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Character strengths

Zheng Zheng, Julia Saar, Bo Zhi, Tian Autumn Qiu, Miranda J Gallagher, D Howard Fairbrother, Christy L Haynes, Karen Lienkamp, Zeev Rosenzweig
The paper describes the interactions between poly (oxonorbornenes) (PONs)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with phospholipid vesicles, and shows that the strength of these interactions strongly depends on the molecular structure of PONs, specifically their amine/alkyl side chain ratio. PONs, which are a recently introduced class of cationic polyelectrolytes, can be systematically varied to control the amine/alkyl ratio and to explore how the chemical character of cationic polyelectrolytes affect their interactions and the interactions of their nanoparticle conjugates with model membranes...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Suji Gim, Hyung-Kyu Lim, Hyungjun Kim
The solid-liquid interface is of great interest because of its highly heterogeneous character and its ubiquity in various applications. The most fundamental physical variable determining the strength of the solid-liquid interface is the solid-liquid interfacial tension, which is usually measured according to the contact angle. However, an accurate experimental measurement and a reliable theoretical prediction of the contact angle remain lacking because of many practical issues. Here, we propose a first principles-based simulation approach to quantitatively predict the contact angle of an ideally clean surface using our recently developed multiscale simulation method of density functional theory in classical explicit solvents (DFT-CES)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Laurent Oxusoff, Pascal Préa, Yvan Perez
Investigating how recombination might modify gene order during the evolution has become a routine part of mitochondrial genome analysis. A new method of genomic maps analysis based on formal logic is described. The purpose of this method is to 1) use mitochondrial gene order of current taxa as datasets 2) calculate rearrangements between all mitochondrial gene orders and 3) reconstruct phylogenetic relationships according to these calculated rearrangements within a tree under the assumption of maximum parsimony...
2018: PloS One
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Ting Cao, Meng Wu, Steven G Louie
We show that band topology can dramatically change the photophysics of two-dimensional semiconductors. For systems in which states near the band extrema are of multicomponent character, the spinors describing these components (pseudospins) can pick up nonzero winding numbers around the extremal k point. In these systems, we find that the strength and required light polarization of an excitonic optical transition are dictated by the optical matrix element winding number, a unique and heretofore unrecognized topological characteristic...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lukas Nico Wirz, Maria Dimitrova, Heike Fliegl, Dage Sundholm
The topology of twisted molecular rings is characterized by the linking number, which is equal to the sum of the twist and writhe parameters. The twist is associated with the local twisting of the molecular frame, whereas the writhe is a global property of the molecular ring. The writhe represents the bending of the molecular ring, which increases π-electron stabilization as well as steric interactions and reduces the strain of twisted molecular rings. In this work, we investigate a number of cyclic all-trans C40 H40 annulenes with different topologies and their dications...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ming Yang, Ariando, Jun Zhou, Teguh Citra Asmara, Peter Krüger, Xiao Jiang Yu, Xiao Wang, Cecilia Sanchez-Hanke, Yuan Ping Feng, T Venkatesan, Andrivo Rusydi
Along with an unexpected conducting interface between nonmagnetic insulating perovskites LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 ), striking interfacial magnetisms have been observed in LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructures. Interestingly, the strength of the interfacial magnetic moment is found to be dependent on oxygen partial pressures during the growth process. This raises an important, fundamental question on the origin of these remarkable interfacial magnetic orderings. Here, we report a direct evidence of room-temperature stable magnetism in a LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructure prepared at high oxygen partial pressure by using element-specific soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at both Ti L3,2 and O K edges...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Małgorzata Najderska, Jan Cieciuch
This article examines the structure of character strengths (Peterson and Seligman, 2004) following both variable-centered and person-centered approaches. We used the International Personality Item Pool-Values in Action (IPIP-VIA) questionnaire. The IPIP-VIA measures 24 character strengths and consists of 213 direct and reversed items. The present study was conducted in a heterogeneous group of N = 908 Poles (aged 18-78, M = 28.58). It was part of a validation project of a Polish version of the IPIP-VIA questionnaire...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alon Zivony, Tamar Saguy
Bisexuals are an invisible sexual minority. However, at the same time, bisexuals are stereotypically associated with confusion and promiscuity. Stereotype learning theories suggest that individuals who are unfamiliar with a social group are less likely to have stereotypical beliefs about its members. In contrast, it has been recently hypothesized that stereotypes about bisexuality are not necessarily learned but rather deduced based on common conceptualizations of sexuality. Because stereotypes are suppressed only if they are recognized as offensive, lack of knowledge regarding bisexual stereotypes should actually enhance their adoption...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Shahrzad Karimi, Carsten A Ullrich, Irene D'Amico, Florent Perez
A two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling sustains persistent helical spin-wave states, which have remarkably long lifetimes. In the presence of an in-plane magnetic field, there exist single-particle excitations that have the character of propagating helical spin waves. For magnon-like collective excitations, the spin-helix texture reemerges as a robust feature, giving rise to a decoupling of spin-orbit and electronic many-body effects. We prove that the resulting spin-flip wave dispersion is the same as in a magnetized 2DEG without spin-orbit coupling, apart from a shift by the spin-helix wave vector...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steve Scheiner
The tetravalent character of tetrel atoms leaves only limited room for an incoming nucleophile to approach and engage in a noncovalent bond with a tetrel atom. Any such approach can only occur at the expense of internal geometric distortions. The balance between attractive forces and repulsive steric crowding was studied for a series of Lewis acids of the type FTR3 (T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) which were allowed to interact with various bases. The strength and other properties of the tetrel bond are examined as the R groups are made progressively larger, varying from H and CH3 to isopropyl and t-butyl, which induce steric crowding with the incoming base...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Anise M S Wu, Juliet Honglei Chen, Kwok-Kit Tong, Shu Yu, Joseph T F Lau
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested. Methods A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Shaina Riciputi, Paige Boyer, Meghan H McDonough, Frank J Snyder
4-H PALS is an afterschool positive youth development program for pre- and early adolescents delivered within the 4-H platform and designed to use physical activity to promote character development. The conceptual framework for this program, informed by the theory of triadic influence, prioritizes the social environment created during physical activities to promote adaptive outcomes. Given the novelty of the 4-H PALS curriculum, it is important to outline program components and identify both strengths and challenges to be addressed...
February 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Isaac Eliaz, Elaine Weil, Barry Wilk
Context • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) produces lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that diminish quality of life. Conventional treatments are often accompanied by adverse side effects. By contrast, consumers of phytochemicals-based dietary supplements often report a reduction in symptoms without side effects. The field needs studies that quantify the strength and character of perceived benefits. Objectives • The study intended to quantify the character and strength of perceived improvements in LUTS in men, after the consumption of a prostate health supplement...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Siew-Tim Lai, Kheng-Seang Lim, Venus Tang, Wah-Yun Low
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services...
January 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Bohayra Mortazavi, Meysam Makaremi, Masoud Shahrokhi, Mostafa Raeisi, Chandra Veer Singh, Timon Rabczuk, Luiz Felipe C Pereira
Two-dimensional (2D) structures of boron atoms, so-called borophene, have recently attracted remarkable attention. In a recent exciting experimental study, a hydrogenated borophene structure was realized. Motivated by this success, we conducted extensive first-principles calculations to explore the mechanical, thermal conduction, electronic and optical responses of borophene hydride. The mechanical response of borophene hydride was found to be anisotropic, with an elastic modulus of 131 N m-1 and a high tensile strength of 19...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Willibald Ruch, Sonja Heintz, Tracey Platt, Lisa Wagner, René T Proyer
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karrie A Shogren, Leslie A Shaw, Sheida K Raley, Michael L Wehmeyer, Ryan M Niemiec, Megan Adkins
This article reports the results of an examination of the endorsement, reliability, and factorial validity of the VIA-Youth and assessment of character strengths and virtues developed for the general population in youth with and without intellectual disability. Findings suggest that, generally, youth with intellectual disability endorsed character strengths as being like them at lower levels, although few differences were significant. Issues related to measurement, particularly the establishment of measurement invariance, emerged for some virtues...
February 2018: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Ji-Zhen Liu, Hai-Rui Wei, Ning-Yang Chen
Hyper-parallel quantum computation is a promising and fruitful area of research with its high capacity and low loss rate characters. In this paper, we propose a heralded, compact, scalable, and deterministic error-rejecting scheme for implementing three-photon hyper-parallel Toffoli gate simultaneously acting on polarization and spatial degrees of freedom. It is a practical and unity gate without strong coupling strength limitations, since the undesired performances caused by the side leakage and the limited coupling strength are detected by the single-photon detectors...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tiago D Gomes, Sofia G Caridade, Maria P Sousa, Sara Azevedo, Muhammed Y Kandur, Ebru T Öner, Natália M Alves, João F Mano
This work is the first reporting the use of layer-by-layer to produce adhesive free-standing (FS) films fully produced using natural-based macromolecules: chitosan (CHI), alginate (ALG) and sulfated levan (L-S). The deposition conditions of the natural polymers were studied through zeta potential measurements and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring analysis. The properties of the FS films were evaluated and compared with the control ones composed of only CHI and ALG in order to assess the influence of levan polysaccharide introduced in the multilayers...
January 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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