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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903402/conceptual-issues-in-neuroscientific-research-on-empathy
#1
REVIEW
Gerrit Glas
This paper gives an analysis of some conceptual issues in the neuroscientific study of empathy. The focus will almost exclusively be on a seminal paper by Decety and Jackson (2004) on the functional architecture of empathy. The authors withstand reductionistic tendencies in the exposition of what their findings might mean for the psychology of social cognition. They are aware of the thorny conceptual issues that arise when attempting to bridge intuitive folk psychological conceptions of empathy with explanations offered by social psychology, developmental science, and, most of all, neuroscience...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898692/the-implementation-and-adherence-to-evidence-based-protocols-for-psychotherapy-for-depression-the-perspective-of-therapists-in-dutch-specialized-mental-healthcare
#2
Sanne J E Bruijniks, Gerdien Franx, Marcus J H Huibers
BACKGROUND: Although psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, a large number of patients still do not receive care according to the protocols that are used in clinical trials. Instead, patients often receive a modified version of the original intervention. It is not clear how and when treatment protocols are used or modified in the Dutch specialized mental health care and whether these changes lead to suboptimal adherence to treatment protocols. METHODS: In the context of an ongoing multicenter trial that investigates whether twice-weekly sessions of protocolized interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression lead to better treatment outcomes compared to once-weekly sessions, two focus groups using semi-structured interviews were organized...
June 14, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887530/-brain-mechanisms-of-intuition-in-shogi-experts
#3
Keiji Tanaka
Intuition is the ability of experts to rapidly solve complicated problems that are highly difficult for the average person. We have measured the brain activity of professional and high-level amateur shogi players, and found that the basal ganglia plays an important role in the ability to rapidly determine, or intuit, the best next-move in a game situation. Additionally, we found that areas in the cingulate cortex are essential for making quick, intuitive, strategic decisions (attack or defense) at any given board position...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867643/creative-processes-in-the-shaping-of-a-musical-interpretation-a-study-of-nine-professional-musicians
#4
Isabelle Héroux
Various studies have been conducted to understand the role of mental representation when musicians practice or perform music (Lehman and Ericsson, 1997; Sloboda, 2005) and the work steps required for a musician to prepare a concert (Chaffin et al., 2003). More recent studies examine creativity in the shaping of a musical interpretation (Lisboa et al., 2011; Payne, 2016; Barros et al., 2017; Wise et al., 2017). However, none of these studies answers the following questions: Why do expert musicians working from the same score create different musical interpretations? During individual practice sessions, what happens that allows each musician to produce significantly different interpretive results? To answer these questions, we instructed nine expert musicians to record their individual practice sessions, verbalize their actions and thoughts, and answer a self-reflection questionnaire...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767568/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#5
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744802/the-role-of-the-insula-in-intuitive-expert-bug-detection-in-computer-code-an-fmri-study
#6
Joao Castelhano, Isabel C Duarte, Carlos Ferreira, Joao Duraes, Henrique Madeira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Software programming is a complex and relatively recent human activity, involving the integration of mathematical, recursive thinking and language processing. The neural correlates of this recent human activity are still poorly understood. Error monitoring during this type of task, requiring the integration of language, logical symbol manipulation and other mathematical skills, is particularly challenging. We therefore aimed to investigate the neural correlates of decision-making during source code understanding and mental manipulation in professional participants with high expertise...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699547/managers-experience-of-success-criteria-and-barriers-to-implementing-mobile-radiography-services-in-nursing-homes-in-norway-a-qualitative-study
#7
Elin Kjelle, Kristin Bakke Lysdahl, Hilde Merete Olerud, Aud Mette Myklebust
BACKGROUND: In order to meet the future challenges posed by ageing populations, new technology, telemedicine and a more personalized healthcare system are needed. Earlier research has shown mobile radiography services to be highly beneficial for nursing home residents in addition to being cost-effective. Despite the benefits, mobile radiography services are uncommon in Europe and Norway. The purpose of this study was to explore success criteria and barriers in the process of implementing mobile radiography services, from the point of view of the hospital and municipal managers...
April 25, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557527/the-college-of-anaesthetists-of-ireland-simulation-training-programme-a-descriptive-report-and-analysis-of-course-participants-feedback
#8
Aine Cafferkey, Elizabeth Coyle, David Greaney, Sinead Harte, Niamh Hayes, Miriam Langdon, Birgitt Straub, Crina Burlacu
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based education is a modern training modality that allows healthcare professionals to develop knowledge and practice skills in a safe learning environment. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (CAI) was the first Irish postgraduate medical training body to introduce mandatory simulation training into its curriculum. Extensive quality assurance and improvement data has been collected on all simulation courses to date. AIMS: Describe The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training (CAST) programme and report the analysis of course participants' feedback...
March 20, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517296/a-pot-of-gold-at-the-end-of-the-rainbow-a-spectrum-of-attitudes-to-assisted-reproductive-technologies-in-ireland
#9
Maria Dempsey, Rob King, Andrea Nagy
OBJECTIVE: New technologies present new ethical dilemmas. Our ethical intuitions may mislead us in relation to new technologies such as nuclear power, vaccines, GMOs and assistive reproductive technologies (ART). Between 1999 and 2008 the number of ART treatment cycles increased by 265% in Ireland. The implications and potentials of such technologies are profound - challenging existing understanding of humans' relationships to reproduction. Because such technologies are comparatively unregulated, and their use has only been occurring for a single generation, detailed investigation of how awareness of ART influences understanding of personal fertility is needed...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462325/unpacking-the-black-box-of-improvement
#10
Rohit Ramaswamy, Julie Reed, Nigel Livesley, Victor Boguslavsky, Ezequiel Garcia Ellorio, Sylvia Sax, Diarra Houleymata, Leighann Kimble, Gareth Parry
During the Salzburg Global Seminar Session 565-'Better Health Care: How do we learn about improvement?', participants discussed the need to unpack the 'black box' of improvement. The 'black box' refers to the fact that when quality improvement interventions are described or evaluated, there is a tendency to assume a simple, linear path between the intervention and the outcomes it yields. It is also assumed that it is enough to evaluate the results without understanding the process of by which the improvement took place...
February 15, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459365/making-soft-intelligence-hard-a-multi-site-qualitative-study-of-challenges-relating-to-voice-about-safety-concerns
#11
Graham P Martin, Emma-Louise Aveling, Anne Campbell, Carolyn Tarrant, Peter J Pronovost, Imogen Mitchell, Christian Dankers, David Bates, Mary Dixon-Woods
BACKGROUND: Healthcare organisations often fail to harvest and make use of the 'soft intelligence' about safety and quality concerns held by their own personnel. We aimed to examine the role of formal channels in encouraging or inhibiting employee voice about concerns. METHODS: Qualitative study involving personnel from three academic hospitals in two countries. Interviews were conducted with 165 participants from a wide range of occupational and professional backgrounds, including senior leaders and those from the sharp end of care...
February 19, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439086/using-photography-to-enhance-gp-trainees-reflective-practice-and-professional-development
#12
Rutherford, Emer Forde, Jacqueline Priego-Hernandez, Aurelia Butcher, Clare Wedderburn
The capacity and the commitment to reflect are integral to the practice of medicine and are core components of most general practitioners (GP) training programmes. Teaching through the humanities is a growing area within medical education, but one which is often considered a voluntary 'add-on' for the interested doctor. This article describes an evaluation of a highly innovative pedagogical project which used photography as a means to enhance GP trainees' reflective capacity, self-awareness and professional development...
February 8, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390725/web-based-interactive-drone-control-using-hand-gesture
#13
Zhenfei Zhao, Hao Luo, Guang-Hua Song, Zhou Chen, Zhe-Ming Lu, Xiaofeng Wu
This paper develops a drone control prototype based on web technology with the aid of hand gesture. The uplink control command and downlink data (e.g., video) are transmitted by WiFi communication, and all the information exchange is realized on web. The control command is translated from various predetermined hand gestures. Specifically, the hardware of this friendly interactive control system is composed by a quadrotor drone, a computer vision-based hand gesture sensor, and a cost-effective computer. The software is simplified as a web-based user interface program...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374673/recommendations-for-successful-sensory-screening-in-older-adults-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-a-qualitative-environmental-scan-of-canadian-specialists
#14
Walter Wittich, Fiona Höbler, Jonathan Jarry, Katherine S McGilton
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify screening tools, technologies and strategies that vision and hearing care specialists recommend to front-line healthcare professionals for the screening of older adults in long-term care homes who have dementia. SETTING: An environmental scan of healthcare professionals took place via telephone interviews between December 2015 and March 2016. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, proofed for accuracy, and their contents thematically analysed by two members of the research team...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325890/calorie-labels-on-the-restaurant-menu-is-the-use-of-weight-control-behaviors-related-to-ordering-decisions
#15
Nicole Larson, Ann F Haynos, Christina A Roberto, Katie A Loth, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that calorie information on restaurant menus does not similarly influence the ordering decisions of all population groups and may have unintended consequences for individuals who struggle with disordered eating or other weight-related concerns. OBJECTIVE: This study describes demographic patterns in the use of calorie information on restaurant menus and investigates relationships between using this information to limit calorie intake and measures of restaurant visit frequency and weight-related concerns and behavior...
March 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285000/exploring-the-added-value-of-women-health-care-managers-in-poland
#16
Katarzyna Czabanowska, Alicja Domagała, Stavroula Kalaitzi, Aleksandra Krogulec, Genc Burazeri, Suzanne Babich
Introduction: Female managers in the Polish health care system are seldom a subject of scientific investigation. Material and Methods: This study describes the share and profile of women in health care management positions and explores how and why Polish female health care managers add value to the leadership of health care organizations. Three data collection methods were used including: scoping review, analysis of data from governmental information bases and in-depth interviews with female health care managers...
December 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276019/nutrition-facts-use-in-relation-to-eating-behaviors-and-healthy-and-unhealthy-weight-control-behaviors
#17
Mary J Christoph, Katie A Loth, Marla E Eisenberg, Ann F Haynos, Nicole Larson, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. PARTICIPANTS: Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. VARIABLES MEASURED: Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating...
March 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234482/roads-to-health-in-developing-countries-understanding-the-intersection-of-culture-and-healing
#18
REVIEW
S Ibeneme, G Eni, A Ezuma, G Fortwengel
Background: The most important attribute to which all human beings aspire is good health because it enables us to undertake different forms of activities of daily living. The emergence of scientific knowledge in Western societies has enabled scientists to explore and define several parameters of health by drawing boundaries around factors that are known to influence the attainment of good health. For example, the World Health Organization defined health by taking physical and psychological factors into consideration...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214014/influence-of-perceived-difficulty-of-cases-on-student-osteopaths-diagnostic-reasoning-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Aurelien L Noyer, Jorge E Esteves, Oliver P Thomson
Background: Diagnostic reasoning refers to the cognitive processes by which clinicians formulate diagnoses. Despite the implications for patient safety and professional identity, research on diagnostic reasoning in osteopathy remains largely theoretical. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived task difficulty on the diagnostic reasoning of students osteopaths. Methods: Using a single-blinded, cross sectional study design, sixteen final year pre-registration osteopathy students diagnosed two standardized cases under two context conditions (complex versus control)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189494/rethinking-remediation-a-model-to-support-the-detailed-diagnosis-of-clinicians-performance-problems-and-the-development-of-effective-remediation-plans
#20
Linda Prescott-Clements, Vicky Voller, Mark Bell, Natasha Nestors, Cees P M van der Vleuten
The successful remediation of clinicians demonstrating poor performance in the workplace is essential to ensure the provision of safe patient care. Clinicians may develop performance problems for numerous reasons, including health, personal factors, the workplace environment, or outdated knowledge/skills. Performance problems are often complex involving multifactorial issues, encompassing knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors. It is important that (where possible and appropriate) clinicians are supported through effective remediation to return them to safe clinical practice...
October 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
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