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Character strengths

Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
April 29, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Anders Enjin, Sharn Perry, Markus M Hilscher, Chetan Nagaraja, Martin Larhammar, Henrik Gezelius, Anders Eriksson, Katarina E Leão, Klas Kullander
When activating muscles, motor neurons in the spinal cord also activate Renshaw cells, which provide recurrent inhibitory feedback to the motor neurons. The tight coupling with motor neurons suggests that Renshaw cells have an integral role in movement, a role that is yet to be elucidated. Here we used the selective expression of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha 2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells. Loss of VIAAT from Chrna2(Cre) expressing Renshaw cells did not impact any aspect of drug-induced fictive locomotion in the neonatal mouse, nor did it change gait, motor coordination or grip strength in adult mice of both sexes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Wei Peng, Fei Ding, Yu-Kui Peng, Yong Xie
Phentolamine is one of the most representative nonselective α-adrenoreceptor blocking agents, which have been proved to be owned various pharmacological actions. Unfortunately, whether erythrocytes in the veins intervene in biological behaviors of such drug are largely obscured. With the aid of multiple biophysical techniques, this scenario was to detailed explore the potential biorecognition between phentolamine and the hemeprotein in the cytosol of erythrocytes, and the influences of dynamic characters of protein during the bioreaction...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
William R Gunther, Vladimir K Michaelis, Robert G Griffin, Yuriy Román-Leshkov
The Lewis acidity of isolated framework metal sites in Beta zeolites was characterized with (15)N isotopically labeled pyridine adsorption coupled with magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. The (15)N chemical shift of adsorbed pyridine was found to scale with the acid character of both Lewis (Ti, Hf, Zr, Nb, Ta, and Sn) and Brønsted (B, Ga, and Al) acidic heteroatoms. The (15)N chemical shift showed a linear correlation with Mulliken electronegativity of the metal center in the order Ti < Hf < Zr < Nb < Ta < Sn < H(+)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Sarah Clement, Richard Bollinger
Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Volker L Deringer, Janine George, Richard Dronskowski, Ulli Englert
Molecular compounds, organic and inorganic, crystallize in diverse and complex structures. They continue to inspire synthetic efforts and "crystal engineering", with implications ranging from fundamental questions to pharmaceutical research. The structural complexity of molecular solids is linked with diverse intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding with all its facets, halogen bonding, and other secondary bonding mechanisms of recent interest (and debate). Today, high-resolution diffraction experiments allow unprecedented insight into the structures of molecular crystals...
May 3, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Yoshinori Muraba, Daniel C Fredrickson, Satoru Matsuishi, Toshio Kamiya, Hideo Hosono
The electronic structures of the antifluorite-type compound Mg2 Si is described in which a sublattice of short cation-cation contacts creates a very low conduction band minimum. Since Mg2 Si shows n-type conductivity without intentional carrier doping, the present result indicates that the cage defined by the cations plays critical roles in carrier transport similar to those of inorganic electrides, such as 12 CaO⋅7 Al2 O3 :e(-) and Ca2 N. A distinct difference in the location of conduction band minimum between Mg2 Si and the isostructural phase Na2 S is explained in terms of factors such as the differing interaction strengths of the Si/S 3s orbitals with the cation levels, with the more core-like character of the S 3s leading to a relatively low conduction band energy at the Γ point...
May 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Serena C Tarantino, Mattia Giannini, Michael A Carpenter, Michele Zema
Temperature and composition dependences of the I41/amd → [Formula: see text] phase transition in the Mg x Cu1 - x Cr2O4 spinel solid solution, due to the melting of the cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion, have been studied by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals with x = 0, 0.10, 0.18, 0.43, 0.46, 0.53, 1 were grown by flux decomposition methods. All crystals have been refined in the tetragonal I41/amd space group except for the Mg end-member, which has cubic symmetry. In Mg x Cu1 - x Cr2O4 the progressive substitution of the Jahn-Teller, d(9) Cu(2+) cation with spherical and closed-shell Mg(2+) has a substantial effect on the crystal structure, such that there is a gradual reduction of the splitting of a and c unit-cell parameters and flattening of the tetrahedra...
September 1, 2016: IUCrJ
Jiajun Ren, Qian Peng, Xu Zhang, Yuanping Yi, Zhigang Shuai
The mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission in donor-acceptor-type copolymers, especially the role of the dark 2Ag state, is not so clear. In this Letter, the electronic structure of the benzodithiophene (B)-thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) copolymer is calculated by density matrix renormalization group theory with the Pariser-Parr-Pople model. We find that the dark 2Ag state is the lowest singlet excited state and is nearly degenerate with the 1Bu state. So, a fast internal conversion from 1Bu to 2Ag state is highly possible...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Shuiping Wu, Hua Dong, Qingtao Li, Gang Wang, Xiaodong Cao
Hydrogels with good mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and designable shapes are of great importance for their biomedical applications. Herein, a series of high strength, biocompatible hydrogels have been synthesized by integrating sodium citrate into the thermally reversible chitosan/gelatin to form multiple physically crosslinking networks. Besides the ideal formability, a thermal etching or welding method has been developed to program the surface morphology and fabricate hydrogels with complicated shapes freely...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kristina D Closser, D Frank Ogletree, Patrick Naulleau, David Prendergast
In order to increase computation power and efficiency, the semiconductor industry continually strives to reduce the size of features written using lithographic techniques. The planned switch to a shorter wavelength extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source presents a challenge for the associated photoresists, which in their current manifestation show much poorer photoabsorption cross sections for the same dose. Here we consider the critical role that an inner-shell electronic structure might play in enhancing photoabsorption cross sections, which one can control by the choice of substituent elements in the photoresist...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Avishek Saha, Muqing Chen, Marcus Lederer, Axel Kahnt, Xing Lu, Dirk M Guldi
An unprecedented family of novel electron-donor acceptor conjugates based on fullerenes as electron acceptors, on one hand, and triphenyl amines as electron donors, on the other hand, have been synthesized and characterized in a variety of solvents using steady state absorption/emission as well as transient absorption spectroscopy. These are unprecedented in terms of their outcome of radical ion pair formation, that is, the singlet versus triplet excited state. This was corroborated by femto/nanosecond pump probe experiments and by molecular orbital calculations...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Rolf Heid, Irina Yu Sklyadneva, Evgueni V Chulkov
The use of topological edge states for spintronic applications could be severely hampered by limited lifetimes due to intrinsic many-body interactions, in particular electron-phonon coupling. Previous works to determine the intrinsic coupling strength did not provide a coherent answer. Here, the electron-phonon interaction in the metallic surface state of 3D topological insulators is revised within a first principles framework. For the archetypical cases of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3, we find an overall weak coupling constant of less than 0...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carolina M Azañedo, Enrique G Fernández-Abascal, Jorge Barraca
BACKGROUND: The VIA Institute on Character is offering the VIA-120 as the standard VIA Survey, replacing the original 240-item version. The present work involved the construction and the initial evaluation of the Spanish VIA-120 as a short version of the Spanish adaptation of the VIA-IS. METHOD: This short form was developed using data from 2,143 Spanish-speaking adults. The Spanish VIA-120 was developed by selecting the five items with the highest corrected item-total correlations from the 10 items per subscale of the Spanish VIA-IS...
May 2017: Psicothema
Wenjie Duan, He Bu
PURPOSE: Character strength is described as a positive and organized pattern of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. It serves as a schema that organizes categories of information toward the self, others, and the world, and provides the self-aware knowledge that facilitates the pursuit of goals, values, and ethical principles. Recent research has suggested that three reliable factors emerge from the measures of character strengths: caring, inquisitiveness, and self-control. The goal of this paper is to develop a psychometrically sound short measure of character strength...
April 20, 2017: Quality of Life Research
M Hoshino, D Duflot, P Limão-Vieira, S Ohtomi, H Tanaka
Electron energy loss spectra of carbon tetrafluoride, silicon tetrafluoride, and germanium tetrafluoride molecules (CF4, SiF4, and GeF4) have been measured for incident electron energies of 50-360 eV at 1.5°-15.5° and for 30 eV and 30° scattering angle, while sweeping the energy loss over the range 9.0-20.0 eV. Low-lying valence excited triplet and singlet states are investigated by quantum chemical ab initio calculations. The Rydberg series converging to the (lowest) ionisation energy limits of XF4 (X = C, Si, Ge) are also identified and classified using the systematic behaviour according to the magnitude of the quantum defects...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sk Najmul Islam, Amit Sil, Sanjib K Patra
Fluorenyl-alkynyl based π-conjugated rod-shaped oligomers bearing different central aromatic moieties and functionalizable di-alkynyl termini, such as H-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-H (OH1), H-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Btz-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-H (OH2) and H-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Btd-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-Fl-[triple bond, length as m-dash]-H (OH3) where Fl = 9,9-dioctylfluorene, Btz = N-hexylbenzotriazole, and Btd = benzothiadiazole, were successfully synthesized by a Pd(0) catalyzed Stille coupling protocol...
May 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ya Chu, Songyu Liu, Fei Wang, Guojun Cai, Hanliang Bian
Under the process of urbanization in China, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of heavy metal-contaminated sites. The shear characteristics of heavy metal-contaminated soils are investigated by electrical detection in this paper. Three metal ions (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+)) were used, the metal concentrations of which are 50, 166.67, 500, 1666.67, and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Direct shear tests were used to investigate the influence of heavy metal ions on the shear characters of soil samples...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Todd B Kashdan, Dan V Blalock, Kevin C Young, Kyla A Machell, Samuel S Monfort, Patrick E McKnight, Patty Ferssizidis
Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and we found that greater appreciation of partner strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, investment, intimacy, self-expansion, and support for goal pursuit; recognizing significant costs with partner strengths was inversely related to several outcomes...
April 6, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Seth A Sharber, Rom Nath Baral, Fanny Frausto, Terry E Haas, Peter Müller, Samuel W Thomas Iii
Although understanding the conformations and arrangements of conjugated materials as solids is key to their prospective applications, predictive power over these structural factors remains elusive. In this work, substituent effects tune non-covalent interactions between side-chain fluorinated benzyl esters and main-chain terminal arenes, in turn controlling the conformations and interchromophore aggregation of three-ring phenylene-ethynylenes (PEs). Cofacial fluoroarene-arene (ArF-ArH) interactions cause twisting in the PE backbone, interrupting intramolecular conjugation as well as blocking chromophore aggregation, both of which prevent the typically observed bathochromic shift observed upon transitioning PEs from solution to solid...
March 31, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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