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ischemic cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782624/the-underlying-mechanisms-involved-in-the-protective-effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning
#1
Rong Xie, Jinquan Li, Heng Zhao
Cerebral ischemic postconditioning (PostC) refers to a series of brief ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) cycles applied at the onset of reperfusion following an ischemic event. PostC has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, and represents a promising clinical strategy against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Many studies have indicated that cerebral PostC can effectively reduce neural cell death, cerebral edema and infarct size, improve cerebral circulation, and relieve inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress...
2018: Conditioning medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777902/chemical-characterization-and-cerebroprotective-effect-of-methanolic-root-extract-of-colebrookea-oppositifolia-in-rats
#2
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Shylaja Hanumanthappa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith is one of the extensively used plants to treat neurological conditions such as epilepsy by the various ethnic communities in sub-Himalayan regions of India such as Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of C. oppositifolia methanolic root (MeCO) extract in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MeCO was characterized for total phenolic content and later subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770166/free-radical-damage-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-obstacle-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-revascularization-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Ming-Shuo Sun, Hang Jin, Xin Sun, Shuo Huang, Fu-Liang Zhang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yi Yang
Acute ischemic stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. Among all possible pathological mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, free radical damage (mainly oxidative/nitrosative stress injury) has been found to play a key role in the process...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767275/aldh2-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-in-rats-by-facilitating-4-hne-clearance-and-aqp4-down-regulation
#4
Yan Li, Si-Liang Liu, Si-Hua Qi
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a new therapeutic target in the central nervous system. However, the association between ALDH2 and brain edema following ischemic stroke (IS) remains unclear. The present study was investigated to whether active ALDH2 can attenuate brain edema by using a rat model of IS, with the aim of clarifying the underlying mechanisms involved. Rats were administered the ALDH2 agonist Alda-1, vehicle or the ALDH2 inhibitor cyanamide (CYA) 15 min prior to a 1.5 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery...
May 16, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760276/early-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-stroke-initiates-multifocally-around-capillaries-venules
#5
Angelika Hoffmann, Tassilo Dege, Reiner Kunze, Anne-Sophie Ernst, Holger Lorenz, Laura-Inés Böhler, Thomas Korff, Hugo H Marti, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Xavier Helluy, Mirko Pham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Detection and localization of the early phase of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) in vivo during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remain a major challenge but may be a relevant outcome parameter in stroke. METHODS: We studied early BBBD in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion by multimodal, high-field (9.4T) in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, including the contrast agent gadofluorineM as an albumin-binding tracer...
May 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759062/inhibition-of-2-ag-hydrolysis-differentially-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-after-injury
#6
Justin R Piro, Georgette L Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M O'Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D Bell, Tarek A Samad
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, cytotoxic proteins, and water. BBB breakdown and extravasation of these peripheral components into the brain parenchyma result in inflammation, oxidative stress, edema, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. These downstream consequences of BBB dysfunction can drive pathophysiological processes and play a substantial role in the morbidity and mortality of acute and chronic neurological insults, and contribute to long-term sequelae...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756582/polypharmacology-approach-against-migraine-with-aura-and-brain-edema-for-the-development-of-an-efficient-inhibitor-and-its-analogues
#7
Samawia Rizwan, Asim Mehmood, Irum Khalid, Muhammad Saad Khan, Qudsia Yousafi, Hayssam M Ali, Mohamed S Elshikh, Saima Kalsoom, Hamid Rashid
Polypharmacology is a design or use of pharmaceutical agents in which single drug is used to treat multiple diseases. Aquaporin proteins are identified to treat migraine with aura and brain edema. This study focuses on Aquaporin-1 and Aquaporin-4. AQP-1 is expressed in small afferent sensory nerve fibers. Over-expression of peripheral nervous system causes migraine. AQP-4 is an abundant channel water protein in brain that regulates water transport to prevent homeostasis. Over-expression of AQP-4 contributes to water imbalance in ischemic pathology resulting in cerebral edema...
May 13, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739261/exacerbated-brain-edema-in-a-rat-streptozotocin-model-of-hyperglycemic-ischemic-stroke-evidence-for-involvement-of-blood-brain-barrier-na-k-cl-cotransport-and-na-h-exchange
#8
Natalie Y Yuen, Olga V Chechneva, Yi-Je Chen, Yi-Chen Tsai, Logan K Little, James Dang, Daniel J Tancredi, Jacob Conston, Steven E Anderson, Martha E O'Donnell
Cerebral edema is exacerbated in diabetic ischemic stroke through poorly understood mechanisms. We showed previously that blood-brain barrier (BBB) Na-K-Cl cotransport (NKCC) and Na/H exchange (NHE) are major contributors to edema formation in normoglycemic ischemic stroke. Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia-exacerbated edema involves changes in BBB NKCC and NHE expression and/or activity and whether inhibition of NKCC or NHE effectively reduces edema and injury in a type I diabetic model of hyperglycemic stroke...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734653/the-janus-face-of-vegf-in-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Samuel J Geiseler, Cecilie Morland
The family of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are known for their regulation of vascularization. In the brain, VEGFs are important regulators of angiogenesis, neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of VEGFs is involved in a large number of neurodegenerative diseases and acute neurological insults, including stroke. Stroke is the main cause of acquired disabilities, and normally results from an occlusion of a cerebral artery or a hemorrhage, both leading to focal ischemia. Neurons in the ischemic core rapidly undergo necrosis...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731475/histopathological-study-of-encephalomalacia-in-neonatal-calves-and-application-of-neuronal-and-axonal-degeneration-marker
#10
Kenji Koyama, Akihisa Kangawa, Natsuko Fukumoto, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Tomomi Ozawa, Hisashi Inokuma, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Five calves that had shown neurological symptoms within 9 days after birth were histopathologically diagnosed as encephalomalacia. Two calves showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and neuronal necrosis in the corpus striatum and hippocampus. Since the distributional pattern of the lesions was consistent with that of global ischemia in other species, the lesions were probably hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy consistent with the history of dystocia and perinatal asphyxia. One calf also showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729895/implications-of-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-for-ischemic-stroke-and-intracerebral-hemorrhage-predictive-value-pathophysiological-consequences-and-utility-as-therapeutic-target
#11
REVIEW
Dirk M Hermann, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Matthias Gunzer
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) orchestrate the removal of cell debris in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. In both pathologies, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in peripheral blood are predictive of poor outcome in human stroke patients. Following earlier studies indicating that the cerebral microvasculature forms an efficient barrier that impedes neutrophil brain entry, intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry in the meantime unequivocally revealed the accumulation of PMN in the ischemic and hemorrhagic brain parenchyma...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723859/upregulation-of-nox2-and-nox4-mediated-by-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-exacerbates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-oxidative-stress-injury
#12
Zheng Lou, Ai-Ping Wang, Xiao-Ming Duan, Guo-Huang Hu, Gui-Lin Song, Mei-Ling Zuo, Zhong-Bao Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke is still one of the leading debilitating diseases with high morbidity and mortality. NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of ROS generation is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of transforming growth beta (TGF-β) signals in ROS generation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to I/R injury, and PC-12 cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and/or treated with activin receptor-like kinase (ALK5) inhibitor Sb505124 or siRNA against ALK5...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705052/malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-mca-infarction-in-people-over-85-years-old-diagnosis-management-and-risk-factors
#13
REVIEW
Żanna Pastuszak, Zbigniew Czernicki, Waldemar Koszewski, Adam Stępień, Anna Piusińska-Macoch
INTRODUCTION: Malignant ischemic stroke of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory causes neurological deterioration due to the effects of space occupying cerebral edema. The prognosis is poor, and death usually occurs as a result of brainstem compression. There is no information on ischemic stroke, especially the malignant ones, in patients over 85 years old. AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the disease course, risk factors, survival rate and treatment of MCA malignant infarction in people over 85 years old...
December 16, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696468/microrna-21-confers-neuroprotection-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-alleviates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-rats-via-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#14
Xiaofeng Yao, Yahui Wang, Dongya Zhang
The mechanism contributing to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, involved in poststroke edema and hemorrhagic transformation, is important but elusive. We investigated microRNA-21 (miR-21)-mediated mechanism in the disruption of BBB following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats with cerebral I/R injury were prepared after middle cerebral artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-382 were investigated with treatment of miR-382 mimics, miR-382 inhibitors, or SB203580 (an inhibitor of the MAPK signaling pathway) prior to I/R modeling...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692268/cerebrolysin-and-aquaporin-4-inhibition-improve-pathological-and-motor-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#15
Bogdan Catalin, Ionica Pirici, Tudor Adrian Balseanu, Adina Stan, Valerica Tudorica, Maria Balea, Ion Mindrila, Carmen Valeria Albu, Guleed Mohamed, Daniel Pirici, Dafin Fior Muresanu
BACKGROUND: Edema represents one of the earliest negative markers of survival and consecutive neurological deficit following stroke. The mixture of cellular and vasogenic edema makes treating this condition complicated, and to date, there is no pathogenically oriented drug treatment for edema, which leaves parenteral administration of a hypertonic solution as the only non-surgical alternative. OBJECTIVE: New insights into water metabolism in the brain have opened the way for molecular targeted treatment, with aquaporin 4 channels (AQP4) taking center stage...
April 25, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690732/-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-shrna-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#16
Y Zhang, J L Cheng, Y Li
Objective: To investigate the cerebral protective effect of shRNA down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) on cerebral infarction rats. Methods: 32 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 for each group): group A (sham operation group): the branches of external carotid artery were only separated and ligated and were not be inserted thread; group B (MCAO group): rat MCAO models were made referring to the conventional Longa method; group C (physiological saline group): rats were injected with 5 μl saline two weeks before MCAO models; group D (lentivirus intervention group): rats were injected with 5 μl lentivirus-mediated shRNA two weeks before MCAO models...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687870/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier-of-cerebral-infarction-by-activating-the-nrf-2-ho-1-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#17
Y-J Zhao, Y Nai, Q-S Ma, D-J Song, Y-B Ma, L-H Zhang, L-X Mi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore whether Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (DBT) could protect blood-brain barrier (BBB) of mice with experimental cerebral infarction and the relevant mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male CD-1 mice were selected as the study objects. The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was prepared by Longa's modified suture-occluded method. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: the sham operation group (Sham group), the cerebral infarction model group (CI group) and the DBT (120 mg/kg) intervention group (DBT group)...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681849/danhong-injection-combined-with-t-pa-improves-thrombolytic-therapy-in-focal-embolic-stroke
#18
Min Li, Jing Zhou, Weifeng Jin, Xiaohong Li, Yuyan Zhang
Background: Hemorrhagic transformation, neurotoxicity, short treatment time windows, and other defects are considered as the major limitations for the thrombolytic therapy. This study is devoted to figure out whether Danhong injection (DHI) combined with tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) could extend the treatment time windows and ameliorate brain injury, hemorrhagic complication and BBB disruption after focal embolic stroke. Methods: In vitro , the combined concentrations of DHI and t-PA were added to wells reacted with plasminogen and D-Val-Leu-Lys-AMC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672312/impact-of-brain-atrophy-on-early-neurological-deterioration-and-outcome-in-severe-ischemic-stroke-treated-by-intravenous-thrombolysis
#19
Olivier Tschirret, Gabriela Moreno Legast, Adeline Mansuy, Nathan Mewton, Marielle Buisson, Salem Hannoun, Leila Chamard, Dominique Sappey-Marinier, Carlos El Khoury, Magali Bischoff, Audrey de Parisot, Laurent Derex, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yves Berthezène, Laura Mechtouff
BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy has shown a protective effect on the risk of early neurological deterioration (END) related to malignant edema in patients with hemispheric infarction but could be deleterious on the outcome. AIMS: We aimed to assess whether brain atrophy has an impact on the risk of END and on the outcome in severe ischemic strokes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. METHODS: From a prospective thrombolysis registry, 137 patients who had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥15, MRI at admission, and IV thrombolysis were included...
April 19, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668493/subacute-infarct-volume-with-edema-correction-in-computed-tomography-is-equivalent-to-final-infarct-volume-after-ischemic-stroke-improving-the-comparability-of-infarct-imaging-endpoints-in-clinical-trials
#20
Gabriel Broocks, Tobias Djamsched Faizy, Fabian Flottmann, Gerhard Schön, Sönke Langner, Jens Fiehler, Andre Kemmling, Susanne Gellissen
OBJECTIVES: Final infarct volume is regularly used as an end point of tissue outcome in stroke trials; however, the reported volumes are most commonly derived from early follow-up imaging. Those volumes are significantly impaired by ischemic edema, which causes an overestimation of the true final lesion volume. As net water uptake within ischemic brain can be quantified densitometrically in computed tomography (CT) as recently described, we hypothesized that the final lesion volume can be better estimated by correcting the lesion volume in early follow-up for the corresponding proportion of edema...
April 17, 2018: Investigative Radiology
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