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Cerebral malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748845/a-case-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-presenting-as-acute-cerebral-infarct
#1
Sanjay Kumar Kochar, Sneha Dayanand Kamath, Nitesh Toshan, Yamini Singhal, Anju Kochar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742109/young-sprague-dawley-rats-infected-by-plasmodium-berghei-a-relevant-experimental-model-to-study-cerebral-malaria
#2
Sokhna Keita Alassane, Marie-Laure Nicolau-Travers, Sandie Menard, Olivier Andreoletti, Jean-Pierre Cambus, Noémie Gaudre, Myriam Wlodarczyk, Nicolas Blanchard, Antoine Berry, Sarah Abbes, David Colongo, Babacar Faye, Jean-Michel Augereau, Caroline Lacroux, Xavier Iriart, Françoise Benoit-Vical
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173) infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) symptoms while the majority (55%) of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735651/the-effect-of-artesunate-on-short-term-memory-in-lyme-borreliosis
#3
B K Puri, J S Hakkarainen-Smith, J A Monro
Lyme borreliosis is associated with memory deficits. While this may be related to cerebral infection by Borrelia bacteria, it may also be caused by concomitant co-infection by Babesia protozoa. The anti-malarial artemisinin-derivative artesunate has been shown to be effective against a number of Babesia species and to have efficacy against human cerebral malaria. We hypothesised that concomitant administration of artesunate in Lyme borreliosis patients would help alleviate the severity of self-reported short-term memory impairment...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719298/cognitive-outcomes-and-psychiatric-symptoms-of-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria-cohort-description-and-baseline-results
#4
Rachel Brim, Sebastian Mboma, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Sam Kampondeni, Jed Magen, Terrie Taylor, John Langfitt
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common cause of death and disability among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior studies of neuropsychiatric morbidity have been limited by a cross-sectional design or a short duration of follow-up. Most have included subjects who may have presented with coma due to a disease process other than CM. No studies have assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term outcomes. The Cognitive Outcomes and Psychiatric symptoms of retinopathy-positive CM (COPS) cohort is the first large (N = 221) prospectively recruited cohort of stringently defined cases of CM and hospital-based, age-matched, non-CM controls in whom cognitive and psychiatric outcomes are assessed with standardized measures semi-annually for up to 5 years...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710387/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-inhibition-prevents-experimental-cerebral-malaria-by-precluding-cxcr3-expression-on-t-cells
#5
Kristin M Van Den Ham, Logan K Smith, Martin J Richer, Martin Olivier
Cerebral malaria induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection is dependent on the sequestration of cytotoxic T cells within the brain and augmentation of the inflammatory response. Herein, we demonstrate that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity significantly attenuates T cell sequestration within the brain and prevents the development of neuropathology. Mechanistically, the initial upregulation of CXCR3 on splenic T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation was critically decreased through the reduction of T cell-intrinsic PTP activity...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709836/rupture-and-release-a-role-for-soluble-erythrocyte-content-in-the-pathology-of-cerebral-malaria
#6
Julio Gallego-Delgado, Ana Rodriguez
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe form of malaria and causes high associated mortality. We propose a multistep process for CM pathology that is initiated by cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to the brain vasculature, followed by rupture and release of contents that complete the disruption of the blood-brain barrier.
July 11, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695837/a-case-of-cerebral-malaria-managed-by-erythrocyte-exchange
#7
Gürsel Ersan, Işıl Köse, Fatma Liv, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Şükran Köse
Plasmodium falciparum may cause serious and sometimes even fatal cerebral malaria. Cerebral malaria is a disease characterized by alterations in consciousness and epileptic attacks; therefore, it requires a rapid evaluation and quick intervention. It may progress to a fatal outcome despite administering targeted therapeutic interventions. There are studies indicating that erythrocyte exchange (erythrocytapheresis) can be a treatment modality for managing severe malaria patients. In this case report, the successful management of a cerebral malaria patient by the combination of antimalarial drug therapy and erythrocyte exchange is presented...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689867/ex-vivo-activity-of-proveblue-a-methylene-blue-against-field-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-dakar-senegal-from-2013-2015
#8
Bécaye Fall, Marylin Madamet, Silman Diawara, Sébastien Briolant, Khalifa Ababacar Wade, Gora Lo, Aminata Nakoulima, Mansour Fall, Raymond Bercion, Mame Bou Kounta, Rémi Amalvict, Nicolas Benoit, Mamadou Wague Gueye, Bakary Diatta, Boubacar Wade, Bruno Pradines
Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Accordingly, new therapies to use with artemisinin-based combination therapy (triple ACT) are urgently needed. Proveblue, a methylene blue preparation, was found to exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains in vitro. Proveblue has synergistic effects when used in combination with dihydroartemisinin, and has been shown to significantly reduce or prevent cerebral malaria in mice. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the in vitro baseline susceptibility of clinical field isolates to Proveblue, compare its activity with that of other standard antimalarial drugs and define the patterns of cross-susceptibility between Proveblue and conventional antimalarial drugs...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679535/small-molecule-based-inhibition-of-mek1-2-proteins-dampens-inflammatory-responses-to-malaria-reduces-parasite-load-and-mitigates-pathogenic-outcomes
#9
Xianzhu Wu, Kiran K Dayanand, Ramesh P Thylur, Christopher C Norbury, D Channe Gowda
Malaria infections cause several systemic and severe single or multi-organ pathologies, killing hundreds of thousands of people annually. Considering the existing widespread resistance of malaria parasites to antiparasitic drugs and their high propensity to develop drug resistance, alternative strategies are required to manage malaria infections. Since malaria is a host immune response-driven disease, one approach is based on gaining a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that modulate malaria-induced innate and adaptive immune responses...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676008/repurposing-pharmaceuticals-as-neuroprotective-agents-for-cerebral-malaria
#10
Hannah M Brooks, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection which may result in death or developmental disability. The pathologic processes leading to CM are not fully elucidated; however, widely accepted mechanisms include parasite sequestration, release of infected red blood cell contents, activation of endothelial cells, increased inflammatory responses, and ultimately dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU). The endothelium plays a central role in these processes as the site of parasitized erythrocyte sequestration and as the regulator of fluid extravasation into the central nervous system...
July 4, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674030/s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-gsnor-deficiency-confers-improved-survival-and-neurological-outcome-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#11
Robyn E Elphinstone, Rickvinder Besla, Eric A Shikatani, Ziyue Lu, Alfred Hausladen, Matthew Davies, Clinton S Robbins, Mansoor Husain, Jonathan S Stamler, Kevin C Kain
Artesunate remains the mainstay of treatment for cerebral malaria, but is less effective in later stages of disease when the host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier integrity dictate clinical outcomes. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of inflammation and microvascular integrity, and impaired NO bioactivity is associated with fatal outcomes in malaria. Endogenous NO bioactivity in mammals is largely mediated by S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that animals deficient in the SNO-metabolizing enzyme, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase (GSNOR), which exhibit enhanced S-nitrosylation, would have improved outcomes in a preclinical model of cerebral malaria...
July 3, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673299/efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-a-novel-trioxaquine-in-the-management-of-cerebral-malaria-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Onyango C Odhiambo, Hannah N Wamakima, Gabriel N Magoma, Peter G Kirira, Bonface J Malala, Francis T Kimani, Francis W Muregi
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum poses a great threat of increased fatalities in cases of cerebral and other forms of severe malaria infections in which parenteral artesunate monotherapy is the current drug of choice. The study aimed to investigate in a mouse model of human cerebral malaria whether a trioxaquine chemically synthesized by covalent linking of a 4,7-dichloroquinoline pharmacophore to artesunate through a recent drug development approach termed 'covalent bitherapy' could improve the curative outcomes in cerebral malaria infections...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670638/a-comparison-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-by-plasmodium-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-quantitative-buffy-coat-technique-in-malaria-diagnosis-in-children
#13
Ifeanyi Kanayo Ifeorah, Biobele J Brown, Olugbemiro O Sodeinde
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666023/reduction-in-serum-sphingosine-1-phosphate-concentration-in-malaria
#14
Chuchard Punsawad, Parnpen Viriyavejakul
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin which is involved in the endothelial permeability and inflammation. Although the plasma S1P concentration is reportedly decreased in patients with cerebral malaria, the role of S1P in malaria is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malaria on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with clinical data in malaria patients. Serum S1P levels were measured in 29 patients with P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656241/hydrogen-sulfide-protects-against-the-development-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria-in-a-c57bl-6-mouse-model
#15
Ping Jiang, Zhishen Xu, Baiquan Xiao, Zhong Han, Jiehong Huang, Jianbang Xu, Zhaorong Lun, Wenliang Zhou
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, particularly during pathological processes. Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), which is caused by vascular leakage into the brain, is characterized by inflammation, neurological deficits and cerebral hemorrhage. The present study investigated the correlation between ECM genesis and the levels of H2S. The results indicated that the levels of H2S derived from the brain decreased over time following ECM infection, and that the low H2S bioavailability was partially caused by decreased expression of the H2S generating enzyme, cystathionine‑β‑synthase...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656007/association-of-plasmodium-falciparum-with-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#16
Christopher Utter, Adelfa E Serrano, John W Glod, Michael J Leibowitz
Endothelial abnormalities play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malaria caused by the human pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum. In serious infections and especially in cerebral malaria, red blood cells infected with the parasite are sequestered in small venules in various organs, resulting in endothelial activation and vascular occlusion, which are believed to be largely responsible for the morbidity and mortality caused by this infection, especially in children. We demonstrate that after incubation with infected red blood cells (iRBCs), cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) contain parasite protein, genomic DNA, and RNA, as well as intracellular vacuoles with apparent parasite-derived material, but not engulfed or adherent iRBCs...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655315/comparison-of-apoptosis-in-human-primary-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-and-a-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line-co-cultured-with-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#17
Jean Claude Biteghe Bi Essone, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Julien Ondzaga, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe Mba, Philippe Deloron, Dominique Mazier, Frédrérick Gay, Fousseyni S Touré Ndouo
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infection can progress unpredictably to severe forms including respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The mechanisms underlying the variable natural course of malaria remain elusive. METHODS: The cerebral microvascular endothelial cells-D3 and lung endothelial cells both from human were cultured separately and challenged with P. falciparum field isolates taken directly from malaria patients or 3D7 strain (in vitro maintained culture)...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654030/in-vivo-tracking-of-edema-development-and-microvascular-pathology-in-a-model-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Angelika Hoffmann, Xavier Helluy, Manuel Fischer, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Sabine Heiland, Mirko Pham, Martin Bendszus, Johannes Pfeil
Cerebral malaria is a sign of severe malarial disease and is often a harbinger of death. While aggressive management can be life-saving, the detection of cerebral malaria can be difficult. We present an experimental mouse model of cerebral malaria that shares multiple features of the human disease, including edema and microvascular pathology. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we can detect and track the blood-brain barrier disruption, edema development, and subsequent brain swelling. We describe multiple MRI techniques that can visualize these pertinent pathological changes...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646215/single-molecule-and-multiple-bond-characterization-of-catch-bond-associated-cytoadhesion-in-malaria
#19
Ying Bena Lim, Juzar Thingna, Jianshu Cao, Chwee Teck Lim
The adhesion of malaria infected red blood cells (iRBCs) to host endothelial receptors in the microvasculature, or cytoadhesion, is associated with severe disease pathology such as multiple organ failure and cerebral malaria. Malaria iRBCs have been shown to bind to several receptors, of which intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) upregulation in brain microvasculature is the only one correlated to cerebral malaria. We utilize a biophysical approach to study the interactions between iRBCs and ICAM-1. At the single molecule level, force spectroscopy experiments reveal that ICAM-1 forms catch bond interactions with Plasmodium falciparum parasite iRBCs...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606087/suppression-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria-by-disruption-of-malate-quinone-oxidoreductase
#20
Mamoru Niikura, Keisuke Komatsuya, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Risa Matsuda, Hiroko Asahi, Daniel Ken Inaoka, Kiyoshi Kita, Fumie Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Aspartate, which is converted from oxaloacetate (OAA) by aspartate aminotransferase, is considered an important precursor for purine salvage and pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, and is thus indispensable for the growth of Plasmodium parasites at the asexual blood stages. OAA can be produced in malaria parasites via two routes: (i) from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the cytosol, or (ii) from fumarate by consecutive reactions catalyzed by fumarate hydratase (FH) and malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) in the mitochondria of malaria parasites...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
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