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smad estrogen

Tomoko Kawai, JoAnne S Richards, Masayuki Shimada
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is expressed at low levels in mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells of antral follicles and is induced dramatically in granulosa cells but not in cumulus cells by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Therefore, we hypothesized that FSH not only activates transcription factors controlling Lhcgr expression but also alters other events to permit and enhance Lhcgr expression in granulosa cells but not in cumulus cells. In granulosa cells, the level of DNA methylation in the Lhcgr promoter region was significantly decreased by equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in vivo...
May 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Ya-Ping Xiao, Jie Zeng, Lin-Na Jiao, Xiao-Yu Xu
The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yaron Vinik, Hadas Shatz-Azoulay, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Leonid Kandel, Yankel Gabet, Gurion Rivkin, Yehiel Zick
Mice overexpressing galectin-8 [gal-8 transgenic (Tg)], a secreted mammalian lectin, exhibit enhanced bone turnover and reduced bone mass, similar to cases of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Here, we show that gal-8 knockout (KO) mice have increased bone mass accrual at a young age but exhibit accelerated bone loss during adulthood. These phenotypes can be attributed to a gal-8-mediated increase in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression that promotes osteoclastogenesis, combined with direct inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, evident by reduced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, reduced phosphorylation of receptor regulated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (R-SMAD) and reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers osterix, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP1), and alkaline phosphatase...
May 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiaojing Chen, Shuang Zhang, Xiaoting Chen, Yan Hu, Jin Wu, Shuyan Chen, Jing Chang, Genfa Wang, Yanhong Gao
Emodin, a natural anthraquinone extracted from the Chinese herbs rhubarb and giant knotweed rhizome, has been reported to enhance osteoblast differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying its ability to regulate osteogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the role of emodin in osteoblast function in vitro and its osteoprotective effect in vivo. Emodin enhanced the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, as evidenced by elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and increased number of mineralized nodules...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Toru Hasegawa, Yasuhiko Kamada, Takeshi Hosoya, Shiho Fujita, Yuki Nishiyama, Nahoko Iwata, Yuji Hiramatsu, Fumio Otsuka
Excess androgen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in the ovarian follicle has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we investigated the impact of androgen and IGF-I on the regulatory mechanism of ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. It was revealed that androgen treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) amplified progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH and IGF-I, whereas it had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells...
September 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yang Liu, Shao-Yue Du, Meng Ding, Xin Dou, Fei-Fei Zhang, Zhi-Yong Wu, Shu-Wen Qian, Wei Zhang, Qi-Qun Tang, Cong-Jian Xu
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder and a major cause of anovulatory sterility in women at reproductive age. Most patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have hyperandrogenism, caused by excess androgen synthesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is an essential regulator of embryonic development and organ formation, and recent studies have also shown that BMP4 may be involved in female steroidogenesis process. However, the effect of BMP4 on hyperandrogenism remains unknown. Here, using a female mouse model of hyperandrogenism, we found that ovarian BMP4 levels were significantly decreased in hyperandrogenism...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anushka Dikshit, Karen Hales, Dale Buchanan Hales
The study reported here demonstrates that a flaxseed-supplemented diet causes ovarian tumors in the laying hen to undergo apoptosis, resulting in a reduction of tumor burden, reducing the frequency and severity of ovarian cancer. We have previously shown in normal ovaries that flaxseed and its components down-regulate ERalpha and alter the expression of enzymes that metabolize estrogen. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the two main components of whole flaxseed, ligan and omega 3 fatty acids on estrogen metabolism and the estrogen receptor in ovarian tumors...
April 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Juan Zheng, Juan Qu, Pinhong Lu, Zhen Hou, Yugui Cui, Yundong Mao, Xiaochen Qi, Hui Ji, Jiayin Liu
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. We previously found that the expression of Activin A was upregulated in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. The results of the present study indicated that Activin A induced estradiol secretion and P450arom expression in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) derived from endometriosis patients. The mechanism of estrogenic synthesis was regulated by the Activin-Smad pathway in endometrial lesions. The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the type I receptor, ActRIB) and Smad4-siRNA...
2016: BioMed Research International
Fabrice G Petit, Chuxia Deng, Soazik P Jamin
Müllerian duct regression is a complex process which involves the AMH signalling pathway. We have previously demonstrated that besides AMH and its specific type II receptor (AMHRII), BMPR-IA and Smad5 are two essential factors implicated in this mechanism. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) is a transcription factor and the common Smad (co-Smad) involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway superfamily. Since Smad4 null mutants die early during gastrulation, we have inactivated Smad4 in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Diana Monsivais, Caterina Clementi, Jia Peng, Mary M Titus, James P Barrish, Chad J Creighton, John P Lydon, Francesco J DeMayo, Martin M Matzuk
The window of implantation is defined by the inhibition of uterine epithelial proliferation, structural epithelial cell remodeling, and attenuated estrogen (E2) response. These changes occur via paracrine signaling between the uterine epithelium and stroma. Because implantation defects are a major cause of infertility in women, identifying these signaling pathways will improve infertility interventions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are TGF-β family members that regulate the postimplantation and midgestation stages of pregnancy...
January 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yang Yang, Yaxian Wang, Lixia Du, Huayan Wang
The estrogen related receptor family member Esrrb (Estrogen related receptor β) is a gene that expresses in the early stage of embryo and plays an important role in the core pluripotent network. Its function has been analyzed in human and mouse, although no report so far related to pig. Therefore, to explore its mechanism of transcriptional regulation and expression pattern, we cloned a 3.3 kb pig ESRRB promoter by PCR and constructed the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter vector pE3.3. We used these vectors to study the ESRRB expression pattern in 293T, Hela and C2C12...
April 2015: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Lin Deng, Francisco J Blanco, Hannah Stevens, Ruifang Lu, Axelle Caudrillier, Martin McBride, John D McClure, Jenny Grant, Matthew Thomas, Maria Frid, Kurt Stenmark, Kevin White, Anita G Seto, Nicholas W Morrell, Angela C Bradshaw, Margaret R MacLean, Andrew H Baker
RATIONALE: The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. The 4 microRNAs representing the miR-143 and miR-145 stem loops are genomically clustered. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the miR-143/145 cluster and the role of miR-143 in PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified the promoter region that regulates miR-143/145 microRNA expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We mapped PAH-related signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor, liver X factor/retinoic X receptor, transforming growth factor-β (Smads), and hypoxia (hypoxia response element), that regulated levels of all pri-miR stem loop transcription and resulting microRNA expression...
October 23, 2015: Circulation Research
K Bacallao, F Plaza-Parrochia, A Cerda, F Gabler, C Romero, D Vantman, M Vega
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been associated with endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The aim of this study was to establish whether the expression of proliferation regulatory proteins in the endometria of patients having PCOS, with or without hyperplasia, differs from control women. Control endometria (CE), patients having PCOS without and with endometrial hyperplasia (PCOSE and HPCOSE, respectively), and that of women with endometrial hyperplasia (HE) were used. The phosphorylated estrogen receptor form (pERα), similar to mother against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2, SMAD3, and SMAD4, vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), and phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 2 and pSMAD3 were detected by immunohistochemistry or Western blot...
February 2016: Reproductive Sciences
He-Song Jiang, Lei-Lei Zhu, Zheng Zhang, Hai Chen, Yun Chen, Yu-Tian Dai
The transformation of tunica albuginea-derived fibroblasts (TAFs) into myofibroblasts plays an important role in the pathological progress of Peyronie's disease (PD). However, no treatment which addresses this transformation is currently available. Estrogen has been shown to inhibit the progression of fibrosis in a number of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether estrogen [17β‑estradiol (E2)] suppresses the diffentiation of primary rat TAFs into myofibroblasts in vitro. TAFs obtained from male Sprague‑Dawley rats were stimulated with either transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) or E2...
September 2015: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Mostafa A Borahay, Ayman Al-Hendy, Gokhan S Kilic, Darren Boehning
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors of the female genital tract, affecting 50% to 70% of females by the age of 50. Despite their prevalence and enormous medical and economic impact, no effective medical treatment is currently available. This is, in part, due to the poor understanding of their underlying pathobiology. Although they are thought to start as a clonal proliferation of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell, these early cytogenetic alterations are considered insufficient for tumor development and additional complex signaling pathway alterations are crucial...
2015: Molecular Medicine
Ri Youn Kim, Hoon Joo Yang, Yun Mi Song, In Sook Kim, Soon Jung Hwang
Clinical data show that estrogen levels are inversely associated with the production of sclerostin, a Wnt antagonist that recently attracted great attention over the use of its antibody in the anabolic treatment of osteoporotic conditions. However, the molecular link between sclerostin expression and estrogen signaling is not yet known. We investigated the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates sclerostin (SOST) gene expression at the cellular level in human osteoblast cells in association with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 signaling given that BMP2 is a potential inducer of SOST in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs)...
July 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Zhenye Li, Qian Liu, Chuzhong Li, Xuyi Zong, Jiwei Bai, Youtu Wu, Xiaolei Lan, Guoqiang Yu, Yazhuo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common secretory pituitary adenomas. The first line of treatment involves dopamine agonists (DAs); however, a subset of patients is resistant to such therapy. Recent studies suggest that dopamine can up-regulate TGF-β1 synthesis in rat pituitary lactotrophs whereas estradiol down-regulates TGF-β1. To date, the role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in DAs-resistant prolactinomas has not been explored. METHODS: High-content screening (HCS) techniques, qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and ELISA, were performed to determine the role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in DAs-resistant prolactinomas...
February 15, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Guiting Lin, Amjad Alwaal, Fionna Sun, Haiyang Zhang, Huixi Li, Lin Wang, Guifang Wang, Hongxiu Ning, Lia Banie, Ching-Shwun Lin, Tom F Lue
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect and mechanism of estrogen on elastogenesis in urethral smooth muscle cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethral smooth muscle cells were isolated from normal adult female rats. For elastogenesis assay cells were treated with TGF-β1, the potent TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor SB431542 and estrogen for 2 weeks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assay gene expression during this process. Activity of the TGF-β1 responsive elements CAGA(12)-Luc and GCCG(12)-Luc were also assayed...
June 2015: Journal of Urology
Jimin Guo, Lucie Canaff, Charles Vincent Rajadurai, Nadège Fils-Aimé, Jun Tian, Meiou Dai, Juliana Korah, Manuel Villatoro, Morag Park, Suhad Ali, Jean-Jacques Lebrun
INTRODUCTION: This study helps to define the implications of breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3 (BCAR3) in breast cancer and extends the current understanding of its molecular mechanism of action. BCAR3 has been shown to promote cell proliferation, migration and attachment to extracellular matrix components. However, in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients who received tamoxifen treatment, high BCAR3 mRNA levels were associated with favorable progression-free survival outcome...
December 13, 2014: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Mi-Sun Lim, Kwang Won Jeong
Flightless-I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that is known to interact with other transcriptional regulators such as the SWI/SNF complex, an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, at the promoter or enhancer region of estrogen receptor (ER)-α target genes. However, little is known about the role of FLII during transcription initiation in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/SMAD-dependent signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that FLII functions as a coactivator in the expression of type I collagen gene induced by TGFβ in A549 cells...
November 21, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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