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Pediatric malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756531/the-ethics-of-end-of-trial-obligations-in-a-pediatric-malaria-vaccine-trial-the-perspectives-of-stakeholders-from-ghana-and-tanzania
#1
Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Elger
This study explores stakeholder experiences and perspectives on end-of-trial obligations at the close of a phase II/III Pediatric Malaria Vaccine Trial (PMVT) [GSK/PATH-MVI RTS, S) (NCT00866619]. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders of an international multicentre PMVT in Ghana and Tanzania. The responses fell into four main themes: (a) Communicating End-of-Trial, (b) Maintaining Health Care Services, (c) Dissemination of Results, and (d) Post-Trial Access. Interviewee responses shared important practical experiences and insights that complement current thinking in the literature on research ethics guidance: (a) accompany end-of-trial communication with information on personal and family health care responsibilities, (b) establish public health indicators to measure the impact of research on a health care system,...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728106/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-hospitalization-in-young-children-in-italy
#2
Parvanè Kuhdari, Federica Brosio, Cristina Malaventura, Armando Stefanati, Andrea Orsi, Giancarlo Icardi, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is ubiquitous and causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. Worldwide, hRSV pneumonia is the second cause of postnatal infant death after malaria. Given the high impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs, especially in the pediatric population, hRSV is recognized as a global health problem and the WHO, in view of the availability of new vaccines, has urged an active surveillance program of virus-related infections...
May 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692306/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-hospitalized-with-severe-malaria-in-northern-zambia-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#3
Matthew M Ippolito, Luc K Kamavu, Jean-Bertin Kabuya, Catherine Tente, Edward Chileshe, McBerth Wapachole, Philip E Thuma, Mbanga Muleba, Mike Chaponda, Modest Mulenga, William J Moss, For The Southern And Central Africa International Centers Of Excellence For Malaria Research
Malaria remains a public health crisis in areas where it has resisted control efforts. In Nchelenge District, a high- transmission area in northern Zambia, malaria accounts for more than one-third of pediatric hospitalizations and nearly one-half of hospital deaths in children. To identify risk factors for death due to malaria, we conducted a retrospective, time-matched case-control study of 126 children hospitalized with malaria who died (cases) and 126 children who survived (controls). There were no differences in age, gender, hemoglobin concentration, or prevalence of severe anemia between cases and controls...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652743/expanding-the-spectrum-of-post-malaria-neurologic-syndrome-in-the-pediatric-population
#4
Robert J Kernan, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, T Ronan Leahy, Bryan Lynch, Jane Leonard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626433/plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-protein-1-genetic-diversity-and-multiplicity-of-infection-in-isolates-from-congolese-children-consulting-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-brazzaville
#5
Nerly Shirère Gampio Gueye, Francine Ntoumi, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Michael N Kombo, Alain Mouanga, Julia Deibert, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
As in many sub-Saharan African countries, the burden of malaria has been reduced in the Republic of Congo as a result of massive deployment of insecticide treated nets and availability of artemisinin-combinations therapies (ACTs). High to moderate genetic diversity of msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been reported from different parts of the world but limited data are available from Central Africa including the Republic of Congo. For this reason, the aim of study was to investigate the P...
April 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616202/pediatric-critical-care-in-resource-limited-settings-overview-and-lessons-learned
#6
REVIEW
Tina M Slusher, Andrew W Kiragu, Louise T Day, Ashley R Bjorklund, Arianna Shirk, Colleen Johannsen, Scott A Hagen
Pediatric critical care is an important component of reducing morbidity and mortality globally. Currently, pediatric critical care in low middle-income countries (LMICs) remains in its infancy in most hospitals. The majority of hospitals lack designated intensive care units, healthcare staff trained to care for critically ill children, adequate numbers of staff, and rapid access to necessary medications, supplies and equipment. In addition, most LMICs lack pediatric critical care training programs for healthcare providers or certification procedures to accredit healthcare providers working in their pediatric intensive care units (PICU) and high dependency areas...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576904/noninvasive-measures-of-brain-edema-predict-outcome-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#7
Samuel D Kampondeni, Gretchen L Birbeck, Karl B Seydel, Nicholas A Beare, Simon J Glover, Colleen A Hammond, Cowles A Chilingulo, Terrie E Taylor, Michael J Potchen
Background: Increased brain volume (BV) and subsequent herniation are strongly associated with death in pediatric cerebral malaria (PCM), a leading killer of children in developing countries. Accurate noninvasive measures of BV are needed for optimal clinical trial design. Our objectives were to examine the performance of six different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) BV quantification measures for predicting mortality in PCM and to review the advantages and disadvantages of each method...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566695/cerebrospinal-fluid-plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#8
Kiran T Thakur, Jimmy Vareta, Kathryn A Carson, Samuel Kampondeni, Michael J Potchen, Gretchen L Birbeck, Ian MacCormick, Terrie Taylor, David J Sullivan, Karl B Seydel
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) causes a rapidly developing coma, and remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic regions. This study sought to determine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and clinical, laboratory and radiographic features in a cohort of children with retinopathy-positive CM. METHODS: Patients included in the study were admitted (2009-2013) to the Pediatric Research Ward (Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi) meeting World Health Organization criteria for CM with findings of malarial retinopathy...
March 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538263/emergency-medicine-providers-knowledge-and-management-of-pediatric-tropical-diseases-a-needs-assessment
#9
Vanessa A Thomas, Heather L Crouse, Kristy O Murray, Deborah C Hsu, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a needs assessment of pediatric (PEM) and general emergency medicine (EM) provider knowledge, comfort, and current practice patterns in the evaluation of pediatric tropical infectious diseases. METHODS: An online survey was developed based on educational priorities identified by an expert panel via modified Delphi methodology. The survey included assessment of providers' typical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases and was distributed to PEM and EM providers in 2 large professional organizations...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512478/pediatric-acute-severe-neurologic-illness-and-injury-in-an-urban-and-a-rural-hospital-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#10
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
May 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466967/a-pediatric-death-audit-in-a-large-referral-hospital-in-malawi
#11
Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Rachel Mlotha-Mitole, Emily J Ciccone, Alyssa E Tilly, Jennie M Montijo, Hans-Joerg Lang, Michelle Eckerle
BACKGROUND: Death audits have been used to describe pediatric mortality in under-resourced settings, where record keeping is often a challenge. This information provides the cornerstone for the foundation of quality improvement initiatives. Malawi, located in sub-Saharan Africa, currently has an Under-5 mortality rate of 64/1000. Kamuzu Central Hospital, in the capital city Lilongwe, is a busy government referral hospital, which admits up to 3000 children per month. A study published in 2013 reported mortality rates as high as 9%...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422151/interdisciplinary-ugandan-perspectives-on-computerized-intervention-implementation-for-child-survivors-of-severe-malaria-a-qualitative-analysis
#12
Katherine Finn, Jody Lori, Maurgan Lee, Bruno Giordani
PURPOSE: Severe malaria (SM) is the leading cause of pediatric cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CCRT), a promising intervention for children suffering from SM related cognitive delay, targets areas impacted by the disease (memory, attention, and executive function), but has yet to be implemented for daily use. This paper explores the perspectives of Ugandan professionals regarding CCRT implementation in the academic setting of Uganda...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408951/malaria-coinfections-in-febrile-pediatric-inpatients-a-hospital-based-study-from-ghana
#13
Benedikt Hogan, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372177/characterizing-pediatric-non-malarial-fever-and-identifying-the-at-risk-child-in-rural-malawi
#14
Teresa Bleakly Kortz, Alden Blair, Ellen Scarr, Andrew Masozi Mguntha, Gama Bandawe, Ellen Schell, Sally Rankin, Kimberly Baltzell
Objective . To characterize children with non-malarial fever at risk of nonrecovery or worsening in rural Malawi. Methods . This is a subgroup analysis of patients ≤14 years of age from a prospective cohort study in non-malarial fever subjects (temperature ≥37.5°C, or fever within 48 hours, and malaria negative) in southern Malawi cared for at a mobile clinic during the 2016 dry (August to September) or wet (November to December) season. Data collection included chart review and questionnaires; 14-day follow-up was conducted...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370261/inhaled-nitric-oxide-and-cognition-in-pediatric-severe-malaria-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Paul Bangirana, Andrea L Conroy, Robert O Opoka, Michael T Hawkes, Laura Hermann, Christopher Miller, Sophie Namasopo, W Conrad Liles, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a leading cause of acquired neurodisability in Africa and is associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A neuroprotective role for inhaled NO has been reported in animal studies, and administration of inhaled NO in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a 47% reduced risk of cognitive impairment at two years of age. METHODS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of inhaled NO versus placebo as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria was conducted in Uganda between 2011 and 2013...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#16
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
February 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276621/developing-a-novel-risk-prediction-model-for-severe-malarial-anemia
#17
E B Brickley, E Kabyemela, J D Kurtis, M Fried, A M Wood, P E Duffy
As a pilot study to investigate whether personalized medicine approaches could have value for the reduction of malaria-related mortality in young children, we evaluated questionnaire and biomarker data collected from the Mother Offspring Malaria Study Project birth cohort (Muheza, Tanzania, 2002-2006) at the time of delivery as potential prognostic markers for pediatric severe malarial anemia. Severe malarial anemia, defined here as a Plasmodium falciparum infection accompanied by hemoglobin levels below 50 g/L, is a key manifestation of life-threatening malaria in high transmission regions...
2017: Global health, epidemiology and genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248801/plasma-magnesium-is-inversely-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-load-in-peripheral-blood-and-burkitt-lymphoma-in-uganda
#18
Ravell Juan, Isaac Otim, Hadijah Nabalende, Ismail D Legason, Steven J Reynolds, Martin D Ogwang, Christopher M Ndugwa, Vickie Marshall, Denise Whitby, James J Goedert, Eric A Engels, Kishor Bhatia, Michael J Lenardo, Sam M Mbulaiteye
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). EBV control was improved by magnesium (Mg2+ ) supplementation in XMEN, an X-linked genetic disease associated with Mg2+ deficiency, high circulating EBV levels (viral loads), and EBV-related lymphomas. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between Mg2+ levels and EBV levels and eBL in Uganda. METHODS: Plasma Mg2+ was measured in 45 women with low or high circulating EBV levels, 40 pediatric eBL cases, and 79 healthy children...
February 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213269/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-malaria-vectored-vaccines-given-with-routine-expanded-program-on-immunization-vaccines-in-gambian-infants-and-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Victorine A Mensah, Sophie Roetynck, Ebrima K Kanteh, Georgina Bowyer, Amy Ndaw, Francis Oko, Carly M Bliss, Ya Jankey Jagne, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Rachel Roberts, Flavia D'Alessio, Odile Leroy, Babacar Faye, Beate Kampmann, Badara Cisse, Kalifa Bojang, Stephen Gerry, Nicola K Viebig, Alison M Lawrie, Ed Clarke, Egeruan B Imoukhuede, Katie J Ewer, Adrian V S Hill, Muhammed O Afolabi
Background: Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding multiple epitope string thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) has shown acceptable safety and promising immunogenicity in African adult and pediatric populations. If licensed, this vaccine could be given to infants receiving routine childhood immunizations. We therefore evaluated responses to ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP when co-administered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212494/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-children-with-renal-failure-in-the-pediatric-ward-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-cameroon
#20
Marie Patrice Halle, Carine Tsou Lapsap, Esther Barla, Hermine Fouda, Hilaire Djantio, Beatrice Kaptue Moudze, Christophe Adjahoung Akazong, Eugene Belley Priso
BACKGROUND: Pediatric nephrology is challenging in developing countries and data on the burden of kidney disease in children is difficult to estimate due to absence of renal registries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in Cameroon. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 103 medical records of children from 0 to 17 years with renal failure admitted in the Pediatric ward of the Douala General Hospital from 2004 to 2013...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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