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Character strengths

John J Randolph
Positive psychology has influenced multiple subfields within psychology and areas outside of psychology. While positive psychology's focus on positive mental health and character strengths did not appear to meaningfully impact neuropsychology in its earlier stages, more recent indications suggest that the neuropsychological literature, and perhaps the field as a whole, has begun to embrace related research and practice applications. In this context, positive neuropsychology has emerged as a neuropsychological orientation focused on the study and practice of promoting cognitive health...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Michele Monti, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Circadian clocks are biochemical oscillators that allow organisms to estimate the time of the day. These oscillators are inherently noisy due to the discrete nature of the reactants and the stochastic character of their interactions. To keep these oscillators in sync with the daily day-night rhythm in the presence of noise, circadian clocks must be coupled to the dark-light cycle. In this paper, we study the entrainment of phase oscillators as a function of the intrinsic noise in the system. Using stochastic simulations, we compute the optimal coupling strength, intrinsic frequency, and shape of the phase-response curve, that maximize the mutual information between the phase of the clock and time...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Nathan A Carter, Tijana Z Grove
Generation of electric potential upon external stimulus has attracted much attention for the development of highly functional sensors and devices. Herein, we report large-displacement, fast actuation in the self-assembled engineered repeat protein Consensus Tetratricopeptide Repeat protein (CTPR18) materials. The ionic nature of the CTPR18 protein coupled to the long-range alignment upon self-assembly results in the measured conductivity of 7.1 × 10-2 S cm-1, one of the highest reported for protein materials...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maristella Lucchini, Nicolo Pini, William P Fifer, Nina Burtchen, Maria G Signorini
OBJECTIVE: Though the mutual influence of cardiovascular and respiratory rhythms in healthy newborns has been documented, its full characterization is still pending. In general, activity of many physiological subsystems has a well expressed rhythmic character, and often an interdependency between physiological rhythms emerges early in development. Traditional methods of data analysis only address the quantification of the strength of subsystem interactions. In this work, we will investigate system interrelationships in terms of possible presence of causal or directional interplays...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Zhongheng Fu, Dominik Legut, Timothy C Germann, Chen Si, Shiyu Du, Joseph S Francisco, Ruifeng Zhang
Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) exhibit excellent thermodynamic stability, mechanical strength and flexibility, which make them promising candidates in flexible devices and reinforcements in nanocomposites. However, the dynamic stability may intrinsically determine the preferred adsorption sites of functional groups in MXenes and lead to premature failure under finite strain before approaching the elastic limits. It is found interestingly that different adsorption sites of the functional groups correspond to the different phonon stabilities and adsorption energies of MXenes, which can be attributed to different hybridization characteristics between the metal-d and O-pz states and delocalized electron behaviors around the metal atoms...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Elliot J Taffet, Gregory D Scholes
The nature of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission (SF) in peridinin remain open research questions. Obtaining an understanding of the population evolution from the bright state to dark states following a photoinduced electronic transition is critical. Unambiguously describing this evolution in peridinin, and light-harvesting carotenoids in general, has proven elusive experimentally and computationally. To offer a balanced description of bright- and dark-state electronic structure, we here apply ab initio multireference perturbation theory quantum chemistry-the density matrix renormalization group self-consistent-field (DMRG-SCF) and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with second-order N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
T H Musa, W Li, L Xiaoshan, Y Guo, Y Wenjuan, Y Xuan, P YuePu, W Pingmin
Handgrip strength is one of the most universal and powerful indices of nutritional and health status. This study was aimed at presenting norms of grip strength values and their association with anthropometric characters among students in Jiangsu Province. Cross-sectional studies were carried out among 255,157 males and females aged 7-22 years in 2010-2013. Weight and height were obtained and handgrip strength was measured. The sample was stratified by sex, age and residential area. Data were analyzed using chi-squared test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, calculated using SPSS version of 20...
March 27, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Hongfang Li, Aimei Zhang, Yanlei Hao, Hongzhi Guan, Zhanyun Lv
RATIONALE: Autoimmune encephalitis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are classic paraneoplastic neurological conditions common in patients with small cell lung cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient complained of tiredness, fluctuating recent memory loss, and inability to find his home. His family members reported a change in character, irritability, and paranoia. One month later, the patient had 1 grand mal seizure lasting 5 minutes. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis combined with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rashid R Valiev, Isaac Benkyi, Yuri V Konyshev, Heike Fliegl, Dage Sundholm
Magnetically induced current densities and ring-current pathways have been calculated at density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) levels of theory for a set of expanded porphyrins consisting of five or six pyrrolic rings. The studied molecules are sapphyrin, cyclo[6]pyrrole, rubyrin, orangarin, rosarin, and amethyrin. Different functionals have been employed to assess the functional dependence of the ring-current strength susceptibility. Vertical singlet and triplet excitation energies have been calculated at the second-order approximate coupled cluster (CC2), expanded multiconfigurational quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (XMC-DPT2), and time-dependent density functional theory levels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Anna Maria Labecka, Mateusz Sobczyk
There is a growing amount of empirical evidence on the important role of cell size in body size adjustment in ambient or changing conditions. Though the adaptive significance of their correspondence is well understood and demonstrated, the proximate mechanisms are still in a phase of speculation. We made interesting observations on body/cell size adjustment under stressful conditions during an experiment designed for another purpose. We found that the strength of the body/cell size match is condition-dependent...
May 4, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
John K Riley, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Robert D Tilton
HYPOTHESIS: Adsorption of polyelectrolyte brush-grafted nanoparticles (BGNPs) produces a heterogeneous interface with sub-monolayer surface coverage resulting from lateral electrostatic repulsions that limit packing. As a result, the interaction forces between opposing BGNP layers include an adhesive cross-surface BGNP-substrate bridging force that depends on the interparticle spacing, particle size, and strength of electrostatic interactions. We hypothesize that BGNPs with pH-responsive, annealed polyelectrolyte brushes can undergo controlled changes in surface area coverage through post-adsorption swelling or de-swelling into non-equilibrium layer conformations and that such changes in surface coverage can switch off or switch on particle intercalation, bridging attractions, and enhanced energy dissipation upon sliding...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kristin E Musselman, Catherine Arnold, Clara Pujol, Kaylea Lynd, Sarah Oosman
Study design: Exploratory qualitative study using photo-elicitation interviews. Objectives: To identify contributors to falls, as perceived by individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury, and describe the impact of perceived fall risk on mobility and physical activity. Setting: Participants' home and community environments. Methods: Eight individuals with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury participated. Participants took photographs of situations that increased/decreased their risk of falling, or depicted how this risk impacted mobility and physical activity...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Jan-Michael Mewes
The origin of the thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) of three organic emitters is investigated, focusing on the nature of the lowest excited states, their transition properties, as well as the role of the environment. For this purpose, the algebraic-diagrammatic construction for the polarization propagator at second order of perturbation theory [ADC(2)], time-dependent density-functional theory in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) and unrestricted Kohn-Sham DFT in combination with the maximum-overlap method (ΔDFT) are employed...
April 27, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Noritaka Shimizu, Javier Menéndez, Kentaro Yako
We study the double Gamow-Teller (DGT) strength distribution of ^{48}Ca with state-of-the-art large-scale nuclear shell model calculations. Our analysis shows that the centroid energy of the DGT giant resonance depends mostly on the isovector pairing interaction, while the resonance width is more sensitive to isoscalar pairing. Pairing correlations are also key in neutrinoless ββ (0νββ) decay. We find a simple relation between the centroid energy of the ^{48}Ca DGT giant resonance and the 0νββ decay nuclear matrix element...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
D Santiago-Gonzalez, K Auranen, M L Avila, A D Ayangeakaa, B B Back, S Bottoni, M P Carpenter, J Chen, C M Deibel, A A Hood, C R Hoffman, R V F Janssens, C L Jiang, B P Kay, S A Kuvin, A Lauer, J P Schiffer, J Sethi, R Talwar, I Wiedenhöver, J Winkelbauer, S Zhu
A beam containing a substantial component of both the J^{π}=5^{+}, T_{1/2}=162  ns isomeric state of ^{18}F and its 1^{+}, 109.77-min ground state is utilized to study members of the ground-state rotational band in ^{19}F through the neutron transfer reaction (d,p) in inverse kinematics. The resulting spectroscopic strengths confirm the single-particle nature of the 13/2^{+} band-terminating state. The agreement between shell-model calculations using an interaction constructed within the sd shell, and our experimental results reinforces the idea of a single-particle-collective duality in the descriptions of the structure of atomic nuclei...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Z F Huang, Z F Wang, C H Li, D Hao, J Lan
Objective: To investigate the osseointegration of a novel coating-plasma-sprayed zirconia in dental implant. Methods: Zirconia coating on non-thread titanium implant was prepared using plasma spraying, the implant surface morphology, surface roughness and wettability were measured. In vivo , zirconia coated implants were inserted in rabbit tibia and animals were respectively sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation. The bond strength between implant and bone was measured by push-out test. The osseointegration was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro CT and histological analyses...
April 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Jing Li, Fayin Ye, Lin Lei, Guohua Zhao
The perishable character of moist food products demands packages with antimicrobial activity and water resistance. Oregano essential oil (OEO) and starch octenylsuccination were first jointly applied to formulate antimicrobial and water-resistant sweet potato starch films. The results showed that octenylsuccination powerfully retarded the coalescence of oil droplets in film casting process and favoured their homogeneity in the dried films. OEO incorporation dose-dependently conferred antimicrobial activity upon the films, which was further enhanced by octenylsuccination to some degree...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
José I Martínez, Alex Laikhtman, Hoi Ri Moon, Alla Zak, Julio A Alonso
Understanding the interaction of hydrogen with layered materials is crucial in the fields of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and hydrogen storage, among others. Density functional theory, improved by the introduction of van der Waals dispersion forces, provides an efficient and practical workbench to investigate the interaction of molecular and atomic hydrogen with WS2 multilayers and nanotubes. We find that H2 physisorbs on the surface of those materials on top of W atoms, while atomic H chemisorbs on top of S atoms...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thorsten Deilmann, Kristian Sommer Thygesen
Vertically stacked two-dimensional materials form an ideal platform for controlling and exploiting light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. As a unique feature, these materials host electronic excitations of both intra- and interlayer type with distinctly different properties. In this Letter, using first-principles many-body calculations, we provide a detailed picture of the most prominent excitons in bilayer MoS2 , a prototypical van der Waals material. By applying an electric field perpendicular to the bilayer, we explore the evolution of the excitonic states as the band alignment is varied from perfect line-up to staggered (Type II) alignment...
April 19, 2018: Nano Letters
Irina V Fedorova, Lyubov P Safonova
Structural features and interionic interactions play a crucial role in determining the overall stability of ionic liquids and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, we have performed high-level quantum chemical study of different cation-anion pairs representing the building units of protic ionic liquids based on triethanolammonium cation and anions of sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric and phosphorous acids to provide essential insight into these phenomena at the molecular level. It has been shown that every structure is stabilized through multiple H-bonds between the protons in the N-H and O-H groups of the cation and different oxygen atoms of the anion acid...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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