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Character strengths

P R Sivashankari, A Moorthi, K Mohamed Abudhahir, M Prabaharan
Hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH), a water soluble derivative of chitosan, is widely considered for tissue engineering and wound healing applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Graphene oxide (GO) is a carbon-based nanomaterial which is capable of imparting desired properties to the scaffolds. Hence, the integration of GO into HPCH could allow for the production of HPCH-based scaffolds with improved swelling character, mechanical strength, and stability aimed at being used in tissue engineering...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
E F Dolzhenkova, E I Kostenyukova, O N Bezkrovnaya, I M Pritula
Studied were the strength characteristics of KDP crystals doped with l-arginine under a concentrated load and irradiation of the first harmonic YAG:Nd(3+) laser. The crystals were obtained by means of the temperature reduction method on a point seed, the content of l-arginine in the aqueous solution being 0.3, 0.4, 1.0 and 1.4 wt%. The character of the dependence of KDP microhardness versus the concentration of amino acid in the crystal was investigated. The regularities of brittle damage of the doped KDP crystal at mechanical testing and laser irradiation were shown to be similar...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Crystal Growth
Ljiljana Stojanovic, Saadullah G Aziz, Rifaat Hassan Hilal, Felix Plasser, Thomas A Niehaus, Mario Barbatti
We implemented a version of the decoherence-corrected fewest switches surface hopping based on linear-response time-dependent density functional tight binding (TD-DFTB), enhanced by transition density analysis. The method has been tested for the gas-phase relaxation dynamics of two cycloparaphenylene molecules, [8]CPP and [10]CPP, explaining some important features of their nonadiabatic dynamics, such as the origin of their long fluorescence lifetimes (related to the slow radiative emission from the S1 state) and the trend of increasing the fluorescence rate with the molecular size (related to an increase in the S1-S0 energy gaps and oscillator strengths in the larger molecule)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Yurij A Antonov, Irina Zhuravleva, Alexander Volodine, Paula Moldenaers, Ruth Cardinaels
It is known that the formation of electrostatic polyelectrolyte complexes can induce conformational changes in the interacting macromolecules. However, the opposite effect, namely, that of the helix-coil transition of one of the interacting polyelectrolytes on its associative phase separation with another polyelectrolyte and the possible phase transitions in such systems, has not been determined. Atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscopy, phase analysis, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, turbidimetry, absorption, and fluorescence measurements as well as differential scanning calorimetry and rheology were used to study the effect of the helix-coil transition in bovine skin gelatin (Gel) on its associative phase separation with hen egg white lysozyme (Lys) at different temperatures (18-40 °C) and various Lys/Gel weight ratios (0...
November 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Freija De Vleeschouwer, Mats Denayer, Balazs Pinter, Paul Geerlings, Frank De Proft
The chalcogen bond has been acknowledged as an influential noncovalent interaction (NCI) between an electron-deficient chalcogen (donor) and a Lewis base (acceptor). This work explores the main features of chalcogen bonding through a large-scale computational study on a series of donors and acceptors spanning a wide range in strength and character of this type of bond: (benzo)chalcogenadiazoles (with Ch = Te/Se/S) versus halides and neutral Lewis bases with O, N, and C as donor atoms. We start from Pearson's hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle, where the hard nature of the chalcogen bond is quantified through the molecular electrostatic potential and the soft nature through the Fukui function...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Shawn Marschall-Lévesque, Joanne-Lucine Rouleau, Patrice Renaud
Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Mingwei Zhang, Hui Wang, Yuan Yi, Jinfeng Ding, Min Zhu, Chunyan Li, Wenshan Guo, Chaonian Feng, Xinkai Zhu
Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety) was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield...
2017: PloS One
Robert E McGrath, Ashley Hall-Simmonds, Lewis R Goldberg
Two studies were conducted to investigate redundancy between the character strengths found in the VIA model of character and familiar personality facets. Study 1 used a community sample ( N = 606) that completed a measure of character strengths, four personality inventories, and 17 criterion measures. The second study used Mechanical Turk workers ( N = 498) who completed measures of the HEXACO and VIA models and 111 criterion variables. Analyses were conducted using both observed scores and true score estimates, evaluating both predictive and conceptual overlap...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
Jing-Sheng Zhao
As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard...
April 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
A Szatanik-Kloc, J Szerement, J Cybulska, G Jozefaciuk
It is widely believed that pectin are responsible for the vast majority of cation binding positions in the root cell walls. To estimate the role of particular kinds of pectin, we studied the cell wall material isolated from the roots of monocots (wheat and rye) and dicots (clover and lupine) before and after removal of different fractions of soluble pectin. Simultaneously PME activity and degree of pectin methylation were determined. From potentiometric titration curves cation exchange capacity, total surface charge and acidic strength of surface functional groups responsible for surface charging were determined...
October 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L Duckworth
Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities...
January 2017: Contemporary Educational Psychology
Julia Browne, Sue E Estroff, Kelsey Ludwig, Carrington Merritt, Piper Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Jennifer D Gottlieb, David L Penn
Positive psychology interventions that integrate a person's strengths into treatment result in improvements in life satisfaction and well-being. Character strengths classified within six core virtues (wisdom/knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence) have been the subject of substantial research. Though a number of studies have been conducted in the general population, little is known about the character strengths of individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP). Moreover, positive psychology principles, in particular a focus on personal strengths, have been increasingly integrated into FEP treatment and was a core component of Individual Resiliency Training (IRT), the individual therapy component of NAVIGATE tested in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program...
October 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
J P Drury, G F Grether, T Garland, H Morlon
Much ecological and evolutionary theory predicts that interspecific interactions often drive phenotypic diversification and that species phenotypes in turn influence species interactions. Several phylogenetic comparative methods have been developed to assess the importance of such processes in nature; however, the statistical properties of these methods have gone largely untested. Focusing mainly on scenarios of competition between closely-related species, we assess the performance of available comparative approaches for analyzing the interplay between interspecific interactions and species phenotypes...
October 4, 2017: Systematic Biology
Florian C Boucher, Vincent Démery, Elena Conti, Luke J Harmon, Josef Uyeda
The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks...
September 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
Luis Alvarez-Thon, Liliana Mammino
Magnetically induced current densities are different for different types of chemical bonds, and may help highlight some of their characteristics and stress their main differences. The present work considers magnetically induced current densities in the bonds of diatomic molecules bonded by covalent bonds as well as the gas phase molecules of 1:1 ionic compounds, comparing the current strength values and visualizing current density maps. The results show clear-cut differences for the different types of bonds (non-polar covalent, polar covalent, and ionic), and can also be related to the extent of the covalent or ionic character of a bond...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
O Weisman, R Feldman, M Burg-Malki, M Keren, R Geva, G Diesendruck, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have assessed the socio-cognitive profile in Williams syndrome (WS) and, independently, in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Yet, a cross-syndrome comparison of these abilities between individuals with these two syndromes with known social deficits has not been conducted. METHODS: Eighty-two children participated in four study groups: WS (n = 18), 22q112.DS (n = 24), age-matched individuals with idiopathic developmental disability (IDD; n = 20) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 20)...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Yusong Bai, Jeff Rawson, Sean A Roget, Jean-Hubert Olivier, Jiaxing Lin, Peng Zhang, David N Beratan, Michael J Therien
While the influence of proquinoidal character upon the linear absorption spectrum of low optical bandgap π-conjugated polymers and molecules is well understood, its impact upon excited-state relaxation pathways and dynamics remains obscure. We report the syntheses, electronic structural properties, and excited-state dynamics of a series of model highly conjugated near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing chromophores based on a (porphinato)metal(ii)-proquinoidal spacer-(porphinato)metal(ii) (PM-Sp-PM) structural motif...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Xiaochong Jian, Wenxiu Huang, Dong Wu, Dongdong You, Zhaonan Lin, Jiang Chen
BACKGROUND Surface characters of culture plates affect cellular behaviors such as cellular alignment and elongation. Microgrooves guide the cell growth along the grooves and spread. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of fibronectin (FN)-coated micro-grooved titanium plates on the alignment, spread, adhesion, and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Micro-grooved titanium plates were fabricated, and FN was immobilized onto the micro-grooved surfaces using silanization...
October 4, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Leo Yuk Ting Cheung, Sing-Hang Cheung
Crowding impedes the identification of flanked objects in peripheral vision. Prior studies have shown crowding strength decreases with target-flanker similarity. Research on crowding in Chinese-character recognition has been scarce in the literature. We aimed to fill the research gap by examining the effects of structural similarity on Chinese-character crowding. Regularity in within-character configuration, i.e., orthographic legality, of flankers was manipulated in Experiment 1. Target-flanker similarity in orthographic legality did not affect crowding strength, measured as contrast threshold elevation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Zhangfan Shen, Vencislav Popov, Anita B Delahay, Lynne M Reder
Do the processing and online manipulation of stimuli that are less familiar require more working memory (WM) resources? Is it more difficult to solve demanding problems when the symbols involved are less rather than more familiar? We explored these questions with a dual-task paradigm in which subjects had to solve algebra problems of different complexities while simultaneously holding novel symbol-digit associations in WM. The symbols were previously unknown Chinese characters, whose familiarity was manipulated by differential training frequency with a visual search task for nine hour-long sessions over 3 weeks...
October 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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