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Pediatric drugs

Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Silvana Bertella, Annalisa Capuano, Renata Rizzo, Stefania Antoniazzi, Fabiana Auricchio, Carla Carnovale, Dario Cattaneo, Carmen Ferrajolo, Marta Gentili, Giuseppe Guastella, Elisa Mani, Concetta Rafaniello, Maria Pia Riccio, Maria Grazia Scuderi, Serena Sperandeo, Liberata Sportiello, Laura Villa, Sonia Radice, Emilio Clementi, Francesco Rossi, Antonio Pascotto, Renato Bernardini, Massimo Molteni, Carmela Bravaccio
OBJECTIVE: The practical effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents is an understudied issue. It is a crucial area of study, though, because such patients are often treated for long-lasting disorders. METHODS: We carried out a 24-month (March 2012-March 2014) observational study on an unselected population of pediatric outpatients treated with risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, or quetiapine aiming to (1) describe drug use, (2) compare post hoc the discontinuation rates due to specific causes and dose adjustments by Kaplan-Meier analyses between drugs, and (3) analyze predictors influencing these outcomes by Cox multivariate models...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Juan P Boriosi, Jens C Eickhoff, Kristi B Klein, Gregory A Hollman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both propofol and dexmedetomidine have been found to be safe and effective sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our program experienced an increase in patients arousing and experiencing an adverse airway event during propofol sedation for MRI in the first months of using a new 3T (Tesla) MRI scanner that was found to have a longer reverberation time compared to the previous 1.5 T MRI. In an effort to decrease patient arousal and adverse airway events during MRI, we administered a dexmedetomidine load prior to our standard propofol protocol...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Meltem Çobanoğulları Direk, Veli Yıldırım, Serkan Güneş, Gülçin Bozlu, Çetin Okuyaz
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased serotonergic activity in central nervous system and may occur during the use of serotonergic drugs. Although increasing frequency of serotonergic drug use in children, pediatricians, emergency medicine and pediatric intensive care specialists have not enough knowledge and experience about SS that is a potentially life-threatening condition. A 12-year-old girl patient was admitted to our emergency room with the history of involuntary contractions on her extremities and alteration of consciousness...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ann W McMahon, Kevin Watt, Jian Wang, Dionna Green, Ram Tiwari, Gilbert J Burckart
BACKGROUND: Pediatric drug development is plagued by small sample sizes, unvalidated clinical endpoints, and limited studies. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether age stratification within the pediatric population could be used to (1) assess response to a pharmacologic intervention and to (2) design future trials based upon published stratified disease data using clinical trial simulation (CTS). METHODS: Data available from the literature for Kawasaki disease (KD) was used in the model...
2016: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Jun Takei, Ran Takei, Satoshi Nozuma, Keiichi Nakahara, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroshi Takashima
A 40-year-old man presented with a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after febrile illness. He developed status epilepticus and required mechanical ventilation with anesthetics. Steroid pulse, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunoadsorption therapy were administrated, and the status epilepticus improved; however, drug-resistant seizures remained. Despite the use of several antiepileptic drugs, seizures frequently occurred. Additional administration of potassium bromide resulted in significant suppression of seizures...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Ankana Daga, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Sharina Rajbhandari, Cassandra Arevalo, Agnes Salvador
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill premature infants. There is a lack of consensus on the diagnostic definition of AKI in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for AKI in VLBW infants using the AKI network (AKIN) and pRIFLE (pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage) criteria and to evaluate whether Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) score is a predictor of AKI. The secondary objective was to determine the extent of agreement between the AKIN and pRIFLE criteria in the diagnosis of AKI in VLBW infants...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Ira Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jeannine Coburn, Jamie Harris, Alexander D Zakharov, Jennifer Poirier, Naohiko Ikegaki, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Monika Pilichowska, Alexander V Lyubimov, Hiroyuki Shimada, David L Kaplan, Bill Chiu
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial childhood solid tumor. Treatment of high risk tumors require intense multi-cycle chemotherapies, resulting in short- and long-term toxicities. Here we present treatment of an orthotopic neuroblastoma mouse model, with silk fibroin materials loaded with vincristine, doxorubicin, or the combination as a intratumoral, sustained release system. The materials, loaded with vincristine with or without doxorubicin, significantly decreased neuroblastoma tumor growth compared to materials loaded without drug or doxorubicin only as well as intravenous (IV) drug treatment...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Teeda Pinyavat, David O Warner, Randall P Flick, Mary Ellen McCann, Dean B Andropoulos, Danquig Hu, Jeffrey W Sall, Marisa N Spann, Caleb Ing
During the Fifth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment Symposium, experts and stakeholders met to present and discuss recent advances made in the study of neurodevelopmental outcomes after exposure to anesthetic drugs in infants and children. This article summarizes the update of 5 ongoing clinical studies: General Anesthesia compared to Spinal Anesthesia, Toxicity of Remifentanil and Dexmedetomidine, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids, the University of California San Francisco human cohort study, and Columbia University Medical Center Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging study...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Tonya L K Miller, Raymond Park, Lena S Sun
On April 16 and 17, 2016, the Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study held its fifth biennial symposium at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York. The PANDA symposium has served as a key forum for clinicians, researchers, and other major stakeholders to gather and review the current state of preclinical and clinical research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in children. Goals of the meeting included assessing how current knowledge has translated and impacted clinical care of patients who may be at risk, and future directions for research and policy...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Constanze Hantel, Igor Shapiro, Giada Poli, Costanza Chiapponi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Martin Reincke, Michaela Luconi, Sara Jung, Felix Beuschlein
In recent years it has been recognized that clinical translation of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) often fails. These disappointing results indicate that the currently utilized tumor models only poorly reflect relevant pathophysiology and, thereby, do not predict clinical applicability of novel pharmacological approaches. However, also the development of new preclinical ACC models has remained a challenge with only one human cell line (NCI-H295R) and one recently established human pediatric xenograft model (SJ-ACC3) being available for this highly heterogeneous malignancy...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
H Wilkens, S Konstantinides, I Lang, A C Bunck, M Gerges, F Gerhardt, A Grgic, C Grohé, S Guth, M Held, J Hinrichs, M M Hoeper, W Klepetko, T Kramm, U Krüger, M Lankeit, B C Meyer, K M Olsson, H-J Schäfers, M Schmidt, H J Seyfarth, S Ulrich, C B Wiedenroth, E Mayer
The 2015 European Guidelines on Pulmonary Hypertension did not cover only pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but also other significant subgroups of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In June 2016, a Consensus Conference organized by the PH working groups of the German Society of Cardiology (DGK), the German Society of Respiratory Medicine (DGP) and the German Society of Pediatric Cardiology (DGPK) was held in Cologne, Germany to discuss open and controversial issues surrounding the practical implementation of the European Guidelines...
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
H Olschewski, J Behr, H Bremer, M Claussen, P Douschan, M Halank, M Held, M M Hoeper, S Holt, H Klose, S Krüger, T J Lange, F Reichenberger, D Skowasch, S Ulrich, H Wilkens, W Seeger
The 2015 European Guidelines on Pulmonary Hypertension did not cover only pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but also some aspects of pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with chronic lung disease. The European Guidelines point out that the drugs currently used to treat patients with PAH (prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, sGC stimulators) have not been sufficiently investigated in other forms of PH. Therefore, the European Guidelines do not recommend the use of these drugs in patients with chronic lung disease and PH...
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Emanuele Nicastro, Sara Giovannozzi, Paola Stroppa, Anna Paola Callegaro, Alessandra Tebaldi, Claudio Farina, Michele Colledan, Lorenzo DʼAntiga
BACKGROUND: Most pediatric liver transplantation (LT) centers administer long courses of prophylaxis against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) without evidence of benefit and with significant drug exposure and costs. We aimed at evaluating overall outcomes, direct and putative indirect effects of CMV, possible impact of viremia and risk factors for CMV infection in pediatric LT recipients managed with ganciclovir-based preemptive therapy (PET). METHODS: The records of all the children who underwent LT between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Muhammad Irfan, Sumeira Rabel, Quratulain Bukhtar, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Farhat Jabeen, Ahmed Khan
Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs). These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Dhara Shah, Shannon Manzi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors intercepted by pharmacists on review of discharge prescriptions in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study conducted in the ED of a pediatric teaching hospital. A daily report of prescriptions from the previous day was reviewed by a pharmacist for safety and efficacy. If an intervention was deemed necessary, the prescriber was contacted for clarification...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ruixue Miao, Zhiling Wang, Qin Guo, Yang Wen, Qiong Liao, Yu Zhu, Min Shu, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening parasitic infection transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. We undertook this study to analyze the clinical features of pediatric VL in a population of Chinese children. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with pediatric patients (≤14years) diagnosed with VL based on bone-marrow biopsy, serology and diagnosis based on clinical manifestation and the improvement after the experimental drug when negative bone marrow and serology results were shown...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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