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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927988/factors-affecting-serum-concentration-of-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-oliguric-pediatric-patients-receiving-continuous-venovenous-hemodiafiltration
#1
Bongjin Lee, Soo Jung Kim, June Dong Park, Jiun Park, Ae Hee Jung, Sun Hoi Jung, Yu Hyeon Choi, Hee Gyung Kang, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
Vancomycin is known to be unintentionally eliminated by continuous renal replacement therapy, and the protein bound fraction of vancomycin is also known to be different in adults and children. However, there are only a few studies investigating the relationship between the dose of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) parameters and serum concentration of vancomycin in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and demographic parameters that significantly affect serum vancomycin concentrations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927498/tacrolimus-ointment-for-the-treatment-of-adult-and-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis-review-on-safety-and-benefits
#2
REVIEW
Mamitaro Ohtsuki, Hiroshi Morimoto, Hidemi Nakagawa
Atopic dermatitis (AD) requires long-term management, mainly with topical anti-inflammatory agents. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) and tacrolimus ointment (TAC-O) are recommended as first-line treatments for AD. However, the long-term use of TCS is limited by cutaneous adverse events such as skin atrophy. For TAC-O, Japanese and US labelings were updated in 2003 and 2006, respectively, to include a boxed warning about a theoretical risk of skin cancer and lymphoma in patients treated with topical calcineurin inhibitors...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925527/identification-of-fda-approved-oncology-drugs-with-selective-potency-in-high-risk-childhood-ependymoma
#3
Andrew M Donson, Vladimir Amani, Elliot A Warner, Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Lindsey M Hoffman, Todd C Hankinson, Michael H Handler, Rajeev Vibhakar, Kathleen Dorris, Nicholas K Foreman
Children with ependymoma are cured in less than 50% of cases, with little improvement in outcome over the last several decades. Chemotherapy has not impacted survival in ependymoma, due in part to a lack of preclinical models that has precluded comprehensive drug testing. We recently developed two human ependymoma cell lines harboring high-risk phenotypes which provided us with an opportunity to execute translational studies. ependymoma and other pediatric brain tumor cell lines were subject to a large-scale comparative drug screen of ependymoma -approved oncology drugs for rapid clinical application...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925381/current-management-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-in-germany-and-austria-an-online-survey-of-pediatric-rheumatologists-and-pediatric-neurologists
#4
Claas H Hinze, Fabian Speth, Prasad T Oommen, Johannes-Peter Haas
BACKGROUND: Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare pediatric autoimmune disease with broad variations of the individual course. Data on the optimal management are mostly lacking. Currently treatment decisions are often based on experts' opinions. In order to develop consensus-based treatment strategies for JDM in Germany a survey was pursued to analyze the current clinical practice. METHODS: An online survey addressing all members of the Society for Pediatric Rheumatology (GKJR) in Germany and Austria and pediatric neurologists with expertise in JDM was performed in February/March of 2016...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924261/-resistance-to-ganciclovir-in-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-heart-transplant-case-report
#5
Christian Rojas-Contreras, Gabriel De la Cruz-Ku, Stalin Vilcarromero, Ruben Villacaqui Ayllon, Bryan Valcarcel-Valdivia
Cytomegalovirus infection after a heart transplant is a recurrent medical condition. Its frequency increases when the donors are serum-positive, and the recipients are serum-negative to this virus. In the pediatric population, the infection only develops in a small percentage and the patients rarely present resistance to conventional treatment with ganciclovir and valganciclovir. We presented the first report of a pediatric case of the cytomegalovirus infection resistant to ganciclovir and valganciclovir after a heart transplant in a Peruvian public hospital with an unusual presentation...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923881/food-and-drug-administration-american-academy-of-ophthalmology-american-academy-of-optometry-american-association-for-pediatric-ophthalmology-and-strabismus-american-optometric-association-american-society-of-cataract-and-refractive-surgery-and-contact-lens
#6
Jeffrey J Walline, Marc W Robboy, Gene Hilmantel, Michelle E Tarver, Natalie A Afshari, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Christie L Morse, Christopher J Quinn, Michael X Repka, Malvina B Eydelman
The prevalence of myopia is high and increasing. Approximately 5 billion people around the world are expected to be myopic by the year 2050. Methods to slow the progression of myopia and therefore potentially decrease the associated sight-threatening complications have been the subject of a number of investigations. A workshop, sponsored by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Optometry, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Optometric Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, and Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc, convened myopia experts from around the world to discuss principles to consider in the design of clinical trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of myopia control devices...
July 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923186/environmental-risk-factors-and-non-pharmacological-non-surgical-interventions-for-obesity-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses-of-cohort-studies-and-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
Marco Solmi, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Ai Koyanagi, Beatrice Bortolato, Francesco Monaco, Davy Vancampfort, Myrela O Machado, Michael Maes, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Joseph Firth, John P A Ioannidis, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental factors have been implicated in obesity and multiple interventions, besides drugs and surgery, have been assessed in obese patients. Results are scattered across many studies and meta-analyses and they often mix obese and overweight individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched through January 21st , 2017 for meta-analyses of cohort studies assessing environmental risk factors for obesity, and randomized controlled trials investigating non-pharmacological, non-surgical therapeutic interventions for obesity...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921210/off-label-use-of-drugs-and-adverse-drug-reactions-in-pediatric-units-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#8
Andrea D Pratico, Laura Longo, Silvana Mansueto, Lucia Gozzo, Ignazio Barberi, Venera Tiralongo, Vincenzo Salvo, Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Mario La Rosa, Antonio Rotondo, Nicoletta Avola, Debora Sgarlata, Annalisa Damiano, Massimo Tirantello, Gaspare Anzelmo, Domenico Cipolla, Angelo Rizzo, Antonio Russo, Martino Ruggieri, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago
BACKGROUND: Given the growing use of off-label in pediatric practice, there is a growing interest on pharmacovigilance programs monitoring the occurrence of adverse drug reactions related to off-label drug prescription in childhood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The results of a one-year program of pharmacovigilance issued in the Sicilian Region, Italy, are herein presented. The study involved 6 pediatric and neonatal centres and prospectively reviewed the prescriptions of 5,060 patients, who were stratified for age (newborn, infant, children, adolescents)...
June 19, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920880/effect-of-cyp3a5-1-expression-on-tacrolimus-required-dose-for-transplant-pediatrics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Fatemeh Hendijani, Negar Azarpira, Maryam Kaviani
This systematic review was designed to find out optimal tacrolimus dose in pediatrics according to their CYP3A5*1 genotype by performing meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, ISI web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane library, and clinicaltrail.gov were systematically searched to find studies in which tacrolimus dose and/or blood concentration and/or concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratio were determined in genotype groups of CYP3A5*1 in pediatric population. Data were extracted at 14 time points post-transplantation and meta-analysis of mean and SD was performed...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920709/management-of-pediatric-acute-hematogenous-osteomyelitis-part-i-antimicrobial-stewardship-approach-and-review-of-therapies-for-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-kingella-kingae
#10
Kailynn J DeRonde, Jennifer E Girotto, David P Nicolau
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), often occurring in young children, is the most frequently diagnosed type of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. Optimizing antibiotics is essential as delays to receipt of appropriate therapy can lead to chronic osteomyelitis, as well as impairments in bone growth and development. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are in a key position to help improve the care of patients with AHO as they contain a pharmacist with expertise in antibiotic drug selection, optimization of dosing, and microbiologic test review...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920603/the-impact-of-thiopurine-metabolite-monitoring-on-the-durability-of-thiopurine-monotherapy-in-pediatric-ibd
#11
Elizabeth Spencer, Evan Norris, Chadwick Williams, Marla C Dubinsky
Background: Thiopurine metabolite monitoring to proactively dose optimize to achieve therapeutic levels has not been used consistently, and it is unclear if this would lead to better outcomes. We aimed to compare 6-month outcomes between standard and optimized dosing strategies and define long-term predictors of thiopurine durability. Methods: Two hundred sixteen pediatric IBD patients with at least 2 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) levels were grouped for analysis by start dose: >2...
June 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920452/the-second-annual-think-tank-on-prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young-developing-a-rational-reliable-and-sustainable-national-health-care-resource-a-report-from-the-cardiac-safety-research-consortium
#12
REVIEW
Peter F Aziz, Stuart Berger, Peter Kowey, Mitchell Krucoff, Martha Lopez-Anderson, Eric Michelson, Silvana Molossi, Valarie Morrow, Ignacio Rodriguez, Tess Elizabeth Saarel, Colette Strnadova, Victoria Vetter, Theressa J Wright, Salim F Idriss
Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) spans gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The loss of any pediatric patient is a matter of national and international public health concern, and focused efforts should be aimed at preventing these burdensome tragedies. Prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, this White Paper summarizes and reports the dialogue at the second Think Tank related to the issues and the proposed solutions for the development of a national resource for screening and prevention of SCDY...
May 23, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915537/preclinical-animal-models-for-dravet-syndrome-seizure-phenotypes-comorbidities-and-drug-screening
#13
REVIEW
Aliesha Griffin, Kyla R Hamling, SoonGweon Hong, Mana Anvar, Luke P Lee, Scott C Baraban
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease affecting almost 3 million people in the United States and 50 million people worldwide. Despite availability of more than two dozen FDA-approved anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), one-third of patients fail to receive adequate seizure control. Specifically, pediatric genetic epilepsies are often the most severe, debilitating and pharmaco-resistant forms of epilepsy. Epileptic syndromes share a common symptom of unprovoked seizures. While some epilepsies/forms of epilepsy are the result of acquired insults such as head trauma, febrile seizure, or viral infection, others have a genetic basis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914960/evaluation-of-the-adequacy-of-who-revised-dosages-of-the-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-children-with-tuberculosis-using-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-simulations
#14
Yasuhiro Horita, Abdullah Alsultan, Awewura Kwara, Sampson Antwi, Antony Enimil, Antoinette Orstin, Albert Dompreh, Hongmei Yang, Lubbe Wiesner, Charles A Peloquin
Optimal doses for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in children have yet to be established. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended revised dosages of the first-line anti-TB drugs for children. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies that investigated the adequacy of the WHO revised dosages to date have yielded conflicting results. We performed population PK modeling using data from one of these studies to identify optimal dosages ranges. Ghanaian children with tuberculosis on recommended therapy with rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914958/pharmacokinetics-of-a-pediatric-tribendimidine-dose-finding-study-to-treat-hookworm-infection-in-african-children
#15
Noemi Hiroshige, Jean Coulibaly, Jörg Huwyler, Peter L Bonate, Jennifer Keiser
Tribendimidine is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic available in China, which is currently being pursued for US Food and Drug Administration approval for soil-transmitted helminth infections. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies with tribendimidine in children, the main target group for treatment programs, have not been conducted to date. In the framework of a dose-ranging study in hookworm infected school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire, children were either treated with 100 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg tribendimidine. Dried blood spot samples were collected up to 22 hours after treatment...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914286/pharmacogenetic-of-voriconazole-antifungal-agent-in-pediatric-patients
#16
Sarah Allegra, Giovanna Fatiguso, Silvia De Francia, Elisa Pirro, Chiara Carcieri, Jessica Cusato, Amedeo De Nicolò, Valeria Avataneo, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
AIM: We explored the role of SNPs within the SLCO1B3, SLCO1B1, SLC22A6, ABCB1, ABCG2, SLCO3A1, CYP2C19, ABCC2, SLC22A1, ABCB11 and NR1I2 genes on voriconazole pharmacokinetics. PATIENTS & METHODS: 233 pediatric patients were enrolled. Drug plasma Ctrough was measured by a HPLC-MS method. Allelic discrimination was performed by qualitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: SLCO1B3 rs4149117 c.334 GT/TT (p = 0.046), ABCG2 rs13120400 c.1194 + 928 CC (p = 0...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914177/effect-of-nicotine-on-cyp2b1-expression-in-a-glioma-animal-model-and-analysis-of-cyp2b6-expression-in-pediatric-gliomas
#17
Sonia Nava-Salazar, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Alfonso Marhx-Bracho, Bryan V Phillips-Farfán, Carlos Diaz-Avalos, America Vanoye-Carlo
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a pro-drug commonly used in the chemotherapeutic schemes for glioma treatment but has high toxicity and the side effects include brain damage and even death. Since CPA is activated mainly by CY2B6, over-expression of the enzyme in the tumor cells has been proposed to enhance CPA activation. In this study, we explored the induction of the Cyp2b1 (homologous to CYP2B6 ) by nicotine in an animal rat model with glioma. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912581/posaconazole-in-immunocompromised-pediatric-patients
#18
Edoardo Bruno Vicenzi, Simone Cesaro
INTRODUCTION: Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole widely used to prevent and treat invasive mycoses in adults. Since it received marketing authorization more than a decade ago, many authors have reported on its off-label use in pediatric patients, despite the fact that the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy in children have not been extensively investigated. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed pediatric studies published between 2010 and 2017 describing the prophylactic and therapeutic use of posaconazole, with special attention to the correlation between oral dose, plasma levels, safety, and effectiveness...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912272/evaluating-statistical-approaches-to-leverage-large-clinical-datasets-for-uncovering-therapeutic-and-adverse-medication-effects
#19
Leena Choi, Robert J Carroll, Cole Beck, Jonathan D Mosley, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, Sara L Van Driest
Motivation: Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been used to discover many genotype-phenotype relationships and have the potential to identify therapeutic and adverse drug outcomes using longitudinal data within electronic health records (EHRs). However, the statistical methods for PheWAS applied to longitudinal EHR medication data have not been established. Results: In this study, we developed methods to address two challenges faced with reuse of EHR for this purpose: confounding by indication, and low exposure and event rates...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912084/ibuprofen-for-pain-control-in-children-new-value-for-an-old-molecule
#20
Dimitri Poddighe, Ilaria Brambilla, Amelia Licari, Gian Luigi Marseglia
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is one of the major complaints reported in pediatric emergency departments and general wards. Recently, both the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency emitted some warnings regarding the use of opioids, including codeine, in children. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were summarizing the main pharmacological aspects of ibuprofen, discussing the current evidence about the use of ibuprofen in different and specific clinical settings, and providing a comparison with acetaminophen and/or codeine, according to available studies...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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