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Character strengths virtues

Willibald Ruch, Sonja Heintz, Tracey Platt, Lisa Wagner, René T Proyer
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karrie A Shogren, Leslie A Shaw, Sheida K Raley, Michael L Wehmeyer, Ryan M Niemiec, Megan Adkins
This article reports the results of an examination of the endorsement, reliability, and factorial validity of the VIA-Youth and assessment of character strengths and virtues developed for the general population in youth with and without intellectual disability. Findings suggest that, generally, youth with intellectual disability endorsed character strengths as being like them at lower levels, although few differences were significant. Issues related to measurement, particularly the establishment of measurement invariance, emerged for some virtues...
February 2018: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Julia Browne, Sue E Estroff, Kelsey Ludwig, Carrington Merritt, Piper Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Jennifer D Gottlieb, David L Penn
Positive psychology interventions that integrate a person's strengths into treatment result in improvements in life satisfaction and well-being. Character strengths classified within six core virtues (wisdom/knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence) have been the subject of substantial research. Though a number of studies have been conducted in the general population, little is known about the character strengths of individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP). Moreover, positive psychology principles, in particular a focus on personal strengths, have been increasingly integrated into FEP treatment and was a core component of Individual Resiliency Training (IRT), the individual therapy component of NAVIGATE tested in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Tingting Li, Wenjie Duan, Pengfei Guo
In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15) or low-character-strength (n = 15) groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress) were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure...
2017: PeerJ
Kristina Schmid Callina, Sara K Johnson, Jonathan M Tirrell, Milena Batanova, Michelle B Weiner, Richard M Lerner
There were two purposes of the present research: first, to add to scholarship about a key character virtue, hopeful future expectations; and second, to demonstrate a recent innovation in longitudinal methodology that may be especially useful in enhancing the understanding of the developmental course of hopeful future expectations and other character virtues that have been the focus of recent scholarship in youth development. Burgeoning interest in character development has led to a proliferation of short-term, longitudinal studies on character...
June 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Jason Baehr
The moral and civic dimensions of personal character have been widely recognized and explored. Recent work by philosophers, psychologists, and education theorists has drawn attention to two additional dimensions of character: intellectual character and "performance" character. This article sketches a "four-dimensional" conceptual model of personal character and some of the character strengths or "virtues" proper to each dimension. In addition to exploring how the dimensions of character are related to each other, the article also examines the implications of this account for character education undertaken in a youth or adolescent context...
June 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Marie Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Gary R Maslow, Sherika N Hill
AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition...
May 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Leonardo Seoane, Lisa M Tompkins, Anthony De Conciliis, Philip G Boysen
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Adam J Vanhove, P D Harms, Justin A DeSimone
The 24-item Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST) was developed to efficiently measure character strengths (Peterson, Park, & Castro, 2011 ). However, its validity for this purpose has not yet been sufficiently established. Using confirmatory factor analysis to test a series of structural models, only a modified bifactor model showed reasonably acceptable fit. Further analyses of this model failed to demonstrate measurement invariance between male and female respondents. Relationships between ACST dimension and Big Five personality trait scores were generally weak-to-moderate, and support for hypotheses regarding each ACST virtue's expected correspondence with specific Big Five dimensions was mixed...
September 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Jeong Han Kim, Brian T McMahon, Carolyn Hawley, Dana Brickham, Rene Gonzalez, Dong-Hun Lee
PURPOSE: Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) is an area of study where a positive psychology perspective, especially the study of virtues and character strengths, can be implemented within the rehabilitation framework. A carefully developed theory to guide future interdisciplinary research is now timely. METHODS: A traditional literature review between philosophy and rehabilitation psychology was conducted in order to develop a virtue-based psychosocial adaptation theory, merging important perspectives from the fields of rehabilitation and positive psychology...
March 2016: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
C Robert Cloninger, Kevin M Cloninger
A clinician's effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life's many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health...
April 2011: International Journal of Person Centered Medicine
Young-Jin Lim
A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was applied to investigate the relationship between virtues and positive mental health as determined using the Character Strength Test and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The study participants were 876 college students (54% women; overall mean age [SD] 21.50 years [2.35]) recruited from introductory psychology courses at two universities in Seoul. Findings revealed that the intellectual virtues of college students predicted subjective well-being according to all emotional, social and psychological measures...
August 2015: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Robin A Hanks, Lisa J Rapport, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Scott R Millis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of character strengths on psychosocial outcomes after mild complicated to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective study with consecutive enrollment. SETTING: A Midwestern rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with mild complicated to severe TBI (N=65). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Community Integration Measure, Disability Rating Scale, Modified Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading...
November 2014: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Lacey J Hilliard, Edmond P Bowers, Kathleen N Greenman, Rachel M Hershberg, G John Geldhof, Samantha A Glickman, Jacqueline V Lerner, Richard M Lerner
Previous work on peer victimization has focused primarily on academic outcomes and negative indicators of youth involved in bullying. Few studies have taken a strength-based approach to examine attributes associated with bullies and victims of bullying. As such, we examined developmental trajectories of moral, performance, and civic character components, and their links to bully status using data from 713 youth (63% female) who participated in Wave 3 (approximately Grade 7) through Wave 6 (approximately Grade 10) of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development...
June 2014: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Gregor F Fussmann, Andrew Gonzalez
The persistence of ecological communities is challenged by widespread and rapid environmental change. In many cases, persistence may not be assured via physiological acclimation or migration and so species must adapt rapidly in situ. This process of evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when genetic adaptation allows a population to recover from decline initiated by environmental change that would otherwise cause extirpation. Community evolutionary rescue (CER) occurs when one or more species undergo a rapid evolutionary response to environmental change, resulting in the recovery of the ancestral community...
December 6, 2013: Interface Focus
Daniel T L Shek, Lu Yu, Xiao Fu
Despite the fact that different Chinese communities have already undergone industrialization and urbanization, Confucian virtues are still regarded as developmental ideals in Chinese culture. Unfortunately, while Confucian virtues are commonly discussed under Chinese philosophies, they are rarely examined in the context of developmental research. In this paper, several key Confucian virtues are discussed, including loyalty ("zhong"), filial piety ("xiao"), benevolence ("ren"), affection ("ai"), trustworthiness ("xin"), righteousness ("yi"), harmony ("he"), peace ("ping"), propriety ("li"), wisdom ("zhi"), integrity ("lian") and shame ("chi")...
2013: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
David Alvargonzález
Employing the tenets of philosophical materialism, this paper discusses the ethical debate surrounding assisted suicide for persons suffering end-stage Alzheimer's. It first presents a classification of the dissociative situations between "human individual" and "human person". It then moves on to discuss challenges to diagnosed persons and their caregivers in relation to the cardinal virtues of Spinozistic ethics--strength of character (fortitudo), firmness (animositas) and generosity (generositas). Finally, a number of ideas attached to the debate--"right of choice", "death with dignity", "quality of life" and "compassion in dying"--are discussed in order to clarify their foundations...
December 2012: Journal of Aging Studies
Robert E McGrath
The VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) has emerged as the primary instrument for gauging individual strengths and virtues. Prior studies have generated inconsistent results concerning the latent structure of the VIA-IS. The present study attempted to address some of these inconsistencies. VIA-IS results from a large sample (N = 458,998) of U.S. adults who completed the inventory online were subjected to a series of principal components and factor analyses. The sample was 66.46% female with a mean age of 34...
February 2014: Assessment
F Gander, R T Proyer, W Ruch, T Wyss
PURPOSE: Positive psychological functioning has been related to various positive work-related outcome variables, such as job satisfaction or work engagement. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between morally positively valued traits (i.e., strengths of character) and work-related behaviors. METHOD: A sample of 887 adult women completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) and the Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns Questionnaire (AVEM) in an online survey...
November 2012: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
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