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ischemic cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#1
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910074/evolutional-characterization-of-photochemically-induced-stroke-in-rats-a-multimodality-imaging-and-molecular-biological-study
#2
Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Yonghua Zhao, Yi-An Chen, Kim-Chuan Chan, David Tat-Wei Tan, Jhih-Shian Lee, You-Yin Chen, Tun-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chi-Wei Chang, Bang-Hung Yang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia is an easy-manipulated, reproducible, relatively noninvasive, and lesion controllable model for translational study of ischemic stroke. In order to longitudinally investigate the characterization of the model, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and bioluminescence imaging system were performed in correlation with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry examinations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, NeuN, von willebrand factor, and α-smooth muscle actin in the infarct zone...
December 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909732/early-vegf-inhibition-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-rat-brains-by-regulating-the-expression-of-mmps
#3
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907954/today-s-approach-to-treating-brain-swelling-in-the-neuro-intensive-care-unit
#4
Shreyansh Shah, W Taylor Kimberly
Brain swelling is an urgent clinical problem that frequently accompanies ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury; it increases morbidity and mortality associated with them. It occurs due to failure of membrane transporters and leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in combination of cytotoxic, ionic, and vasogenic edema. Currently, decompressive craniectomy and osmotherapy are the mainstays of management, but these therapies do not halt the underlying molecular cascade leading to brain swelling...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907083/effects-of-acute-systemic-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia-on-brain-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-hypoxia-ischemia
#5
Wanchao Yang, Xuezhong Zhang, Nan Wang, Jing Tan, Xianhai Fang, Qi Wang, Tao Tao, Wenzhi Li
Therapeutic hypercapnia has the potential for neuroprotection after global cerebral ischemia. Here we further investigated the effects of different degrees of acute systemic hypoxia in combination with hypercapnia on brain damage in a rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Adult wistar rats underwent unilateral common carotid artery (CCA) ligation for 60 min followed by ventilation with normoxic or systemic hypoxic gas containing 11%O2,13%O2,15%O2 and 18%O2 (targeted to PaO2 30-39 mmHg, 40-49 mmHg, 50-59 mmHg, and 60-69 mmHg, respectively) or systemic hypoxic gas containing 8% carbon dioxide (targeted to PaCO2 60-80 mmHg) for 180 min...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896629/remote-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-rats-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-hif-1%C3%AE-ampk-hsp70-pathway
#6
Ming Xia, Qian Ding, Zhidan Zhang, Qinggen Feng
Remote limb ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a clinically feasible strategy to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the knowledge concerning the mechanism underlying RIPC is scarce. This study was performed to examine the effect of RIPC on brain tissue suffering from ischemia challenge and explore its underlying mechanism in a rat model. The animals were divided into four groups: Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), RIPC, and MCAO+RIPC. We found that previous exposure to RIPC significantly attenuated neurological dysfunction and lessened brain edema in MCAO+RIPC group...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871154/neuroprotection-of-dexmedetomidine-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-involved-in-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inflammation-response
#7
Lijun Wang, Haiyan Liu, Ligong Zhang, Gongming Wang, Mengyuan Zhang, Yonghui Yu
Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that exhibits a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart, kidney, and other organs. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective action and potential mechanisms of dexmedetomidine against ischemia-reperfusion induced cerebral injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion. After the ischemic insult, animals then received intravenous dexmedetomidine of 1 µg/kg load dose, followed by 0...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867477/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-experimental-and-clinical-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Wei-Wei Zhai, Liang Sun, Zheng-Quan Yu, Gang Chen
Stroke, which is defined as a neurologic deficit caused by sudden impaired blood supply, has been considered as a common cause of death and disability for decades. The World Health Organization has declared that almost every 5 seconds a new stroke occurs, placing immense socioeconomic burdens. However, the effective and available treatment strategies are still limited. Additionally, the most effective therapy, such as thrombolysis and stenting for ischemic stroke, generally requires a narrow therapeutic time window after the event...
April 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867469/hyperbaric-oxygen-increases-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-thrombolysis-in-vitro-and-reduces-ischemic-brain-damage-and-edema-in-rats-subjected-to-thromboembolic-brain-ischemia
#9
Laurent Chazalviel, Benoit Haelewyn, Mickael Degoulet, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Nicolas Vallée, Jean-Jacques Risso, Stéphane Besnard, Jacques H Abraini
Recent data have shown that normobaric oxygen (NBO) increases the catalytic and thrombolytic efficiency of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in vitro, and is as efficient as rtPA at restoring cerebral blood flow in rats subjected to thromboembolic brain ischemia. Therefore, in the present study, we studied the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) (i) on rtPA-induced thrombolysis in vitro and (ii) in rats subjected to thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain ischemia. HBO increases rtPA-induced thrombolysis in vitro to a greater extent than NBO; in addition, HBO treatment of 5-minute duration, but not of 25-minute duration, reduces brain damage and edema in vivo...
April 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865697/sulfonylurea-pretreatment-and-in-hospital-use-does-not-impact-acute-ischemic-strokes-ais-outcomes-following-intravenous-thrombolysis
#10
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Nitin Goyal, Sulaiman Iftikhar, Ramin Zand, Jason J Chang, Lucas Elijovich, Anne W Alexandrov, Marc D Malkoff, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preliminary studies have indicated that sulfonylurea drugs (SUD) may confer protection against cerebral swelling and hemorrhagic transformation in severe acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We sought to determine whether pretreatment and in-hospital use of SUD may be associated with better outcomes in diabetic AIS patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed consecutive diabetic AIS patients treated with IVT during a 3-year period...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863840/long-term-pre-treatment-of-antioxidant-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-neuronal-damage-in-aged-mice
#11
Xiaomei Zhou, Yinliang Qi, Ting Chen
Antioxidant activity has been attributed to the neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb-761 on brain disorders including ischemic stroke. It is suggested that oxidative stress implicates in neuron injuries during aging. However, whether or not EGb-761 could be used to treat age-related cerebral ischemia is unclear. In the present study, we directly studied the protective effects of EGb-761 in brain ischemia in the mice with different age. As expected, the recovery from brain damages was impaired in aged mice (24 months) in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856160/anti-excitotoxic-effects-of-cannabidiol-are-partly-mediated-by-enhancement-of-ncx2-and-ncx3-expression-in-animal-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Sepideh Khaksar, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
Excitotoxicity and imbalance of sodium and calcium homeostasis trigger pathophysiologic processes in cerebral ischemia which can accelerate neuronal death. Neuroprotective role of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, has attracted attention of many researchers in the neurodegenerative diseases studies. The present investigation was designed to determine whether cannabidiol can alleviate the severity of ischemic damages and if it is able to exert its anti-excitotoxic effects through sodium and calcium regulation...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846628/minocycline-suppresses-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#13
Yunnan Lu, Guodong Xiao, Weifeng Luo
OBJECTIVE: Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, has shown anti-inflammatory effects in cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been clearly identified. Since NLRP3 inflammasome activation controls the maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 in ischemia stroke, we suppose that minocycline may be involved in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
November 16, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823555/hypoxic-preconditioning-increased-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-the-early-stage-of-cerebral-ischemia
#14
Oak Z Chi, Scott J Mellender, Sylviana Barsoum, Xia Liu, Harvey R Weiss
Even though hypoxic preconditioning has been reported to produce neuroprotection, its effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the early stages of cerebral ischemia within the therapeutic window is not clear. Since hypoxic preconditioning increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that modulates vascular permeability, the effects of hypoxic preconditioning and VEGF on BBB permeability were investigated after one hour of focal cerebral ischemia. Rats were exposed to 8% of oxygen for two hours or room air and then 24 hours later, permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was performed...
November 4, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793019/intravenous-administration-of-xenogenic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-admsc-and-admsc-derived-exosomes-markedly-reduced-brain-infarct-volume-and-preserved-neurological-function-in-rat-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chun-Man Yuen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Yi-Ling Chen, Pei-Lin Shao, Yung-Lung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Kun-Chen Lin, Chu-Feng Liu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that combined xenogenic (from mini-pig) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosome therapy could reduce brain-infarct zone (BIZ) and enhance neurological recovery in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) induced by 50-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were divided equally into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS-ADMSC (1.2×106 cells)], group 4 [AIS-exosome (100μg)], and group 5 (AIS-exosome-ADMSC)...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769021/the-neuroprotection-of-sinomenine-against-ischemic-stroke-in-mice-by-suppressing-nlrp3-inflammasome-via-ampk-signaling
#16
Jing Qiu, Min Wang, Jun Zhang, Qing Cai, Dan Lu, Yansong Li, Yushu Dong, Tianzhi Zhao, Huisheng Chen
Neuroinflammation remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke-induced secondary brain injury. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, including cerebral ischemia, and is thus considered an effective therapeutic target. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotection of Sinomenine (SINO), a potent natural anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory molecule, against cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and in an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated astrocytes/microglia model in vitro...
November 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761398/automated-quantification-of-cerebral-edema-following-hemispheric-infarction-application-of-a-machine-learning-algorithm-to-evaluate-csf-shifts-on-serial-head-cts
#17
Yasheng Chen, Rajat Dhar, Laura Heitsch, Andria Ford, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Caty Carrera, Joan Montaner, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen, Hongyu An, Jin-Moo Lee
Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (∆ CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746410/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-tetramethylpyrazine-derivatives-as-potential-neuroprotective-agents
#18
Haiyun Chen, Guolian Tan, Jie Cao, Gaoxiao Zhang, Peng Yi, Pei Yu, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang, Yuqiang Wang
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neurological diseases, resulting in excessive production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of tetramethylpyrazine derivatives and investigated their abilities for scavenging free radicals and preventing against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage in vitro. Among them, compound 22a, consisted of TMP, caffeic acid and a nitrone group, showed potent radical-scavenging activity. Compound 22a had broad neuroprotective effects, including rescuing iodoacetic acid-induced neuronal loss, preventing from t-BHP-induced neuronal injury...
October 14, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724964/sinomenine-activates-astrocytic-dopamine-d2-receptors-and-alleviates-neuroinflammatory-injury-via-the-cryab-stat3-pathway-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#19
Jing Qiu, Zhongjun Yan, Kai Tao, Yansong Li, Yuqian Li, Jingchen Li, Yushu Dong, Dayun Feng, Huisheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation plays a critical role in ischemic stroke-induced secondary cerebral injury. Previous studies have suggested that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) acts as a key target in regulating the neuroinflammatory response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and effective DRD2 agonists are lacking. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of sinomenine (Sino), a monomeric compound with potential immunoregulatory properties in nervous system...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708218/overexpression-of-caveolin-1-attenuates-brain-edema-by-inhibiting-tight-junction-degradation
#20
Kang-Ho Choi, Hyung-Seok Kim, Man-Seok Park, Eun-Bin Lee, Jung-Kil Lee, Joon-Tae Kim, Ja-Hae Kim, Min-Cheol Lee, Hong-Joon Lee, Ki-Hyun Cho
Cerebral edema from the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral ischemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality as well as a common event in patients with stroke. Caveolins (Cavs) are thought to regulate BBB functions. Here, we report for the first time that Cav-1 overexpression (OE) decreased brain edema from BBB disruption following ischemic insult. Edema volumes and Cav-1 expression levels were measured following photothrombosis and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Endothelial cells that were transduced with a Cav-1 lentiviral expression vector were transplanted into rats...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
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