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Cerebral malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342212/sequence-variation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-2-is-associated-with-virulence-causing-severe-and-cerebral-malaria
#1
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul
Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with uncomplicated disease as well as those admitted for severe malaria with and without cerebral disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339517/infected-erythrocytes-expressing-dc13-pfemp1-differ-from-recombinant-proteins-in-epcr-binding-function
#2
Yvonne Azasi, Gabriella Lindergard, Ashfaq Ghumra, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller, J Alexandra Rowe
Recent advances have identified a new paradigm for cerebral malaria pathogenesis in which endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a major host receptor for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the brain and other vital organs. The parasite adhesins that bind EPCR are members of the IE variant surface antigen family Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) containing specific adhesion domains called domain cassette (DC) 8 and DC13. The binding interaction site between PfEMP1 and EPCR has been mapped by biophysical and crystallography studies using recombinant proteins...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316914/differential-induction-of-malaria-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-chabaudi-as-or-plasmodium-berghei-nk65
#3
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313484/new-syndromes-identified-by-neuroimaging-during-cerebral-malaria
#4
Angelika Hoffmann, Samuel C Wassmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#5
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281764/interferon-regulatory-factor-1-is-essential-for-pathogenic-cd8-t-cell-migration-and-retention-in-the-brain-during-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#6
Sin Yee Gun, Carla Claser, Teck Hui Teo, Shanshan W Howland, Chek Meng Poh, Rebecca Ren Ying Chye, Lisa F P Ng, Laurent Rénia
Host immune response has a key role in controlling the progression of malaria infection. In the well-established murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with P. berghei ANKA infection, pro-inflammatory Th1 and CD8+ T cells response are essential for disease development. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is a transcription factor which promotes Th1 responses and its absence was previously shown to protect from ECM death. Yet, the exact mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here we demonstrated that IRF1-deficient mice (IRF1KO) were protected from ECM death despite displaying early neurological signs...
December 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280430/funduscopy-in-cerebral-malaria-diagnosis-an-international-survey-of-practice-patterns
#7
Lakshmi Swamy, Nicholas A V Beare, Ogugua Okonkwo, Tamer H Mahmoud
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among young children. Malarial retinopathy is the most specific clinical finding in CM, and fundus examination could help clinicians distinguish CM from other causes of encephalopathy in resource-poor areas. To assess clinician knowledge, practice patterns, and barriers to the use of funduscopy in the diagnosis of CM, we designed a descriptive multinational survey of clinicians in malaria endemic areas...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260652/case-report-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-in-severe-cerebral-malaria
#8
Kei Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Kato, Koh Shinohara, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Kayoko Hayakawa, Moritoshi Iwagami, Shigeyuki Kano, Shu Watanabe, Norio Ohmagari
Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of falciparum malaria that occurs infrequently in adults. Here, we describe the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with fever and headache 13 days after returning from a 12-day trip to Kenya and was subsequently diagnosed with falciparum malaria. Complications of cerebral malaria developed within 1 day after the initiation of therapy with intravenous quinine, and the patient entered a deep coma. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed multiple vasoconstrictions in his brain...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250318/do-we-know-enough-to-find-an-adjunctive-therapy-for-cerebral-malaria-in-african-children
#9
REVIEW
Brittany A Riggle, Louis H Miller, Susan K Pierce
Cerebral malaria is the deadliest complication of malaria, a febrile infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasite. Any of the five human Plasmodium species can cause disease, but, for unknown reasons, in approximately 2 million cases each year P. falciparum progresses to severe disease, ultimately resulting in half a million deaths. The majority of these deaths are in children under the age of five. Currently, there is no way to predict which child will progress to severe disease and there are no adjunctive therapies to halt the symptoms after onset...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238723/relationship-between-malaria-and-abo-blood-types-in-east-china
#10
Xuan Zhang, Meifang Yang, Hong Zhao, Jianhua Hu, Lanjuan Li
Objectives: This study aims at investigating the relationship between malaria and blood group types in east China. Methods: Between 1 January 2011 and 31 March 2017, 99 malaria patients were enrolled for the study. Laboratory tests were conducted on their infection status and blood types. Clinical data of the participants were retrieved for analysis. Results: There was no mortality during the period of study. Overall, 90 (90.91%) of the patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum, 8 (8...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206655/pathophysiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-of-coma-and-acute-kidney-injury-complicating-falciparum-malaria
#11
Katherine Plewes, Gareth D H Turner, Arjen M Dondorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral impairment and acute kidney injury (AKI) are independent predictors of mortality in both adults and children with severe falciparum malaria. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of these complications of severe malaria, and discuss future areas of research. RECENT FINDINGS: Cerebral malaria and AKI are serious and well recognized complications of severe malaria...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181450/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-to-distinguish-bacterial-meningitis-from-cerebral-malaria-in-children
#12
James M Njunge, Ian N Oyaro, Nelson K Kibinge, Martin K Rono, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, James A Berkley, Evelyn N Gitau
Background. Few hospitals in high malaria endemic countries in Africa have the diagnostic capacity for clinically distinguishing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) from cerebral malaria (CM). As a result, empirical use of antibiotics is necessary. A biochemical marker of ABM would facilitate precise clinical diagnosis and management of these infections and enable rational use of antibiotics. Methods. We used label-free protein quantification by mass spectrometry to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that distinguish ABM (n=37) from CM (n=22) in Kenyan children...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162126/targeting-the-master-regulator-mtor-a-new-approach-to-prevent-the-neurological-of-consequences-of-parasitic-infections
#13
REVIEW
Sheila Donnelly, Wilhelmina M Huston, Michael Johnson, Natalia Tiberti, Bernadette Saunders, Bronwyn O'Brien, Catherine Burke, Maurizio Labbate, Valery Combes
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150238/a-t-cell-receptor-locus-harbors-a-malaria-specific-immune-response-gene
#14
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, Stephanie Gras, Kristin Ladell, Tracy M Josephs, Lecia Pewe, Stina L Urban, Kelly L Miners, Carine Farenc, David A Price, Jamie Rossjohn, John T Harty
Immune response (Ir) genes, originally proposed by Baruj Benacerraf to explain differential antigen-specific responses in animal models, have become synonymous with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We discovered a non-MHC-linked Ir gene in a T cell receptor (TCR) locus that was required for CD8(+) T cell responses to the Plasmodium berghei GAP5040-48 epitope in mice expressing the MHC class I allele H-2D(b). GAP5040-48-specific CD8(+) T cell responses emerged from a very large pool of naive Vβ8...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137631/synthetic-oleanane-triterpenoids-enhance-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-improve-survival-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#15
Valerie M Crowley, Kodjo Ayi, Ziyue Lu, Karen T Liby, Michael Sporn, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection associated with high mortality and neurocognitive impairment in survivors. New anti-malarials and host-based adjunctive therapy may improve clinical outcome in CM. Synthetic oleanane triterpenoid (SO) compounds have shown efficacy in the treatment of diseases where inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to pathogenesis. METHODS: A derivative of the SO 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), CDDO-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA) was investigated for the treatment of severe malaria in a pre-clinical model...
November 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129674/cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-granzyme-b-mediates-neuronal-cell-death-during-plasmodium-berghei-anka-induced-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#17
Prabhakar Eeka, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Cerebral malaria is a complex, acute, neurological disease characterised by a sudden onset of cerebral symptoms. This disease is manifested as initial arousable stage that is followed by an unarousable coma and eventually death. Parasite burden and CD8+ T cell count in the brain determines the disease outcome. Cytotoxic CD8+ T cell-derived Granzyme-b is required for the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but the mechanism of pathogenesis is not known. Here, we show that CD8+ T cells infiltrate in to the brain during ECM releasing Granzyme-b that is cytotoxic to neuronal cells...
November 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#18
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121917/a-single-rapamycin-dose-protects-against-late-stage-experimental-cerebral-malaria-via-modulation-of-host-immunity-endothelial-activation-and-parasite-sequestration
#19
Pedro Mejia, J Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S Reynolds, Mariana De Niz, Andrew Thompson, Matthias Marti, James R Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive immune responses during cerebral malaria (CM) result in high mortality despite opportune anti-malarial chemotherapy. Rapamycin, an FDA-approved immunomodulator, protects against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice through effects on the host. However, the potential for reduced adaptive immunity with chronic use, combined with an incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying protection, limit translational potential as an adjunctive therapy in CM. RESULTS: The results presented herein demonstrate that a single dose of rapamycin, provided as late as day 4 or 5 post-infection, protected mice from ECM neuropathology and death through modulation of distinct host responses to infection...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120741/getting-your-head-around-cerebral-malaria
#20
Jeffrey D Dvorin
Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe complications of human infection by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Kessler et al. (2017) provide valuable insights into the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this poorly understood manifestation of malaria.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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