid metabolites, synthetic agonists, in addition to hyposmotic challenges. As a non-selective cation channel permeable to Ca(2+) , it transduces physical stress in the form of osmotic cell swelling into intracellular Ca(2+) -dependent signaling events. Its contribution to cell volume regulation might include interactions with aquaporin (AQP) water channel isoforms, although the proposed requirement for a TRPV4-AQP4 macromolecular complex remains to be resolved...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286329/aquaporin-in-different-moult-stages-of-a-freshwater-decapod-crustacean-expression-and-participation-in-muscle-hydration-control
#5
Kamila Foguesatto, Robert T Boyle, Monique T Rovani, Carolina A Freire, Marta M Souza
Crustaceans, during their moult cycle, at the stages of both pre-moult and post-moult, need water uptake. This movement of water creates a challenge for the regulation of cell volume. The cells of freshwater decapods require a high regulatory capacity to deal with hyposmotic stresses, given the need to face dilution of the haemolymph during their moult cycles. This study investigated the variation in the expression of water channels (aquaporins) along the moult cycle of a freshwater palaemonid shrimp, focusing on their role in cell volume regulation...
March 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283882/aquaporin-4-as-a-new-target-against-methamphetamine-induced-brain-alterations-focus-on-the-neurogliovascular-unit-and-motivational-behavior
#6
Ricardo Alexandre Leitão, José Sereno, João Miguel Castelhano, Sónia Isabel Gonçalves, Vanessa Coelho-Santos, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Ana Paula Silva
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse/misuse is a worldwide problem, and despite extensive characterization of its neurotoxicity over the last years, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, it was shown that METH compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and causes a disturbance in the water homeostasis leading to brain edema. Importantly, water transport at BBB is regulated by water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), with AQP4 being expressed in astrocytic end-feet surrounding brain endothelium. Thus, the main goal of this work was to unravel the role of AQP4 under conditions of METH consumption...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279171/single-amino-acid-substitutions-in-the-selectivity-filter-render-nbxip1-1%C3%AE-aquaporin-water-permeable
#7
Henry Ampah-Korsah, Yonathan Sonntag, Angelica Engfors, Andreas Kirscht, Per Kjellbom, Urban Johanson
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate transport of water and/or other small neutral solutes across membranes in all forms of life. The X Intrinsic Proteins (XIPs) are the most recently recognized and the least characterized aquaporin subfamily in higher plants. XIP1s have been shown to be impermeable to water but permeable to boric acid, glycerol, hydrogen peroxide and urea. However, uncertainty regarding the determinants for selectivity and lack of an activity that is easy to quantify have hindered functional investigations...
March 9, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265203/overexpression-of-aquaporin-4-in-articular-chondrocytes-exacerbates-the-severity-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#8
Li Cai, Chao Lei, Rong Li, Wei-Na Chen, Cheng-Mu Hu, Xiao-Yu Chen, Chun-Mei Li
BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of articular chondrocytes is a crucial step in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis while its molecular mechanisms are not fully known. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in articular chondrocytes of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats and its involvement in AIA development. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into normal and AIA group (n = 15). Rat AIA was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant and evaluated by secondary paw swelling and histological assessments on knee joint damage...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264681/ion-channels-or-aquaporins-as-novel-molecular-targets-in-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Jianling Xia, Hongqiang Wang, Shi Li, Qinghui Wu, Li Sun, Hongxiang Huang, Ming Zeng
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common disease with few effective treatment choices and poor prognosis, and has the second-highest mortality rates among all cancers worldwide. Dysregulation and/or malfunction of ion channels or aquaporins (AQPs) are common in various human cancers. Furthermore, ion channels are involved in numerous important aspects of the tumor aggressive phonotype, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, motility, migration, and invasion. Indeed, by localizing in the plasma membrane, ion channels or AQPs can sense and respond to extracellular environment changes; thus, they play a crucial role in cell signaling and cancer progression...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259952/ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-protects-rat-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-against-peritoneal-dialysis-solution%C3%A2-induced-damage
#10
Yun-Fang Zhang, Qi Wang, Yan-Yan Su, Jie-Lin Wang, Bao-Jun Hua, Shen Yang, Jun-Xia Feng, Hong-Yan Li
Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) leads to ultrafiltration failure (UFF). Peritoneal mesothelial cells, which form the innermost monolayer of the peritoneal cavity, have been shown to regulate various responses, including inflammation, in UFF. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ) agonist, rosiglitazone, on peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS)‑induced injuries in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs). RPMCs were cultured for different durations and with different concentrations of PDS...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258579/water-transport-mediated-by-other-membrane-proteins
#11
Boyue Huang, Hongkai Wang, Baoxue Yang
Water transport through membrane is so intricate that there are still some debates. (Aquaporins) AQPs are entirely accepted to allow water transmembrane movement depending on osmotic gradient. Cotransporters and uniporters , however, are also concerned in water homeotatsis. Urea transporter B (UT-B) has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to AQP1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR ) was initially thought as a water channel but now not believed to transport water directly...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258575/aquaporins-in-fetal-development
#12
Nora Martínez, Alicia E Damiano
Water homeostasis during fetal development is of crucial physiologic importance. The successful formation and development of the placenta is critical to maintain normal fetal growth and homeostasis. The expression of several aquaporins (AQPs ) was found from blastocyst stages to term placenta and fetal membranes. Therefore, AQPs are proposed to play important roles in normal pregnancy, fetal growth, and homeostasis of amniotic fluid volume, and water handling in other organs. However, the functional importance of AQPs in fetal development remains to be elucidated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258574/aquaporins-in-the-eye
#13
Thuy Linh Tran, Steffen Hamann, Steffen Heegaard
The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary body-, lens- and retinal metabolism, while maintaining transparency in the optical compartments. Transport across the corneal epithelium and endothelium maintains the corneal transparency. Also, aqueous humour is continuously secreted by the epithelia of the ciliary body and maintains the intraocular pressure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258571/aquaporins-in-urinary-system
#14
Yingjie Li, Weiling Wang, Tao Jiang, Baoxue Yang
Several aquaporin (AQP )-type water channels are expressed in kidney: AQP1 in the proximal tubule, thin descending limb of Henle, and vasa recta; AQP2 -6 in the collecting duct; AQP7 in the proximal tubule; AQP8 in the proximal tubule and collecting duct; and AQP11 in the endoplasmic reticulum of proximal tubule cells. AQP2 is the vasopressin-regulated water channel that is important in hereditary and acquired diseases affecting urine-concentrating ability. The roles of AQPs in renal physiology and transepithelial water transport have been determined using AQP knockout mouse models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258570/aquaporins-in-digestive-system
#15
Shuai Zhu, Jianhua Ran, Baoxue Yang, Zhechuan Mei
In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258569/aquaporins-in-respiratory-system
#16
Yuanlin Song, Linlin Wang, Jian Wang, Chunxue Bai
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258568/aquaporins-in-cardiovascular-system
#17
Lu Tie, Di Wang, Yundi Shi, Xuejun Li
Recent studies have shown that some aquaporins (AQPs ), including AQP1, AQP4, AQP7 and AQP9, are expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and heart of cardiovascular system. These AQPs are involved in the cardiovascular function and in pathological process of related diseases, such as cerebral ischemia , congestion heart failure , hypertension and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is important to understand the accurate association between AQPs and cardiovascular system, which may provide novel approaches to prevent and treat related diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258567/aquaporins-in-nervous-system
#18
Mengmeng Xu, Ming Xiao, Shao Li, Baoxue Yang
Aquaporins (AQPs ) mediate water flux between the four distinct water compartments in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present chapter, we mainly focus on the expression and function of the 9 AQPs expressed in the CNS, which include five members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8; three members of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9; and one member of superaquaporin subfamily: AQP11. In addition, AQP1, AQP2 and AQP4 expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are also reviewed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258566/aquaporins-and-gland-secretion
#19
Christine Delporte
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258565/transport-characteristics-of-aquaporins
#20
Xiaoqiang Geng, Baoxue Yang
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are a class of the integral membrane proteins, which are permeable to water , some small neutral solutes and certain gases across biological membranes. AQPs are considered as critical transport mediators that are involved in many physiological functions and pathological processes such as transepithelial fluid transport , cell migration, brain edema , neuro excitation and carcinoma. This chapter will provide information about the transport characteristics of AQPs .
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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