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Cerebral malaria

Dharmesh Bhalodiya, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Varun Gupta, Sanjay Prakash, Kamal Pathak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Hui Lu, Bincheng Wang, Ningning Cui, Yanchun Zhang
Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin that is used in the treatment of patients with malaria. Artesunate has also been reported to exert immune‑regulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, anti‑inflammatory and smooth muscle relaxing functions. The present study aimed to investigate the putative protective effects of artesunate against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI), and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. A CIRI mouse model was created via middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h, followed by 22 h of reperfusion...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
David Langlais, Regina Cencic, Neda Moradin, James M Kennedy, Kodjo Ayi, Lauren E Brown, Ian Crandall, Michael J Tarry, Martin Schmeing, Kevin C Kain, John A Porco, Jerry Pelletier, Philippe Gros
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe and rapidly progressing complication of infection by Plasmodium parasites that is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Treatment options are currently few, and intervention with artemisinin (Art) has limited efficacy, a problem that is compounded by the emergence of resistance to Art in Plasmodium parasites. Rocaglates are a class of natural products derived from plants of the Aglaia genus that have been shown to interfere with eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), ultimately blocking initiation of protein synthesis...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kirsten Heiss, Marion Irmgard Maier, Angelika Hoffmann, Roland Frank, Martin Bendszus, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Johannes Pfeil
Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodia infection and a major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We report that protection from experimental cerebral malaria in the rodent model is obtained by a single intravenous or subcutaneous whole-parasite immunization. Whole-parasite immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites was equally protective as immunization with non-attenuated sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis. Both immunization regimens delayed the development of blood-stage parasites, but differences in cellular and humoral immune mechanisms were observed...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vanka Ravisankar, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Uday Krishna Baruah, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Vimal Pandey, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that affects children (below five years old) in sub-Saharan Africa and adults in South-East Asia each year having the fatality rate of 10-25%. The survivors of CM also have high risk of long term neurological or cognitive deficits. The objective of the present investigation was to develop optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of artemether (ARM) for enhanced anti-malarial efficacy of ARM.NLCs of ARM were prepared by a combination of high speed homogenization (HSH) and probe sonication techniques...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Kim E Schmidt, Janina M Kuepper, Beatrix Schumak, Judith Alferink, Andrea Hofmann, Shanshan W Howland, Laurent Rénia, Andreas Limmer, Sabine Specht, Achim Hoerauf
Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Courtney S Malo, Matthew A Huggins, Emma N Goddery, Heather M A Tolcher, Danielle N Renner, Fang Jin, Michael J Hansen, Larry R Pease, Kevin D Pavelko, Aaron J Johnson
The contribution of antigen-presenting cell (APC) types in generating CD8+ T cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) is not fully defined, limiting the development of vaccines and understanding of immune-mediated neuropathology. Here, we generate a transgenic mouse that enables cell-specific deletion of the H-2Kb MHC class I molecule. By deleting H-2Kb on dendritic cells and macrophages, we compare the effect of each APC in three distinct models of neuroinflammation: picornavirus infection, experimental cerebral malaria, and a syngeneic glioma...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Rebecca W Olsen, Gertrude Ecklu-Mensah, Anja Bengtsson, Michael F Ofori, John P A Lusingu, Filip C Castberg, Lars Hviid, Yvonne Adams, Anja T R Jensen
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially deadly outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria that is precipitated by sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the brain. The adhesion of IEs to brain endothelial cells is mediated by a subtype of parasite-encoded PfEMP1 that facilitate dual binding to host ICAM-1 and EPCR. The PfEMP1 subtype is characterized by the presence of a particular motif (DBLβ_motif) in the constituent ICAM-1-binding DBLβ domain. The rate of natural acquisition of DBLβ_motif-specific IgG and the ability to induce such antibodies by vaccination are unknown, and the aim of this study was to provide such data...
February 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
AbdAllah Gad, Sajjad Ali, Talal Zahoor, Nick Azarov
Malarial infections are uncommon in the United States and almost all reported cases stem from recent travelers coming from endemic countries. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe form of the disease usually affecting children and individuals with limited immunity. Despite proper management, mortality from CM can reach up to 25%, especially when it is associated with brain edema. Inefficient management of the edema may result in brain herniation and death. Uniform guidelines for management of CM-associated brain edema are lacking...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gora Diop, Céline Derbois, Cheikh Loucoubar, Babacar Mbengue, Bineta Niakhana Ndao, Fatou Thiam, Alassane Thiam, Rokhaya Ndiaye, Yakhya Dieye, Robert Olaso, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Alioune Dieye
BACKGROUND: Severe forms of malaria (SM) are an outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection and can cause death especially in children under 4 years of age. RNASE3 (ECP) has been identified as an inhibitor of Plasmodium parasites growth in vitro, and genetic analysis in hospitalized Ghanaian subjects has revealed the RNASE3 +371G/C (rs2073342) polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for cerebral malaria. The +371 C allele results in an Arg/Thr mutation that abolishes the cytotoxic activity of the ECP protein...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mahamane Haidara, Mohamed Haddad, Adama Denou, Guillaume Marti, Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas, Rokia Sanogo, Geneviève Bourdy, Agnès Aubouy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian plant used in traditional medicine...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Manish Kumar, Chakrakodi N Varun, Gourav Dey, Raju Ravikumar, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, T S Keshava Prasad
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to study the altered proteome in the frontal lobe of patients with CM. Unbiased analysis of differentially abundant proteins could lead to identification of host responses against P. falciparum infection, which will aid in better understanding of the molecular mechanism of pathophysiology in CM. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed TMT-based quantitative proteomic analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In brief, proteins were isolated from frontal lobe samples, which were collected at autopsy from three cases of CM and three control subjects...
February 1, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Jian-Liang Li, Kai Li, Yuan Guo, Zheng Zhao, Li-Na Chen, Xiao-Hui Jiang, Yu-Jie Li, Ya Tu, Xiao-Jun Zheng
Cerebral malaria (CM), a severe neurological syndrome caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a serious life-threatening disease with a high mortality. Survivors' persistent brain injury is manifested as long-term neurocognitive disorders. The main neuropathological feature of CM is the sequestration of parasited red blood cells (pRBCs) in cerebral microvessels. Other neuropathological features of CM include petechial hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma, annular hemorrhage, extensive brain endothelial cell activation, and focal endothelial cell injury and necrosis...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yusmaris Cariaco, Wânia Rezende Lima, Romulo Sousa, Layane Alencar Costa Nascimento, Marisol Pallete Briceño, Wesley Luzetti Fotoran, Gerhard Wunderlich, Jane Lima Dos Santos, Neide Maria Silva
Increased resistance to the first-line treatment against P. falciparum malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapies, has been reported. Here, we tested the effect of crude ethanolic extract of the fungus Trichoderma stromaticum (Ext-Ts) on the growth of P. falciparum NF54 in infected human red blood cells (ihRBCs) and its anti-malarial and anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse model of experimental cerebral malaria. For this purpose, ihRBCs were treated with Ext-Ts and analysed for parasitaemia; C57BL/6 mice were infected with P...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rosauro Varo, Valerie M Crowley, Antonio Sitoe, Lola Madrid, Lena Serghides, Kevin C Kain, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Despite recent efforts and successes in reducing the malaria burden globally, this infection still accounts for an estimated 212 million clinical cases, 2 million severe malaria cases, and approximately 429,000 deaths annually. Even with the routine use of effective anti-malarial drugs, the case fatality rate for severe malaria remains unacceptably high, with cerebral malaria being one of the most life-threatening complications. Up to one-third of cerebral malaria survivors are left with long-term cognitive and neurological deficits...
January 24, 2018: Malaria Journal
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul
Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with uncomplicated disease as well as those admitted for severe malaria with and without cerebral disease...
2018: PloS One
Yvonne Azasi, Gabriella Lindergard, Ashfaq Ghumra, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller, J Alexandra Rowe
Recent advances have identified a new paradigm for cerebral malaria pathogenesis in which endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a major host receptor for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the brain and other vital organs. The parasite adhesins that bind EPCR are members of the IE variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) containing specific adhesion domains called domain cassette (DC) 8 and DC13. The binding interaction site between PfEMP1 and EPCR has been mapped by biophysical and crystallography studies using recombinant proteins...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Angelika Hoffmann, Samuel C Wassmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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