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Character strengths

Kirill Bobrov, Nataliya Kalashnyk, Laurent Guillemot
We present a room temperature STM study of perylene adsorption on Ag(110) at the monolayer coverage regime. We found that structure and symmetry of the perylene monolayer are settled by thermodynamic balance of the three factors: (i) the ability of perylene molecules to recognize specific adsorption sites on the (110) lattice, (ii) the intermolecular interaction, and (iii) the accommodation of thermal motion of the molecules. The moderate strength of the site recognition and the intermolecular interaction, of the same order of magnitude as kT ∼ 25 meV, represents a key feature of the thermodynamic balance...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Joseph Ciarrochi, Paul W B Atkins, Louise L Hayes, Baljinder K Sahdra, Philip Parker
There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people's inner experience (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maciej Ptak, Mirosław Mączka, Anna Gągor, Adam Sieradzki, Bartosz Bondzior, Przemysław Dereń, S Pawlus
We report the synthesis, crystal structure, dielectric, vibrational and emission spectra of heterometallic MOFs, [C2H5NH3][Na0.5Cr0.5(HCOO)3] (EtANaCr), [C2H5NH3][Na0.5Al0.5(HCOO)3] (EtANaAl) and [C2H5NH3][Na0.5Al0.475Cr0.025(HCOO)3] (EtANaAlCr). These compounds crystallize in non-centrosymmetric monoclinic polar structures (space group Pn) and undergo order-disorder phase transitions upon heating to the monoclinic centrosymmetric structure (space group P21/n) at 369 (EtANaAl) and 373 K (EtANaCr). In principle, they are ferroelectric below these temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Mesquita-Guimarães, M A Leite, J C M Souza, B Henriques, F S Silva, D Hotza, A R Boccaccini, M C Fredel
In this work, TiO2 ceramic scaffolds were fabricated by the replica method using polyurethane (PU) sponges. Suspensions with high solid content were used to achieve scaffolds with improved mechanical behavior. TiO2 ceramic suspensions were optimized by rheological studies using different additives. It was found that the composition with 0.5 wt% Darvan enhanced the covering of the sponge struts. PU sponges of 45 to 80 ppi (pore per inch) were well coated without clogging pores. A thermal treatment with varying holding times, temperatures and heating rates was adjusted...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
M Rosenberg, Gabor J Kalman, P Hartmann, Z Donkó
In a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma composed of superparamagnetic, charged dust grains and immersed in an external magnetic field B, the grains interact via both Yukawa and magnetic dipole-dipole potentials. Because the grains' magnetic dipole moments are induced by B, the dipole moments all lie along B. When B is tilted with respect to the normal to the dust layer, the interaction between the grains becomes anisotropic. In our previous paper [Hartmann et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 043102 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Wolfgang W Schoeller, Guido D Frey
The oxidative addition of π- and σ-bonds is studied by means of quantum chemical investigations at a MCSCF and density functional level of sophistication. The title compound (AlNacNac) induces first-order strong donor-acceptor abilities in the triplet state, giving rise to biradicaloid adducts. At second-order, it reveals carbene character. The energy barriers for the 1,2-addition reactions are fairly small, resulting from an oxidative addition, which differs from the classical 1,2-addition reaction of a carbene to an olefin...
October 14, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Vincent Ng, Mengyang Cao, Herbert W Marsh, Louis Tay, Martin E P Seligman
The factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) has not been well established as a result of methodological challenges primarily attributable to a global positivity factor, item cross-loading across character strengths, and questions concerning the unidimensionality of the scales assessing character strengths. We sought to overcome these methodological challenges by applying exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) at the item level using a bifactor analytic approach to a large sample of 447,573 participants who completed the VIA-IS with all 240 character strengths items and a reduced set of 107 unidimensional character strength items...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bradley J Bond
Social media have permeated the lives of adolescents and may be altering the way that teens engage with their favorite media celebrities and characters. This study surveyed 316 adolescents to examine the relationship between social media surveillance and the strength of adolescents' parasocial relationships (PSRs) with media personae they follow on social media. Results indicated a significant positive relationship between exposure to media personae on Twitter and strength of PSRs. Adolescents who had experienced social interactions with their favorite media personae on Twitter in the form of retweets or responses to tweets had stronger PSRs than adolescents who had no such interactions...
October 12, 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Clement Stross, Marc W Van der Kamp, Thomas A A Oliver, Jeremy N Harvey, Noah Linden, Frederick R Manby
Anisotropy pump-probe experiments have provided insights into the character of excitons formed in photosynthetic complexes. Rapid decay in the observed anisotropy is cited as evidence of the strength of coupling of the excitonic degrees of freedom to their environment. Here we show that ensemble averaging over realistic model Hamiltonians leads to a rapid decay of anisotropy to a value close to the observed asymptote, and at a rate comparable to observed decay rates, even in the absence of coupling to the environment...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
P-A Plötz, S P Polyutov, S D Ivanov, F Fennel, S Wolter, T Niehaus, Z Xie, S Lochbrunner, F Würthner, O Kühn
The quantum efficiency of light emission is a crucial parameter of supramolecular aggregates that can be tuned by the molecular design of the monomeric species. Here, we report on a strong variation of the fluorescence quantum yield due to different phases of aggregation for the case of a perylene bisimide dye. In particular, a change of the dominant aggregation character from H- to J-type within the first aggregation steps is found, explaining the observed dramatic change in quantum yield. This behaviour is rationalised by means of a systematic study of the intermolecular potential energy surfaces using the time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) method...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gabriel Marchand, Olivier Siri, Denis Jacquemin
Azacalixphyrins are particularly stable macrocycles absorbing light up to the near infrared region, which makes them good candidates for applications in a wide panel of fields. However, to date, only a very limited number of substituted azacalixphyrins are experimentally known. Herein, aiming to drive the synthesis towards the most promising substitution patterns, we explore with first principles approaches the impact of adding substituents on both the aromaticity and absorption spectrum of these macrocycles...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M R Ashwin Kishore, H Okamoto, Lokanath Patra, R Vidya, Anja O Sjåstad, H Fjellvåg, P Ravindran
We have investigated the crystal, electronic, and magnetic structures of Mn5O8 by means of state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements. This compound stabilizes in the monoclinic structure with space group C2/m where the Mn ions are in the distorted octahedral and trigonal prismatic coordinations with oxygen atoms. The calculated structural parameters based on total energy calculations are found to be in excellent agreement with low temperature NPD measurements when we accounted for the correct magnetic structure and Coulomb correlation effect in the computation...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Fan, B Jiang, F Yuan, S Z Li, J Q Zhou, J Mei, L M Cheng, G R Yu
Objective: To investigate the clinical character and treating strategy of extreme distal radial fractures. Methods: From June 2012 to May 2014, 12 patients who suffered from extreme distal radial fractures were treated in Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 4 cases of type 23B1, 3 cases of 23B2, 3 cases of 23C1 and 2 cases of 23C3.When classified by morphological features, there were 4 of simple styloid process fracture, 3 of simple extreme distal radial fracture without articular surface involved, 3 of styloid process fracture combined with distal radial articular fracture, and 2 of articular surface splintered or collapse fracture...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Romain Slotala, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
Hamstring muscle injury is the main injury related to athletics, but also other sports including acceleration and sprints, with important consequences (time loss of sport and re-injury risk). In a prevention approach, a better knowledge of risk factors and mechanisms of these lesions seem relevant, and it can pass through a better understanding of the biomechanical and muscular determinants of performance in sprint and acceleration. The ability to produce a horizontal force on the ground [i.e. orienting the total push backward (or ground force reaction forward)], and to do so despite the increase in running speed, is an important determinant of sprint performance...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Artemis Ailianou, Karthik Ramachandran, Mary Beth Kossuth, James Paul Oberhauser, Julia A Kornfield
Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is the structural material of the first clinically approved bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS), a promising alternative to permanent metal stents for treatment of coronary heart disease. BVSs are transient implants that support the occluded artery for 6 mo and are completely resorbed in 2 y. Clinical trials of BVSs report restoration of arterial vasomotion and elimination of serious complications such as late stent thrombosis. It is remarkable that a scaffold made from PLLA, known as a brittle polymer, does not fracture when crimped onto a balloon catheter or during deployment in the artery...
September 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhijie Liang, Zhiwei Zhao, Tianyi Sun, Wenxin Shi, Fuyi Cui
In this study, the spherical mesoporous silica (meso-silica MCM-41) and that inorganically modified with CuO (CuO/MCM-41 nano composite) were synthesized and characterized. It was demonstrated that CuO were successfully loaded in the synthesized nano composite CuO/MCM-41. Importantly, the loaded CuO had a significant enhancement effect on the adsorption of Crystal violet and Methylene blue. Adsorption kinetic of the tested cationic dyes in the synthesized materials fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Weber's intra-particle diffusion model well...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Karen M Alofs
Species trait data have been used to predict and infer ecological processes and the responses of biological communities to environmental changes. It has also been suggested that, in lieu of trait, data niche differences can be inferred from phylogenetic distance. It remains unclear how variation in trait data may influence the strength and character of ecological inference. Using species-level trait data in community ecology assumes intraspecific variation is small in comparison with interspecific variation...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Agnes Fekete
Over the last two decades the development of capillary electrophoresis instruments lead to systems with programmable sampler, separation column, separation buffer, and detection devices comparable visually in many aspects to the setup of classical chromatography.Two processes make capillary electrophoresis essentially different from chromatography and are the basis of the CE-way of thinking, namely, the injection type and the liquid flow within the capillary. (1) When the injection is made hydrodynamically (such as in most of the found applications in the literature), the injected volumes are directly dependent on the type and size of the separation capillary...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Denize S Silva, Boaz G Oliveira
A theoretical study of hydrogen bond strength and bond properties in the C2H2⋯(HF)-T, C2H2⋯2(HF)-T, C2H2⋯2(HF), C2H2⋯3(HF) and C2H2⋯4(HF) complexes was carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level. In these systems, a strength competition between the π⋯H and C⋯H interactions was examined. Specifically the F⋯H hydrogen bond, its properties were studied through a comparison between the hydrogen fluoride and the higher-order complexes (trimer, tetramer and pentamer). Regarding the electronic properties, the hydrogen bond strength could not be determined by the supermolecule approach...
August 30, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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