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ischemic cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281221/evidence-for-decreased-brain-parenchymal-volume-after-large-intracerebral-hemorrhages-a-potential-mechanism-limiting-intracranial-pressure-rises
#1
Michael R Williamson, Frederick Colbourne
Potentially fatal intracranial pressure (ICP) rises commonly occur after large intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). We monitored ICP after infusing 100-160 μL of autologous blood (vs. 0 μL control) into the striatum of rats in order to test the validity of this common model with regard to ICP elevations. Other endpoints included body temperature, behavioral impairment, lesion volume, and edema. Also, we evaluated hippocampal CA1 sector and somatosensory cortical neuron morphology to assess whether global ischemic injury occurred...
March 9, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279642/low-intensity-400%C3%A2-mw-cm-2-500%C3%A2-khz-pulsed-transcranial-ultrasound-preconditioning-may-mitigate-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#2
Hangdao Li, Junfeng Sun, Daqu Zhang, Daryl Omire-Mayor, Peter A Lewin, Shanbao Tong
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning methods, which could increase tolerance of brain to subsequent ischemic injuries with a small dose of non-injury stimuli, have gained attention. Capitalizing on noninvasiveness and safety of ultrasound modality, the pulsed transcranial ultrasound stimulation (pTUS) approach may provide a novel treatment for patients with high risk of stroke. OBJECTIVE: This study's goal was to investigate whether the risk of stroke could be minimized or eliminated by prior exposure to low-intensity, pulsed transcranial ultrasound stimulation (pTUS)...
February 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265013/absent-filling-of-ipsilateral-superficial-middle-cerebral-vein-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-after-reperfusion-therapy
#3
Sheng Zhang, Yangxiao Lai, Xinfa Ding, Mark Parsons, John H Zhang, Min Lou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to study the effect of drainage of cortical veins, including the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV), vein of Trolard, and vein of Labbé on neurological outcomes after reperfusion therapy. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients who underwent pretreatment computed tomographic perfusion and 24-hour computed tomographic perfusion or magnetic resonance perfusion after intravenous thrombolysis were included. We defined "absent filling of ipsilateral cortical vein" (eg, SMCV-) as no contrast filling of the vein across the whole venous phase on 4-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in the ischemic hemisphere...
March 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262550/pathways-for-neuroimaging-of-neonatal-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Lee, David M Mirsky, Lauren A Beslow, Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Amy R Danehy, Laura Lehman, Nicholas V Stence, Arastoo Vossough, Max Wintermark, Michael J Rivkin
PURPOSE: To provide consensus-based, suggested imaging protocols to facilitate the accurate and timely diagnosis of a neonate with symptoms concerning for stroke. METHODS: The Writing Group, an international collaboration of pediatric neurologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in perinatal and childhood stroke, participated in a series of pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposia. These discussions, in conjunction with extensive literature review, led to a consensus for imaging protocols to guide practitioners in the diagnosis of neonatal stroke subtypes as defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Common Data Elements...
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247188/diabetes-worsens-functional-outcomes-in-young-female-rats-comparison-of-stroke-models-tissue-plasminogen-activator-effects-and-sexes
#5
Weiguo Li, Rebecca Ward, John Paul Valenzuela, Guangkuo Dong, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes worsens stroke outcome and increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after ischemic stroke, especially with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. The widespread use of tPA is still limited by the fear of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and underlying mechanisms are actively being pursued in preclinical studies. However, experimental models use a 10 times higher dose of tPA than the clinical dose (10 mg/kg) and mostly employ only male animals. In this translational study, we hypothesized that low-dose tPA will improve the functional recovery after the embolic stroke in both control and diabetic male and female animals...
March 1, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199737/inhibition-of-trpv1-confers-neuroprotection-reduces-tnf-%C3%AE-and-increases-il-10-in-a-rat-stroke-model
#6
Elham Hakimizadeh, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Mehdi Shariati, Mohammad Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability in adults. TRPV1 plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In the current study, the effects of TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin) and antagonist (AMG9810) on cerebral ischemia were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to the following experimental groups: sham, vehicle) ischemic), AMG9810 (selective TRPV1 antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke), and capsaicin (1 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke). Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and neurological deficits were evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days after stroke...
February 15, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192195/puerarin-provides-a-neuroprotection-against-transient-cerebral-ischemia-by-attenuating-autophagy-at-the-ischemic-penumbra-in-neurons-but-not-in-astrocytes
#7
He Hongyun, Guo Tao, Zhang Pengyue, Yang Liqiang, Deng Yihao
Puerarin is an isoflavone derived from the Chinese medical herb of Radix puerariae (kudzu root), and has been widely used in the treatment for ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still not understood. This study was to investigate the efficacy of puerarin on autophagy in the ischemic penumbra after cerebral stroke. A model of cerebral stroke in Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); rats were then randomly divided into 5 groups: MCAO+Pue group (rats were treated with puerarin), MCAO+Pue+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were administrated with both puerarin and autophagy inducer Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were treated with Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+saline group (rats were administrated with the same volume of physiological saline), and sham surgery group...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190553/cervical-spine-imaging-for-young-children-with-inflicted-trauma-expanding-the-injury-pattern
#8
Joanne Baerg, Arul Thirumoorthi, Rosemary Vannix, Asma Taha, Amy Young, Alexander Zouros
AIM: The purpose of this study was to document the incidence and pattern of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries in children below 36months with inflicted trauma. METHODS: An IRB approved, prospective cohort study was performed between July 2011 and January 2016. Inclusion criteria were: age below 36months, loss of consciousness after inflicted trauma, and one initial head computed tomography finding: a subdural, intraventricular, intraparenchymal, subarachnoid hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, hypoxic injury, or cerebral edema...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183451/the-novel-exercise-induced-hormone-irisin-protects-against-neuronal-injury-via-activation-of-the-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-and-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-physical-exercise-in-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Dong-Jie Li, Yong-Hua Li, Hong-Bin Yuan, Le-Feng Qu, Pei Wang
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a novel exercise-induced myokine involved in the regulation of adipose browning and thermogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of irisin in cerebral ischemia and determined whether irisin is involved in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used to produce cerebral ischemia in mice. First, the plasma irisin levels and changes in expression of the irisin precursor protein FNDC5 in skeletal muscle were determined post ischemic stroke...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178380/pre-ischemia-melatonin-treatment-alleviated-acute-neuronal-injury-after-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-dependent-autophagy-via-perk-and-ire1-signalings
#10
Dayun Feng, Bao Wang, Lei Wang, Neeta Abraham, Kai Tao, Lu Huang, Wei Shi, Yushu Dong, Yan Qu
Melatonin has demonstrated a potential protective effect in central nervous system. Thus, it is interesting to determine whether pre-ischemia melatonin administration could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-related injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we revealed that IR injury significantly activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. Pre-ischemia melatonin treatment was able to attenuate IR-induced ER stress and autophagy...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169530/intranasal-pretreatment-with-z-ligustilide-the-main-volatile-component-of-rhizoma-chuanxiong-confers-prophylaxis-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-nrf2-and-hsp70-signaling-pathways
#11
Juan Li, Jie Yu, Hui Ma, Na Yang, Li Li, Ding-Ding Zheng, Ming-Xia Wu, Zhi-Long Zhao, Hong-Yi Qi
Z-Ligustilide (Z-LIG) is a major component in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, which has been traditionally used as a health food supplement for the prevention of cerebrovascular disease in China. This study investigates the ability of intranasal Z-LIG pretreatment to enhance protection against neuronal damage in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the role of cellular stress response mechanisms Nrf2 and HSP70. Z-LIG significantly mitigated infarct volume, neurological dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain edema (p < 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165057/a-novel-indication-of-platonin-a-therapeutic-immunomodulating-medicine-on-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#12
Joen-Rong Sheu, Zhih-Cherng Chen, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Duen-Suey Chou, Ting-Lin Yen, Hsing-Ni Lee, Szu-Han Pan, Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Chih-Hao Yang, Cheng-Ying Hsieh
Thrombosis and stroke are major causes of disability and death worldwide. However, the regular antithrombotic drugs may have unsatisfactory results and side effects. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, has been used to treat trauma, ulcers and some acute inflammation. Here, we explored the neuroprotective effects of platonin against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Platonin(200 μg/kg) substantially reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, neuronal cell death and neurological deficit scores, and improved the MCAO-reduced locomotor activity and rotarod performance...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142208/intravenously-transplanted-human-bone-marrow-endothelial-progenitor-cells-engraft-within-brain-capillaries-preserve-mitochondrial-morphology-and-display-pinocytotic-activity-towards-bbb-repair-in-ischemic-stroke-rats
#13
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Edward Haller, Roger Lin, Cesario V Borlongan
Stroke is a life threatening disease with limited therapeutic options. Cell therapy has emerged as an experimental stroke treatment. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a key pathological manifestation of ischemic stroke, and barrier repair is an innovative target for neurorestoration in stroke. Here, we evaluated via electron microscopy the ability of transplanted human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (hBMEPCs) to repair the BBB in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132764/3h-1-2-dithiole-3-thione-as-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-the-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke-through-nrf2-defense-pathway
#14
Ping-Chang Kuo, I-Chen Yu, Barbara A Scofield, Dennis A Brown, Eric T Curfman, Hallel C Paraiso, Fen-Lei Chang, Jui-Hung Yen
Cerebral ischemic stroke accounts for more than 80% of all stroke cases. During cerebral ischemia, reactive oxygen species produced in brain tissue induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. D3T, the simplest compound of the cyclic, sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, is found in cruciferous vegetables and has been reported to induce antioxidant genes and glutathione biosynthesis through activation of Nrf2. In addition to antioxidant activity, D3T was also reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects...
January 26, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078859/role-of-vitacamphore-in-improving-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-following-transient-global-ischemia
#15
LETTER
J Lin, L Pang, X L Liu, J Xing
Pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are responsive to ischemic stress. This process thereby modulates the responsiveness of many cell types under diseased conditions. The current study was to examine the role played by vitacamphore (VCP) in regulating the levels of PICs and protein expression of PIC receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats after cardiac arrest (CA)-induced transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068417/preserved-collateral-blood-flow-in-the-endovascular-m2cao-model-allows-for-clinically-relevant-profiling-of-injury-progression-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Philip Little, Ola Kvist, Rikard Grankvist, Stefan Jonsson, Peter Damberg, Michael Söderman, Fabian Arnberg, Staffan Holmin
Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056927/kudiezi-injection-mitigates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#17
Xuemei Liu, Ye Tao, Fengli Wang, Ting Yao, Chen Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Yan, Xiao Liang, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kudiezi (KDZ) injection is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment for cerebral infarction and angina pectoris. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of KDZ injection on myocardial injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia and the possibly protective mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: sham, 6h-ischemia, and KDZ treatment (KDZ). The neurological deficits were determined by the Garcia score. The cerebral infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and brain water content was also evaluated...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017224/hemorrhagic-transformation-and-cerebral-edema-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-link-to-cerebral-autoregulation
#18
Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo, Jorge Serrador, Isabel Rocha, Farzaneh Sorond
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema are feared complications of acute ischemic stroke but mechanisms are poorly understood and reliable early markers are lacking. Early assessment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics may advance our knowledge in both areas. We examined the relationship between dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) in the early hours post ischemia, and the risk of developing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema at 24h post stroke METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 46 patients from our center with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008305/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-placental-ischemia-induced-increases-in-brain-water-content-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokines-in-pregnant-rats
#19
Linda W Zhang, Junie P Warrington
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938350/central-retinal-artery-occlusion-and-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumonia-infection-in-children
#20
Yunguang Bao, Xiaobing Li, Kaixuan Wang, Chan Zhao, Xiumei Ji, Mizu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an arterial ischemic stroke, rarely occurred in children accompanied with asymptomatic cerebral infarction and almost never involved in severe pneumonia related to Mycoplasma pneumonia infection. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy with severe pneumonia related to Mycoplasma pneumonia infection that developed loss of vision in the left eye on the 14(th) day. No light perception and no pupillary reaction to light were found in the left eye...
December 9, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
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