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Growth mindset

Guang Zeng, Hanchao Hou, Kaiping Peng
The objective of positive education is not only to improve students' well-being but also their academic performance. As an important concept in positive education, growth mindset refers to core assumptions about the malleability of a person's intellectual abilities. The present study investigates the relation of growth mindsets to psychological well-being and school engagement. The study also explores the mediating function of resilience in this relation. We recruited a total of 1260 (658 males and 602 females) Chinese students from five diversified primary and middle schools...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew Perrella
Feedback in medical education provides the impetus for growth in a field pressured to demonstrate continuous progress. Unfortunately, as it always incorporates some level of judgment, certain students appear more resistant than receptive to receiving feedback. Coupled with the ubiquitous stressors of medicine-examinations, perpetual knowledge acquisition, competition for employment-there subtly emerges a learning environment in which the mindset of medical trainees morphs from collegiality to outperformance of one's peers...
December 9, 2016: Medical Teacher
A K Choudhary, D M Saxena, Rituja Kaushal
OBJECTIVE: This study has been designed with the intention to bring a substantial change in the mindsets or life skills of adolescent girls at secondary school level regarding their concept of child survival and safe motherhood practices in order to deal effectively with real-life situations. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 538 adolescent girls regarding assessment of their knowledge on variables like correct nutrition, iron-deficiency anemia and its prevention, care during pregnancy, safe birth, skilled birth attendance, breast feeding and complementary feeding practices, child's growth and development issues, immunization, management of common childhood illnesses...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Simon Calmar Andersen, Helena Skyt Nielsen
Laboratory experiments have shown that parents who believe their child's abilities are fixed engage with their child in unconstructive, performance-oriented ways. We show that children of parents with such "fixed mindsets" have lower reading skills, even after controlling for the child's previous abilities and the parents' socioeconomic status. In a large-scale randomized field trial (Nclassrooms = 72; Nchildren = 1,587) conducted by public authorities, parents receiving a reading intervention were told about the malleability of their child's reading abilities and how to support their child by praising his/her effort rather than his/her performance...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica L Schleider, John R Weisz
Efforts to reduce youth mental health problems have advanced greatly but have not lowered overall rates of youth mental illness. Thus, a need exists for disseminable, mechanism-targeted approaches to reducing risk of youth psychopathology. Accordingly, we conducted a randomized-controlled trial testing whether a single-session intervention teaching growth personality mindsets (the belief that personality is malleable) reduced known risk factors for anxiety and depression in adolescents experiencing or at risk for internalizing problems (N = 96, ages 12-15)...
December 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
David A Cook, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVE: To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. RESULTS: Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability...
October 2016: Medical Education
David S Yeager, Carissa Romero, Dave Paunesku, Christopher S Hulleman, Barbara Schneider, Cintia Hinojosa, Hae Yeon Lee, Joseph O'Brien, Kate Flint, Alice Roberts, Jill Trott, Daniel Greene, Gregory M Walton, Carol S Dweck
There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized "A/B" experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population...
April 2016: Journal of Educational Psychology
Rob De Vreese, Charlotte Grootaert, Sander D'hoore, Atiruj Theppawong, Sam Van Damme, Maarten Van Bogaert, John Van Camp, Matthias D'hooghe
Curcuminoids are high-potential drugs targeting multiple components of vital signaling pathways without being toxic, and are therefore considered to be valuable lead structures in medicinal chemistry. Unfortunately, most curcuminoids poorly reach their site of action because of low bioavailability issues, (partly) associated with the labile β-diketo structure. In that respect, curcumin derivatives bearing a central β-enaminone fragment may have improved solubility and intestinal stability, and therefore may represent a new class of analogs with higher bioactivity...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Susana Claro, David Paunesku, Carol S Dweck
Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chelsea A Myers, Cheng Wang, Jessica M Black, Nicolle Bugescu, Fumiko Hoeft
The current study utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine how two important non-cognitive skills, grit and growth mindset, are associated with cortico-striatal networks important for learning. Whole-brain seed-to-voxel connectivity was examined for dorsal and ventral striatal seeds. While both grit and growth mindset were associated with functional connectivity between ventral striatal and bilateral prefrontal networks thought to be important for cognitive-behavioral control...
October 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Linda E Carlson, Rie Tamagawa, Joanne Stephen, Elaine Drysdale, Lihong Zhong, Michael Speca
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) and supportive expressive group therapy (SET) are two well-validated psychosocial interventions, but they have not been directly compared, and little is known about long-term outcomes. This comparative effectiveness study measured the effects of these two interventions immediately following the groups and for 1 year thereafter in distressed breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-two distressed Stage I-III breast cancer survivors were randomized into either MBCR or SET...
July 2016: Psycho-oncology
Matthew S Cain, Julia A Leonard, John D E Gabrieli, Amy S Finn
Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset...
December 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jennifer A Schmidt, Lee Shumow, Hayal Z Kackar-Cam
One's beliefs about whether ability is fixed or malleable-also known as fixed or growth mindset-can impact academic outcomes. This quasi-experimental study investigated effects of a six-week classroom intervention targeting growth mindset on students' daily quality of experience in science classrooms. Seventh grade (N = 370) and 9th grade (N = 356) students (50 % female, 61 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned by classroom to either a mindset intervention condition or content writing task condition. Students provided self-reports on multiple aspects of their daily classroom experience 11 times across the school year...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Charlotte R Pennington, Derek Heim
BACKGROUND: Women in mathematical domains may become attuned to situational cues that signal a discredited social identity, contributing to their lower achievement and underrepresentation. AIM: This study examined whether heightened in-group representation alleviates the effects of stereotype threat on women's mathematical performance. It further investigated whether single-sex testing environments and stereotype threat influenced participants to believe that their ability was fixed (fixed mindset) rather than a trait that could be developed (growth mindset)...
September 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Karen Kruse Thomas
In 1915, William Henry Welch and Wickliffe Rose submitted a report to the Rockefeller Foundation that became the template for public health professional education in the United States and abroad. Based on the Welch-Rose Report's recommendations, the Foundation awarded a grant to Johns Hopkins University in 1916 to establish the first independent graduate school of public health, with Welch serving as the founding dean. The Welch-Rose Report and, by extension, the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health established and transmitted a new model of scientific training that wove the laboratory mindset together with the methods of public health administration and epidemiologic fieldwork...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Mithila Jegathesan, Yaffa M Vitberg, Martin V Pusic
BACKGROUND: Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting...
February 11, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Aneeta Rattan, Krishna Savani, Dolly Chugh, Carol S Dweck
The United States must improve its students' educational achievement. Race, gender, and social class gaps persist, and, overall, U.S. students rank poorly among peers globally. Scientific research shows that students' psychology-their "academic mindsets"-have a critical role in educational achievement. Yet policymakers have not taken full advantage of cost-effective and well-validated mindset interventions. In this article, we present two key academic mindsets. The first, a growth mindset, refers to the belief that intelligence can be developed over time...
November 2015: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Rena F Subotnik, Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Frank C Worrell
For nearly a century, scholars have sought to understand, measure, and explain giftedness. Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often built on earlier work, complementing or sometimes clashing over conceptions of talent or contesting the mechanisms of talent development. Some have even suggested that giftedness itself is a misnomer, mistaken for the results of endless practice or social advantage. In surveying the landscape of current knowledge about giftedness and gifted education, this monograph will advance a set of interrelated arguments: The abilities of individuals do matter, particularly their abilities in specific talent domains; different talent domains have different developmental trajectories that vary as to when they start, peak, and end; and opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process...
January 2011: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Laura E R Blackie, Eranda Jayawickreme, Marie J C Forgeard, Nuwan Jayawickreme
The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors...
July 2015: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Samantha Nix, Lara Perez-Felkner, Kirby Thomas
Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge-in particular in mathematics domains-influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
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