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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906751/resveratrol-promotes-neuroprotection-and-attenuates-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-in-the-small-intestine-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Paulo Emilio Botura Ferreira, Evandro José Beraldi, Stephanie Carvalho Borges, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Nilza Cristina Buttow
Damages to the enteric nervous system caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently attributed to oxidative and nitrosative stress. We aimed to investigate the effect of Resveratrol (RSV) (10 mg/kg) on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the intestinal wall and morphoquantitative aspects of the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in diabetic rats. Twenty-four rats were distributed into four groups (n = 6/group): control (C group), control treated with RSV (CR group), diabetic (D group), and diabetic treated with RSV (DR group) for 120 days...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906621/deoxynivalenol-decreased-the-growth-performance-and-impaired-intestinal-physical-barrier-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#2
Chen Huang, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of animal feed worldwide and brings significant threats to the animal production. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal physical barrier in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of DON (27, 318, 636, 922, 1243 and 1515 μg/kg diet) for 60 days...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906536/mahuang-decoction-mitigates-airway-inflammation-and-regulates-il-21-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-rat-asthma-model
#3
Yu He, Xiaohui Lou, Zhan Jin, Li Yu, Ling Deng, Haitong Wan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nowadays, bronchial asthma is still a severe disease threatening human health, and it is incumbent upon us to seek effective therapeutic drugs. Mahuang decoction (MHD), a classic famous Chinese prescription, has been used for thousands of years to prevent phlegm from forming, stop coughing and relieve asthma, but the relevant mechanism has not been thoroughly clarified. This study aims to investigate the anti-airway inflammation effect of MHD and the possible molecular mechanism underlying IL21/STAT3 signaling pathway, so as to provide guidance for the treatment of MHD on bronchial asthma...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906225/scleraxis-regulates-twist1-and-snai1-expression-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Danah S Al-Hattab, Hamza A Safi, Raghu S Nagalingam, Rushita A Bagchi, Matthew Taras Stecy, Michael Paul Czubryt
Numerous physiological and pathological events, from organ development to cancer and fibrosis, are characterized by Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), whereby adherent epithelial cells convert to migratory mesenchymal cells. During cardiac development, pro-epicardial organ epithelial cells undergo EMT to generate fibroblasts. Subsequent stress or damage induces further phenotype conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, causing fibrosis via synthesis of excessive extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the transcription factor scleraxis is both sufficient and necessary for the conversion of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and found that scleraxis knockout reduced cardiac fibroblast number by 50%, possibly via EMT attenuation...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905673/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-after-smoke-inhalation-injury-with-and-without-skin-burn
#5
Anita C Randolph, Satoshi Fukuda, Koji Ihara, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Maria-Adelaide Micci
Only a handful of published reports exist today that describe neurological complications following smoke inhalation injury. In this study, we characterize acute pathophysiological changes in the brain of sheep exposed to smoke inhalation, with- and without third-degree skin burn that models the injuries sustained by human victims of fire accidents. Blood-brain barrier integrity and hemorrhage were analyzed throughout the brain using specific histological stains: Hematoxylin & Eosin, Luxol fast blue, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Martius, Scarlet and Blue (MSB)...
June 13, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905566/-evaluation-of-neuroprotective-activity-of-complex-impact-of-magnesium-of-sulfate-lamotrygine-and-n-acetylcysteine-under-conditions-of-combined-normobaric-hypoxia-with-ligation-of-right-carotid-artery-in-rats
#6
M Samsonia, M Kandelaki, N Baratashvili
Cerebrovascular diseases of ischemic origin still remain the leading cause of death and disability of the population. In acute cerebral discirculation conditions, anaerobic glycolysis is activated, ATP formation rate decreases, the ion pumps work is disrupted and superoxide radicals are formed. Eventually, ionic asymmetry leads to the cytotoxic and vasogenic brain edema. Therefore, it is extremely important to induce simultaneous (complex) effect of medications on the key mechanisms of neuronal damage in process of survival of brain cells during acute ischemic stroke...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905504/er-yag-laser-for-metal-and-ceramic-bracket-debonding-an-in-vitro-study-on-intrapulpal-temperature-sem-and-eds-analysis
#7
Kinga Grzech-Leśniak, Jacek Matys, Dorota Żmuda-Stawowiak, Krzysztof Mroczka, Marzena Dominiak, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Reinhard Gruber, Georgios E Romanos, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of bracket removal using an erbium laser on the pulp temperature and enamel surface. BACKGROUND: Removal of orthodontic brackets with conventional debonding pliers may result in enamel cracks. To avoid damage to the enamel surface and effectively remove metal or ceramic brackets, different types of lasers, such as Nd:YAG, CO2 , TM:YAP, diode laser, or Er:YAG, have been introduced for debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 55 brackets (n = 55; 20 metal and 35 ceramic ones) were bonded to 55 caries-free premolars extracted for orthodontic indications...
June 15, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905409/l-fabp-and-il-6-as-markers-of-chronic-kidney-damage-in-children-after-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#8
Katarzyna Lipiec, Piotr Adamczyk, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Katarzyna Ziora, Maria Szczepańska
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). From a clinical point of view, it is important to search for markers that allow for early identification of patients at risk of a poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the serum and urine levels of liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS...
June 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905361/treatment-of-osteoarthritis-with-collagen-based-scaffold-a-porcine-animal-model-with-xenograft-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Wo-Ran Tzeng, Shu-Wei Huang, Chih-Hsiang Fang, Lih-Tao Hsu, Chih-Yu Chen, Hsin-Hsin Shen, Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Feng-Huei Lin
OBJECTIVE: With the goal to explore a new approach to treat the early degenerative lesions of hyaline cartilage, we implanted in a porcine OA model a collagen-based scaffold containing chondroprogenitor cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Porcine knee joints were subjected to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection to surgically induce OA. After 4 months, the time necessary for the development of cartilage surface damage, animals were treated either with trephination bone plug wrapped with the chondroprogenic hBM-MSCs-embedded collagen scaffold or microfractures alone...
June 15, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905085/protective-effect-of-ginseng-on-salivary-dysfunction-following-radioiodine-therapy-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Ji Won Kim, Jeong-Mi Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jeong-Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a putative damage mechanism leading to salivary gland (SG) dysfunction following radioiodine (RI) therapy. Ginseng is an antioxidative herb. We examined the SG radioprotective effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) administration prior to RI in a mouse model. METHODS: We divided four-week old mice (n = 60) into four groups; (1) normal control, (2) RI only treated (0.01 mCi/g, p.o), (3) KRG administered (0.2 mg/g, i.p) 0.5 and 6 hours before RI, and (4) amifostine treated (0...
June 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904762/user-defined-local-stimulation-of-live-tissue-through-a-movable-microfluidic-port
#11
Megan A Catterton, Austin F Dunn, Rebecca R Pompano
Many in vivo tissue responses begin locally, yet most in vitro stimuli are delivered globally. Microfluidics has a unique ability to provide focal stimulation to tissue samples with precise control over fluid location, flow rate, and composition. However, previous devices utilizing fixed ports beneath the tissue required manual alignment of the tissue over the ports, increasing the risk of mechanical damage. Here we present a novel microfluidic device that allows the user to define the location of fluid delivery to a living tissue slice without manipulating the tissue itself...
June 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904720/rare-variants-and-de-novo-variants-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#12
John K L Wong, Hongsheng Gui, Maxwell Kwok, Ping Wing Ng, Colin H T Lui, Larry Baum, Pak Chung Sham, Patrick Kwan, Stacey S Cherny
Objective: We investigated the role of rare genetic variants and of de novo variants in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in patients with MTLE-HS and their unaffected parents (trios). Genes or gene sets that were enriched with predicted damaging rare variants in the patients as compared to population controls were identified. Patients and their parents were compared to identify whether the variants were de novo or inherited...
June 2018: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904387/anti-lipoarabinomannan-specific-salivary-iga-as-prognostic-marker-for-leprosy-reactions-in-patients-and-cellular-immunity-in-contacts
#13
André Alan Nahas, Mayara Ingrid de Sousa Lima, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904353/low-level-light-therapy-protects-red-blood-cells-against-oxidative-stress-and-hemolysis-during-extracorporeal-circulation
#14
Tomasz Walski, Anna Drohomirecka, Jolanta Bujok, Albert Czerski, Grzegorz Wąż, Natalia Trochanowska-Pauk, Michał Gorczykowski, Romuald Cichoń, Małgorzata Komorowska
Aim: An activation of non-specific inflammatory response, coagulation disorder, and blood morphotic elements damage are the main side effects of the extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Red-to-near-infrared radiation (R/NIR) is thought to be capable of stabilizing red blood cell (RBC) membrane through increasing its resistance to destructive factors. We focused on the development of a method using low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the spectral range of R/NIR which could reduce blood trauma caused by the heart-lung machine during surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904333/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-supplementation-affects-exhaustive-exercise-induced-fatigue-in-mice
#15
Liu Xianchu, Liu Ming, Liu Xiangbin, Zheng Lan
Background: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been extensively reported to possess a wide range of beneficial properties in multiple tissue damage. Previous studies have shown that exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue associates with oxidative stress injury, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of GSPE in mice and explore its possible underlying mechanism. Design: The mouse model of exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue was established by using the forced swimming test, and GSPE was orally treated for successive 28 days at 0, 1, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight, designated the control, GSPE-L, GSPE-M and GSPE-H groups, respectively...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904189/mitigation-of-radiation-myelopathy-and-reduction-of-microglial-infiltration-by-ramipril-ace-inhibitor
#16
Mariano G Clausi, Alexander M Stessin, Stella E Tsirka, Samuel Ryu
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation-induced spinal cord injury. SETTING: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. METHODS: Total of 22 rats were irradiated with single doses of 23.6-33 Gy at the C4-T2 spinal levels. After irradiation, the rats were randomized to the radiation only control group and the Ramipril-treated (radiation + Ramipril) experimental group...
June 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903746/smashing-mantis-shrimp-strategically-impact-shells
#17
R L Crane, S M Cox, S A Kisare, S N Patek
Many predators fracture strong mollusk shells, requiring specialized weaponry and behaviors. The current shell fracture paradigm is based on jaw- and claw-based predators that slowly apply forces (high impulse, low peak force). However, predators also strike shells with transient intense impacts (low impulse, high peak force). Toward the goal of incorporating impact fracture strategies into the prevailing paradigm, we measured how mantis shrimp ( Neogonodactylus bredini ) impact snail shells, tested whether they strike shells in different locations depending on prey shape ( Nerita spp...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903577/increased-reduction-in-exsanguination-rates-leaves-brain-injury-as-the-only-major-cause-of-death-in-blunt-trauma
#18
D Jochems, L P H Leenen, F Hietbrink, R M Houwert, K J P van Wessem
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) related injuries and exsanguination have been the most common causes of death in trauma for decades. Despite improvements in haemorrhage control in recent years exsanguination is still a major cause of death. We conducted a prospective database study to investigate the current incidence of haemorrhage related mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database study of all trauma patients admitted to an urban major trauma centre between January 2007 and December 2016 was conducted...
May 23, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903448/historic-notes-on-anatomic-physiologic-and-clinical-research-on-the-cerebellum
#19
Jan Voogd, Peter J Koehler
This chapter is concerned with ideas on the function, structure, and pathology that shaped our present knowledge of the cerebellum. One of the main themes in its early history is its localization subtentorially, leading to misattributions due to clinical observations in trauma and lesion experiments that caused collateral damage to the brainstem. Improvement of techniques led to the insight that it plays a role in movement control (Rolando) or coordination (Flourens). Purkinje initiated the histology of the cerebellar cortex in 1837...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903443/nuclear-medicine-of-the-cerebellum
#20
Alessandra Vella, Mario Mascalchi
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with different radiotracers enable regional evaluation of blood flow and glucose metabolism, of receptors and transporters of several molecules, and of abnormal deposition of peptides and proteins in the brain. The cerebellum has been used as a reference region for different radiotracers in several disease conditions. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis is not affected by a priori knowledge bias and should be preferred. SPECT and PET have contributed to establishing the cerebellum role in motion, cognition, and emotion control in physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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