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Character strengths virtues

Marie Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Gary R Maslow, Sherika N Hill
AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition...
May 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Leonardo Seoane, Lisa M Tompkins, Anthony De Conciliis, Philip G Boysen
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Adam J Vanhove, P D Harms, Justin A DeSimone
The 24-item Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST) was developed to efficiently measure character strengths (Peterson, Park, & Castro, 2011 ). However, its validity for this purpose has not yet been sufficiently established. Using confirmatory factor analysis to test a series of structural models, only a modified bifactor model showed reasonably acceptable fit. Further analyses of this model failed to demonstrate measurement invariance between male and female respondents. Relationships between ACST dimension and Big Five personality trait scores were generally weak-to-moderate, and support for hypotheses regarding each ACST virtue's expected correspondence with specific Big Five dimensions was mixed...
September 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Jeong Han Kim, Brian T McMahon, Carolyn Hawley, Dana Brickham, Rene Gonzalez, Dong-Hun Lee
PURPOSE: Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) is an area of study where a positive psychology perspective, especially the study of virtues and character strengths, can be implemented within the rehabilitation framework. A carefully developed theory to guide future interdisciplinary research is now timely. METHODS: A traditional literature review between philosophy and rehabilitation psychology was conducted in order to develop a virtue-based psychosocial adaptation theory, merging important perspectives from the fields of rehabilitation and positive psychology...
March 2016: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
C Robert Cloninger, Kevin M Cloninger
A clinician's effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life's many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health...
April 2011: International Journal of Person Centered Medicine
Young-Jin Lim
A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was applied to investigate the relationship between virtues and positive mental health as determined using the Character Strength Test and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The study participants were 876 college students (54% women; overall mean age [SD] 21.50 years [2.35]) recruited from introductory psychology courses at two universities in Seoul. Findings revealed that the intellectual virtues of college students predicted subjective well-being according to all emotional, social and psychological measures...
August 2015: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Robin A Hanks, Lisa J Rapport, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Scott R Millis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of character strengths on psychosocial outcomes after mild complicated to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective study with consecutive enrollment. SETTING: A Midwestern rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with mild complicated to severe TBI (N=65). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Community Integration Measure, Disability Rating Scale, Modified Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading...
November 2014: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Lacey J Hilliard, Edmond P Bowers, Kathleen N Greenman, Rachel M Hershberg, G John Geldhof, Samantha A Glickman, Jacqueline V Lerner, Richard M Lerner
Previous work on peer victimization has focused primarily on academic outcomes and negative indicators of youth involved in bullying. Few studies have taken a strength-based approach to examine attributes associated with bullies and victims of bullying. As such, we examined developmental trajectories of moral, performance, and civic character components, and their links to bully status using data from 713 youth (63% female) who participated in Wave 3 (approximately Grade 7) through Wave 6 (approximately Grade 10) of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development...
June 2014: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Gregor F Fussmann, Andrew Gonzalez
The persistence of ecological communities is challenged by widespread and rapid environmental change. In many cases, persistence may not be assured via physiological acclimation or migration and so species must adapt rapidly in situ. This process of evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when genetic adaptation allows a population to recover from decline initiated by environmental change that would otherwise cause extirpation. Community evolutionary rescue (CER) occurs when one or more species undergo a rapid evolutionary response to environmental change, resulting in the recovery of the ancestral community...
December 6, 2013: Interface Focus
Daniel T L Shek, Lu Yu, Xiao Fu
Despite the fact that different Chinese communities have already undergone industrialization and urbanization, Confucian virtues are still regarded as developmental ideals in Chinese culture. Unfortunately, while Confucian virtues are commonly discussed under Chinese philosophies, they are rarely examined in the context of developmental research. In this paper, several key Confucian virtues are discussed, including loyalty ("zhong"), filial piety ("xiao"), benevolence ("ren"), affection ("ai"), trustworthiness ("xin"), righteousness ("yi"), harmony ("he"), peace ("ping"), propriety ("li"), wisdom ("zhi"), integrity ("lian") and shame ("chi")...
2013: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
David Alvargonzález
Employing the tenets of philosophical materialism, this paper discusses the ethical debate surrounding assisted suicide for persons suffering end-stage Alzheimer's. It first presents a classification of the dissociative situations between "human individual" and "human person". It then moves on to discuss challenges to diagnosed persons and their caregivers in relation to the cardinal virtues of Spinozistic ethics--strength of character (fortitudo), firmness (animositas) and generosity (generositas). Finally, a number of ideas attached to the debate--"right of choice", "death with dignity", "quality of life" and "compassion in dying"--are discussed in order to clarify their foundations...
December 2012: Journal of Aging Studies
Robert E McGrath
The VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) has emerged as the primary instrument for gauging individual strengths and virtues. Prior studies have generated inconsistent results concerning the latent structure of the VIA-IS. The present study attempted to address some of these inconsistencies. VIA-IS results from a large sample (N = 458,998) of U.S. adults who completed the inventory online were subjected to a series of principal components and factor analyses. The sample was 66.46% female with a mean age of 34...
February 2014: Assessment
F Gander, R T Proyer, W Ruch, T Wyss
PURPOSE: Positive psychological functioning has been related to various positive work-related outcome variables, such as job satisfaction or work engagement. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between morally positively valued traits (i.e., strengths of character) and work-related behaviors. METHOD: A sample of 887 adult women completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) and the Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns Questionnaire (AVEM) in an online survey...
November 2012: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Y Joel Wong
This article describes Strength-Centered Therapy, a new therapeutic model based on the positive psychology of character strengths and virtues as well as social constructionist perspectives on psychotherapy. The contributions of the positive psychology of character strengths and social constructionist conceptualizations of psychotherapy are examined. In addition, the theoretical assumptions, applications, and limitations of Strength-Centered Therapy are discussed. It is argued that Strength- Centered Therapy might contribute to the revival of character strengths and virtues in psychotherapy...
2006: Psychotherapy
Mark R Diamond, Angela O'Brien-Malone, Rosalind J Woodworth
The VIA Survey of Character (VIA) is a self-report inventory designed to measure and assess 24 character strengths that are linked conceptually to six fundamental "virtues"--Wisdom and Knowledge, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence, as developed by Peterson and Seligman in 2004. Despite its popularity, the current presentation of the VIA is not easy to score; researchers must either use a limited online scoring facility or must use outdated scoring keys. This paper presents a full description of the scoring key...
December 2010: Psychological Reports
Marjorie A Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are strengths of character that contribute to a life of flourishing or well-being for individuals and communities...
2009: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
W Ruch, R T Proyer, M Weber
BACKGROUND: Positive psychology studies what is best in people. In their classification of strengths and virtues, Peterson and Seligman [11] assign humor to the virtue of transcendence. Thus far, there is no specific study that deals with age-related changes in humor (as a strength of character) across a lifespan and its relation to well-being in the elderly. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of n=42,964 participants completed an online questionnaire on humor as a strength of character...
February 2010: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
F L Gates
The experiments presented in this paper brought out the following facts. Intramuscular injections of sodium oxalate into rabbits in doses of 0.18 and 0.2 gm. proved to be invariably fatal, death generally occurring in a comparatively short time. The symptoms consisted in excitation and tonic and clonic convulsions of diminishing strength if death was delayed. Some animals succumbed in the first convulsion. From the experiments in which magnesium or calcium was added, it was evident that massage of the site of the oxalate injection is unmistakably an aggravating factor...
September 1, 1918: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Charles S Bryan, Allison M Babelay
In 1950, Harrison and colleagues proposed that the physician's ultimate and sufficient destiny should be to "build an enduring edifice of character." Recent work in philosophy underscores the importance of character ethics (virtue ethics) as a complement to ethical systems based on duty (deontology) or results (consequentialism). Recent work in psychology suggests that virtues and character strengths can, to at least some extent, be analyzed and taught. Building character might be enhanced by promoting among students, residents, and faculty a four-step method of reflective practice that includes (1) the details of a situation, (2) the relevant virtues, (3) the relevant principles, values, and ethical frameworks, and (4) the range of acceptable courses of action...
September 2009: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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