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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223933/task-based-and-resting-state-fmri-reveal-compensatory-network-changes-following-damage-to-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#1
Glyn P Hallam, Hannah E Thompson, Mark Hymers, Rebecca E Millman, Jennifer M Rodd, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network...
October 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223865/prevention-of-ischemia-induced-hearing-loss-by-intravenous-administration-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-in-gerbil
#2
Hideo Ogawa, Masahiro Okada, Masachika Shudou, Kiyofumi Gyo, Naohito Hatoa
OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen-rich water, which is a potent antioxidant agent, was investigated for its protective effects against ischemic damage of the cochlea in gerbils. METHODS: The animals were subjected to transient cochlear ischemia by occluding the bilateral vertebral arteries for l5minutes. Five milliliters of hydrogen-rich saline was then intravenously administered immediately after the insult. Saline without hydrogen was used as a control. Effects of hydrogen were evaluated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and histological studies of the inner ear...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223669/experimental-use-of-new-absorbable-tracheal-stent
#3
Luciano F Schopf, José Carlos Fraga, Rodrigo Porto, Luis A Santos, Douglas R Marques, Paulo R Sanchez, Fabíola S Meyer, Jane M Ulbrich
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Silicone and metallic stents are not effective in children with tracheobronchial stenosis or tracheomalacia. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and histological reaction of rabbit trachea to the presence of a new poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with polyisoprene (PLGA/PI) polymer absorbable stent. METHODS: Fourteen adult white rabbits (weight, 3.0-3.5kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: Group I (n=6): PLGA/PI spiral stent; Group II (n=6): PLGA/PI fragment; and Group III (n=2): controls...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223646/exploring-the-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-the-kidney-from-the-bench-to-clinical-trials
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Coppolino, Christian Leporini, Laura Rivoli, Francesco Ursini, Eugenio Donato di Paola, Valeria Cernaro, Franco Arturi, Davide Bolignano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro, Michele Andreucci
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a relatively new class of non-insulin glucose-lowering agents, belonging to the incretin family, which are able to improve glycemic control with a favorable safety profile, since they are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, no weight gain, and good tolerability in patients with chronic renal failure. Some experimental and clinical studies suggest that these drugs may exert significant pleiotropic effects, in particular on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but data from clinical trials are still controversial...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223554/oral-administration-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-thymoquinone-attenuates-long-term-cisplatin-treatment-induced-toxicity-and-oxidative-damage-in-rat-kidney
#5
Zeba Farooqui, Faaiza Shahid, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is an effective anti-cancer drug which causes remarkable toxicity to the kidney, particularly to proximal tubules, by generating reactive oxygen species. Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as "black cumin" reduces the progression of various kidney disorders. Thymoquinone (TQ), the major bioactive constituent of NS seeds, has been credited for various pharmacological effects of NS. Since, a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves CP administration in multiple cycles over a long time duration, hence the present study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective efficacy of NS oil and TQ against multiple dose CP treatment induced deleterious biochemical and histological alterations in rat kidney...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223189/the-evaluation-of-arterial-stiffness-of-essential-hypertension-and-white-coat-hypertension-in-children-a-case-control-study
#6
Semiha Terlemez Tokgöz, Dilek Yılmaz, Yavuz Tokgöz, Bülent Çelik, Yasin Bulut
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine and compare cardiovascular risks by assessing arterial stiffness in children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. METHODS: Paediatric patients followed up with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension diagnoses and with no established end organ damage were involved in the study. Arterial stiffness in children included in the study was evaluated and compared by using the oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph) method...
December 10, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223045/investigation-of-antioxidant-ability-of-grape-seeds-extract-to-prevent-oxidatively-induced-dna-damage-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Önder Aybastıer, Sam Dawbaa, Cevdet Demir
Phenolic compounds have been studied elaborately for their efficacy to improve health and to protect against a wide variety of diseases. Herein this study, different analysis methods were implemented to evaluate the antioxidant properties of catechin and cyanidin using their standard substances and as they found in the grape seeds extracts. Total phenol contents were 107.39±8.94mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for grape seed extract (GSE) and 218.32±10.66mg GAE/g dw of grape seeds for acid-hydrolyzed grape seed extract (AcGSE)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223039/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-ameliorates-the-pm2-5-induced-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-sirt-1-in-rats
#8
Lu Yang, Zheng Duan, Xin Liu, Yadong Yuan
Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, plays a major role in combating cellular oxidative stress injury. However, the role of SIRT1 in oxidative stress induced by particulate matter remains unclear. A total of 32 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into PM2.5, PM2.5+NAC, filtered air (control), and filtered air+NAC (NAC control) groups. The expressions of MnSOD, SIRT1, and FOXO3a were examined at both transcriptional and protein levels. The expression levels of MnSOD, SIRT1, and FOXO3a reduced significantly (P<0...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222838/results-of-a-systematic-literature-review-of-treatment-modalities-for-jugulotympanic-paraganglioma-stratified-per-fisch-class
#9
Thijs T G Jansen, Henri J L M Timmers, Henri A M Marres, Johannes H A M Kaanders, Henricus P M Kunst
OBJECTIVE: Key for successful jugulotympanic paraganglioma management is a personalized approach aiming for the best practice for each individual patient. To this end, a systematic review is performed, evaluating the local control- and complication rates for the different treatment modalities stratified by the broadly accepted Fisch classification. DESIGN: A systematic literature review according to the PRISMA statement was performed. A detailed overview of individual treatment outcomes per Fisch class is provided...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222721/are-the-adverse-effects-of-stressors-on-amphibians-mediated-by-their-effects-on-stress-hormones
#10
Caitlin R Gabor, Sarah A Knutie, Elizabeth A Roznik, Jason R Rohr
Adverse effects of anthropogenic changes on biodiversity might be mediated by their impacts on the stress response of organisms. To test this hypothesis, we crossed exposure to metyrapone, a synthesis inhibitor of the stress hormone corticosterone, with exposure to the herbicide atrazine and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to assess whether the effects of these stressors on tadpoles and post-metamorphic frogs were mediated by corticosterone. Metyrapone countered atrazine- and Bd-induced corticosterone elevations...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#11
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222447/structural-abnormalities-in-islets-from-very-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-may-contribute-to-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes
#12
Marika Bogdani, Scott M Blackman, Cecilia Ridaura, Jean-Pierre Bellocq, Alvin C Powers, Lydia Aguilar-Bryan
Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) is thought to result from beta-cell injury due in part to pancreas exocrine damage and lipofibrosis. CFRD pancreata exhibit reduced islet density and altered cellular composition. To investigate a possible etiology, we tested the hypothesis that such changes are present in CF pancreata before the development of lipofibrosis. We evaluated pancreas and islet morphology in tissues from very young CF children (<4 years of age), and adult patients with CF and CFRD...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222404/lack-of-parkin-anticipates-the-phenotype-and-affects-mitochondrial-morphology-and-mtdna-levels-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Milena Pinto, Nadee Nissanka, Carlos T Moraes
PARK2 is the most common gene mutated in monogenic recessive familial cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathogenic mutations cause a loss of function of the encoded protein Parkin. ParkinKO mice, however, poorly represent human PD symptoms as they only exhibit mild motor phenotypes, minor dopamine metabolism abnormalities, and no signs of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Parkin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial turnover, by targeting damaged mitochondria, with low membrane potential, to mitophagy...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222231/al-amyloidosis-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-targeted-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Giampaolo Merlini
Systemic amyloidosis is caused by misfolding and extracellular deposition of circulating proteins as amyloid fibrils, resulting in the dysfunction of vital organs. The most common systemic amyloidosis, light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, is caused by misfolded light chains produced by a small, dangerous B-cell clone. The process of amyloid formation, organ targeting, and damage is multifaceted and, after disease initiation, the complexity of the downstream pathogenic cascade increases, rendering its control a challenge...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222090/gpr55-regulates-intraepithelial-lymphocyte-migration-dynamics-and-susceptibility-to-intestinal-damage
#15
Hayakazu Sumida, Erick Lu, Hsin Chen, Qiyun Yang, Ken Mackie, Jason G Cyster
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine are intimately associated with the epithelial cells. Yet, the factors controlling their migration and interaction dynamics are poorly understood. We demonstrate that GPR55, a receptor that mediates migration inhibition in response to lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), negatively regulates T cell receptor γδ (TCRγδ) IEL accumulation in the small intestine. Intravital imaging studies show that GPR55-deficient IELs migrate faster and interact more extensively with epithelial cells...
December 8, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221882/effective-inhibition-of-cbf-14-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-in-mice-and-its-related-anti-inflammatory-activity
#17
Changzhong Yu, Shanshan Wei, Xiaorong Han, Hanhan Liu, Mengxiao Wang, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Jie Dou, Changlin Zhou, Lingman Ma
Cbf-14 (RLLRKFFRKLKKSV), a designed peptide derived from cathelicidin family AMP, has proven to be potent against drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cryptococcal activity of Cbf-14 in vitro and in a pulmonary infection mouse model. Sensitivity test indicated that Cbf-14 possessed effective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an MIC of 4-16 µg/ml, and killing experiments showed that fungicidal activity was achieved after only 4 h treatment with Cbf-14 at 4× MIC concentrations in vitro...
December 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221814/use-of-interventional-radiology-as-initial-hemorrhage-control-to-improve-outcomes-for-potentially-lethal-multiple-blunt-injuries
#18
Hiroyuki Otsuka, Toshiki Sato, Keiji Sakurai, Hiromichi Aoki, Takeshi Yamagiwa, Shinichi Iizuka, Sadaki Inokuchi
INTRODUCTION: Recently, trauma management has been markedly improved with interventional radiology (IVR) and damage-control strategies. However, the indications for its use in hemodynamically unstable patients with severe trauma remains unclear. In some cases, IVR may be more effective than surgery for damage-control hemostasis; however, performing IVR in life-threatening trauma settings is challenging. To address this, we practiced and evaluated a trauma-management system with emergency physicians who trained for both severe trauma management, and techniques of surgery and IVR...
December 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221667/interleukin-27-and-interleukin-37-are-elevated-in-sickle-cell-anemia-patients-and-inhibit-in-vitro-secretion-of-interleukin-8-in-neutrophils-and-monocytes
#20
A E Alagbe, A S Justo Junior, L P Ruas, W V Tonassé, R M Santana, T H C Batista, I F Domingos, A S Araujo, M A C Bezerra, M N N Santos, M H S L Blotta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of most complications seen in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. We aimed to evaluate serum levels of two newly discovered anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-27 and IL-37), and pro-inflammatory cytokines among Brazilian SCA patients that are not on hydroxyurea therapy (HbSS), compared with hydroxyurea-treated patients (HbSSHU) and healthy controls (HbAA). Furthermore, we demonstrated the effect of IL-27, IL-37, and heme on in vitro secretions of IL-8 in human neutrophils and monocytes...
December 5, 2017: Cytokine
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