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Pediatric malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596990/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cerebral-malaria-patients-reveals-distinct-pathogenetic-processes-in-different-parts-of-the-brain
#1
Sanjib Mohanty, Laura A Benjamin, Megharay Majhi, Premanand Panda, Sam Kampondeni, Praveen K Sahu, Akshaya Mohanty, Kishore C Mahanta, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, Rashmi R Mohanty, Sonia Joshi, Anita Mohanty, Ian W Turnbull, Arjen M Dondorp, Terrie E Taylor, Samuel C Wassmer
The mechanisms underlying the rapidly reversible brain swelling described in patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unknown. Using a 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we undertook an observational study in Rourkela, India, of 11 Indian patients hospitalized with CM and increased brain volume. Among the 11 cases, there were 5 adults and 6 children. All patients had reduced consciousness and various degrees of cortical swelling at baseline. The latter was predominately posterior in distribution...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500775/vaccines-against-malaria-still-a-long-way-to-go
#2
REVIEW
Kai Matuschewski
Several species of Plasmodium cause a broad spectrum of human disease that range from nausea and fever to severe anemia, cerebral malaria, and multiorgan failure. In malaria-endemic countries, continuous exposure to Plasmodium sporozoite inoculations and subsequent blood infections elicit only partial and short-lived immunity, which gradually develops over many years of parasite exposure and multiple clinical episodes. The ambitious goal of malaria vaccinology over the past 70 years has been to develop an immunization strategy that mounts protection superior to naturally acquired immunity...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480256/a-case-report-of-pediatric-brucellosis-in-an-algerian-immigrant
#3
Eimear Kitt, Kristina R Brannock, Lauren A VonHolz, Paul J Planet, Erin Graf, Vinodh Pillai
An 8-year old girl presented to our facility with a 10-day history of fever, fatigue, abdominal pain and refusal to walk. She recently travelled from her native Algeria where she first developed symptoms. On evaluation, she was ill-appearing, febrile and tachycardic with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy noted on examination. A strong musty odor was also noted from the child. Laboratory evaluation revealed pancytopenia, hyponatremia, and an elevated AST, ALT, and LDH. Malaria testing was negative, as was a PPD...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465297/comprehensive-transcriptome-and-mutational-profiling-of-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma-reveals-ebv-type-specific-differences
#4
Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I Oduor, Hongbo Yu, Juliana A Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common pediatric cancer in malaria-endemic equatorial Africa and nearly always contains Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), unlike sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) that occurs with a lower incidence in developed countries. Given these differences and the variable clinical presentation and outcomes, we sought to further understand pathogenesis by investigating transcriptomes using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) from multiple primary eBL tumors compared with sBL tumors. Within eBL tumors, minimal expression differences were found based on: anatomical presentation site, in-hospital survival rates, and EBV genome type, suggesting that eBL tumors are homogeneous without marked subtypes...
May 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465184/comparing-imported-malaria-in-adults-and-children-presenting-to-an-italian-teaching-hospital-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#5
Dora Luise, Daniele Donà, Federica Visentin, Giulia Marini, Carlo Giaquinto, Annamaria Cattelan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is not endemic in Italy, but it still represents an important threat to the travelers' health. With this study we wanted to compare the characteristics of imported malaria between adults and children. METHOD: This retrospective observational study includes all patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit and in the Pediatric Department of Padua (Italy), and discharged with a diagnosis of malaria from 2005 to 2015. The variables considered are epidemiological and clinical...
April 29, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460165/development-of-a-rapidly-dissolvable-oral-pediatric-formulation-for-mefloquine-using-liposomes
#6
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Weihsu Claire Chen, Charles Diako, Carolyn F Ross, Shyh-Dar Li
Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ∼110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450986/-major-sickle-cell-syndromes-and-infections-associated-with-this-condition-in-children-in-burkina-faso
#7
Sonia Douamba, Kisito Nagalo, Laure Tamini, Ismaël Traoré, Madibèlè Kam, Fla Kouéta, Diarra Yé
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric descriptive retrospective hospital study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, over a ten-year period. All children with major sickle cell syndrome (homozygous SS and double heterozygous SC, SDPunjab, Sβ thalassemic, SOArab and SE) hospitalized for microbiologically confirmed infections were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427357/haplotype-of-non-synonymous-mutations-within-il-23r-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-severe-malaria-anemia-in-a-p-falciparum-holoendemic-transmission-area-of-kenya
#8
Elly O Munde, Evans Raballah, Winnie A Okeyo, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pediatric severe malarial anemia (SMA) pathogenesis is a crucial step in the design of novel therapeutics. Identification of host genetic susceptibility factors in immune regulatory genes offers an important tool for deciphering malaria pathogenesis. The IL-23/IL-17 immune pathway is important for both immunity and erythropoiesis via its effects through IL-23 receptors (IL-23R). However, the impact of IL-23R variants on SMA has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426727/cd4-t-cell-expression-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-17-in-pediatric-malarial-anemia
#9
Evans Raballah, Prakasha Kempaiah, Zachary Karim, George O Orinda, Michael F Otieno, Douglas J Perkins, John Michael Ong'echa
In Plasmodium falciparum holoendemic transmission regions of western Kenya, life-threatening pediatric malaria manifests primarily as severe malarial anemia (SMA, Hb≤6.0 g/dL with any density parasitemia). To determine the role that CD4+ T-cell-driven inflammatory responses have in the pathogenesis of SMA, peripheral CD4+ T-cell populations and their intracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) were characterized in children aged 12-36 months of age stratified into two groups: non-severe malarial anemia (non-SMA, Hb≥6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426698/extensive-alterations-of-blood-metabolites-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#10
Sanchit Gupta, Karl Seydel, Miguel A Miranda-Roman, Catherine M Feintuch, Alex Saidi, Ryung S Kim, Gretchen L Birbeck, Terrie Taylor, Johanna P Daily
Cerebral malaria (CM) presents as an encephalopathy and is due to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Patients are comatose, often with fever, recurrent seizures and this condition is associated with a high mortality rate. The etiology of the coma and seizures are poorly understood. Circulating small molecules and lipids have bioactive functions and alterations in their concentrations have been implicated in seizure disorders and other forms of encephalopathy. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of blood metabolites during CM to explore a biochemical basis of this encephalopathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424766/the-need-for-hematology-nurse-education-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-community-case-study-in-tanzania
#11
Julie M Buser
Hematology-related diseases, such as anemia, malaria, sickle cell disease (SCD), and blood cancers, have differing rates of survival between high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nurses in LMICs have an unmet need for specialty training and education to address hematology and hemato-oncology disorders. A gap in the literature exists about hematology nurse education and clinical service demands in LMICs. This community case study documents a collaborative hematology and basic hemato-oncology education program to sustainably strengthen nurse capacity at a national referral hospital and university in Tanzania...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369387/resurgence-of-malaria-following-discontinuation-of-indoor-residual-spraying-of-insecticide-in-a-previously-high-transmission-intensity-area-of-uganda
#12
Saned Raouf, Arthur Mpimbaza, Ruth Kigozi, Asadu Sserwanga, Denis Rubahika, Henry Katamba, Steve W Lindsay, Bryan K Kapella, Kassahun A Belay, Moses R Kamya, Sarah G Staedke, Grant Dorsey
Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tools for malaria prevention in Africa. It is not known whether reductions in malaria can be sustained after IRS is discontinued. The aim of this study was to assess changes in malaria morbidity in a historically high transmission area of Uganda where IRS was discontinued after a four-year period of effective control followed by a universal LLIN distribution campaign. Methods: Individual-level malaria surveillance data were collected from one outpatient department and one inpatient setting in Apac District, Uganda from July 2009 through November 2015...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337387/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-children-with-malaria-in-franceville-gabon
#13
Sandrine Lydie Oyegue-Liabagui, Aline Gaëlle Bouopda-Tuedom, Lady Charlène Kouna, Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Herman Nzoughe, Nina Tchitoula-Makaya, Irene Pegha-Moukandja, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria anemia (SMA) is a major cause of mortality in pediatric wards. Variations in inflammatory mediator production play an essential role in disease outcomes. Indeed, several studies have shown the involvement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in malaria immunopathology. In other hand the exact role of Th17 cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 in malaria remains poorly documented. Here, we investigated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 circulating levels and their association with malaria anemia and parasitemia in Gabonese children...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257500/pediatric-emergency-care-capacity-in-a-low-resource-setting-an-assessment-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#14
Celestin Hategeka, Jean Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Cynthia Kenyon, David F Cechetto, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222841/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#15
Pramod N Nehete, Bharti P Nehete, Sriram Chitta, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199348/presentation-management-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-adults-and-children-admitted-to-a-rural-ugandan-hospital-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#16
Kristina E Rudd, Leonard K Tutaryebwa, T Eoin West
OBJECTIVES: Limited data are available on sepsis in low-resource settings, particularly outside of urban referral centers. We conducted a prospective observational single-center cohort study in May 2013 to assess the presentation, management and outcomes of adult and pediatric patients admitted with sepsis to a community hospital in rural Uganda. METHODS: We consecutively screened all patients admitted to medical wards who met sepsis criteria. We evaluated eligible patients within 24 hours of presentation and 24-48 hours after admission, and followed them until hospital discharge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198460/automated-detection-of-malarial-retinopathy-in-digital-fundus-images-for-improved-diagnosis-in-malawian-children-with-clinically-defined-cerebral-malaria
#17
Vinayak Joshi, Carla Agurto, Simon Barriga, Sheila Nemeth, Peter Soliz, Ian J MacCormick, Susan Lewallen, Terrie E Taylor, Simon P Harding
Cerebral malaria (CM), a complication of malaria infection, is the cause of the majority of malaria-associated deaths in African children. The standard clinical case definition for CM misclassifies ~25% of patients, but when malarial retinopathy (MR) is added to the clinical case definition, the specificity improves from 61% to 95%. Ocular fundoscopy requires expensive equipment and technical expertise not often available in malaria endemic settings, so we developed an automated software system to analyze retinal color images for MR lesions: retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and white-centered hemorrhages...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164028/the-clinical-spectrum-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-in-cameroon-a-hospital-based-study-in-yaounde-cameroon
#18
Andreas Chiabi, Berthe Malangue, Seraphin Nguefack, Félicitée Nguefack Dongmo, Florence Fru, Virginie Takou, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1.9% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical aspects and outcome of SAM at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH)...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146099/pediatric%C3%A2-mortality%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-rural%C3%A2-tertiary%C3%A2-care%C3%A2-center-in%C3%A2-liberia
#19
Carmelle Tsai, Camila B Walters, John Sampson, Francis Kateh, Mary P Chang
Liberia is a low-income country in West Africa that has faced significant challenges, including a civil war and the recent Ebola epidemic. Little data exists on the more current post-war and pre-Ebola trends of child health in Liberia in the rural setting. This study is a retrospective chart review of pediatric mortality in 2013 at a rural tertiary care center in Liberia, 10 years post-war. From January 2013 to December 2013, there were 50 pediatric deaths, or 5.4% of the 920 total pediatric admissions. The most common cause of neonatal death was sepsis, and the most common cause of death under five years of age was malaria...
January 30, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137761/comprehensive-transcriptome-and-mutational-profiling-of-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma-reveals-ebv-type-specific-differences
#20
Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I Oduor, Hongbo Yu, Juliana A Otieno, John M Ong'echa, Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common pediatric cancer in malaria-endemic equatorial Africa and nearly always contains Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), unlike sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma (sBL) that occurs with a lower incidence in developed countries. Given these differences and the variable clinical presentation and outcomes, we sought to further understand pathogenesis by investigating transcriptomes using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) from multiple primary eBL tumors compared to sBL tumors. Within eBL tumors, minimal expression differences were found based on: anatomical presentation site, in-hospital survival rates, and EBV genome type; suggesting that eBL tumors are homogeneous without marked subtypes...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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