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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931700/pediatric-tonsillectomy-and-ketorolac
#1
Lesley D Phillips-Reed, Paul N Austin, Ricardo E Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: The use of ketorolac in children undergoing tonsillectomy remains limited because of the concern about postoperative bleeding. METHODS: A search was performed addressing the question: For patients undergoing a surgical tonsillectomy, does a weight-appropriate single dose of intravenous ketorolac affect the incidence of postoperative hemorrhage? RESULTS: Five systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. A Cochrane Review included 15 studies with 1,101 pediatric subjects and focused on perioperative bleeding requiring intervention...
December 2016: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931463/guideline-for-monitoring-and-management-of-pediatric-patients-before-during-and-after-sedation-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-update-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase thepotential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions...
October 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931091/evaluation-of-altered-drug-pharmacokinetics-in-critically-ill-adults-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#3
Michael A Ha, Adam C Sieg
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years due to substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930982/targeted-osteosarcoma-chemotherapy-using-rgd-peptide-installed-doxorubicin-loaded-biodegradable-polymeric-micelle
#4
Zhenhua Fang, Yanpeng Sun, Hong Xiao, Peng Li, Ming Liu, Fan Ding, Wusheng Kan, Runsheng Miao
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in the pediatric age group, and chemotherapy directed by targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery system represents a promising approach for osteosarcoma treatment recently. Here, we designed and developed a novel DOX-loaded targeted polymeric micelle self-assembled from RGD-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly (trimethylene carbonate) (RGD-PEG-PTMC) amphiphilic biodegradable block copolymer, for high-efficiency targeted chemotherapy of osteosarcoma...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928969/new-candidate-genes-for-lack-of-sensitivity-to-therapy-in-pediatric-leukemias
#5
Weronika Bereza, Joanna Szczepanek, Joanna Laskowska, Andrzej Tretyn
In recent years, significant development of molecular genetics has contributed to the better understanding of leukemogenesis and classification of the different leukemia subtypes. Patients diagnosed with acute leukemia usually undergo chemotherapy, which involves the induction of remission, consolidation of remission and maintenance therapy. Patients are still vulnerable to relapse due to differences in the sensitivity of leukemia cells to the chemotherapeutic agent, because of the active drugs removal from the cells, improving the repair of DNA damage or abnormalities in the apoptotic pathway...
December 8, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928238/conscious-sedation-efficacy-of-0-3-and-0-5-mg-kg-oral-midazolam-for-three-to-six-year-old-uncooperative-children-undergoing-dental-treatment-a-clinical-trial
#6
Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari, Ghassem Ansari, Leila Hasanbeygi, Shahnaz Shayeghi
OBJECTIVES: Midazolam with variable dosages has been used to induce sedation in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of oral midazolam for conscious sedation of children undergoing dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized crossover double blind clinical trial, 20 healthy children (ASA I) aged three to six years with definitely negative Frankl behavioral rating scale were evaluated. Half of the children received 0...
March 2016: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926942/actin-related-protein-2-arp2-and-virus-induced-filopodia-facilitate-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-spread
#7
Masfique Mehedi, Thomas McCarty, Scott E Martin, Cyril Le Nouën, Eugen Buehler, Yu-Chi Chen, Margery Smelkinson, Sundar Ganesan, Elizabeth R Fischer, Linda G Brock, Bo Liang, Shirin Munir, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped RNA virus that is the most important viral cause of acute pediatric lower respiratory tract illness worldwide, and lacks a vaccine or effective antiviral drug. The involvement of host factors in the RSV replicative cycle remains poorly characterized. A genome-wide siRNA screen in human lung epithelial A549 cells identified actin-related protein 2 (ARP2) as a host factor involved in RSV infection. ARP2 knockdown did not reduce RSV entry, and did not markedly reduce gene expression during the first 24 hr of infection, but decreased viral gene expression thereafter, an effect that appeared to be due to inhibition of viral spread to neighboring cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925849/development-and-prospective-federal-state-wide-evaluation-of-a-device-for-height-based-dose-recommendations-in-prehospital-pediatric-emergencies-a-simple-tool-to-prevent-most-severe-drug-errors
#8
Jost Kaufmann, Bernhard Roth, Thomas Engelhardt, Alex Lechleuthner, Michael Laschat, Christoph Hadamitzky, Frank Wappler, Martin Hellmich
OBJECTIVE: Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. METHODS: Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER...
December 7, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923793/aerobic-exercise-in-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-a-systematic-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#9
Joseph J Chen, Pei T Wu, Holly R Middlekauff, Kim-Lien Nguyen
Cancer and cardiovascular disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Older cancer patients often wrestle with underlying heart disease during cancer therapy while childhood cancer survivors are living long enough to face long-term unintended cardiac consequences of cancer therapies, including anthracyclines. Although effective and widely used, particularly in the pediatric population, side effects including dose-dependent association with cardiac dysfunction limits its usage. Unfortunately, there is only one US FDA-approved drug (dexrazoxane) available for the prevention and mitigation of cardiotoxicity related to anthracycline therapy...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922762/nonchemotherapy-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-in-children-detected-by-a-prospective-pharmacovigilance-program
#10
Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías, Elena Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: A prospective evaluation of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) cases, which are infrequent in the pediatric population. We characterize agranulocytosis cases and assess lab test differences between drug- and nondrug-induced agranulocytosis. METHODS: Through our Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital we detected pediatric agranulocytosis cases from July 2007 to December 2010. This program estimates the incidence, drug causality, clinical features, outcomes of DIA pediatric cases, and assesses laboratory differences with respect to non-DIA...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922703/robotkirurgi-p%C3%A3-bred-front-%C3%A2-utan-evidensbaserad-grund-tekniken-anv%C3%A3-nds-allt-mer-trots-att-den-%C3%A3-r-dyr-och-att-vetenskapliga-bevis-f%C3%A3-r-patientnytta-saknas
#11
Henrik Sjövall, Josefine Persson
Robot-assisted surgery on a broad front - without evidence for being cost-effective Robot-assisted surgery is currently heavily marketed. The HTA centre in Region Västra Götaland has produced five HTA reports regarding use of robot-assisted surgery in different clinical situations (prostatic cancer, benign gynaecological surgery, pediatric pyeloplasty and fundoplication, and rectal cancer), finding weak evidence for a patient value. The current report by Per Carlsson et al confirms that robot-assisted surgery indeed leads to increased costs that are not balanced by augmented patient value, i...
November 29, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921260/development-of-oral-flexible-tablet-oft-formulation-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-patients-a-novel-age-appropriate-formulation-platform
#12
Prabagaran Chandrasekaran, Ruckmani Kandasamy
Development of palatable formulations for pediatric and geriatric patients involves various challenges. However, an innovative development with beneficial characteristics of marketed formulations in a single formulation platform was attempted. The goal of this research was to develop solid oral flexible tablets (OFTs) as a platform for pediatrics and geriatrics as oral delivery is the most convenient and widely used mode of drug administration. For this purpose, a flexible tablet formulation using cetirizine hydrochloride as model stability labile class 1 and 3 drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was developed...
December 5, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920397/optimizing-combination-therapy-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-using-a-phenotypic-personalized-medicine-digital-health-platform-retrospective-optimization-individualizes-patient-regimens-to-maximize-efficacy-and-safety
#13
Dong-Keun Lee, Vivian Y Chang, Theodore Kee, Chih-Ming Ho, Dean Ho
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that is characterized by the overproduction of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow. Treatment for pediatric ALL typically uses combination chemotherapy in phases, including a prolonged maintenance phase with oral methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine, which often requires dose adjustment to balance side effects and efficacy. However, a major challenge confronting combination therapy for virtually every disease indication is the inability to pinpoint drug doses that are optimized for each patient, and the ability to adaptively and continuously optimize these doses to address comorbidities and other patient-specific physiological changes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920229/octreotide-use-in-post-cardiac-surgery-chylothorax-a-12-year-perspective
#14
Abdulrazaq Sheikh Aljazairi, Tauhid Ahmed Bhuiyan, Abdullah Hasan Alwadai, Rayd Abdulaziz Almehizia
BACKGROUND: Chylothorax following cardiothoracic surgery is a rare condition in pediatric patients with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological management with octreotide suggests possible efficacy; however, current evidence is inadequate. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide as a therapeutic option in this clinical setting. METHODS: This was a 12-year single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients (birth to 18-years old) who received octreotide for management of post-cardiac surgery chylothorax between January 2003 to August 2015...
December 5, 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919878/pharmacy-residency-training-measured-through-a-standardized-knowledge-test
#15
Amy N Thompson, Brian P McKinzie, Jason S Haney, Jean M Nappi, Nicole Pilch
PURPOSE: The use of a standardized knowledge test to assess postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency training was evaluated. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively administered exam. A bank of questions was developed by preceptors from each of the core rotation disciplines: general medicine (including ambulatory care and oncology), pediatrics, critical care (including transplantation), drug information, operations, practice management, and psychiatry...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919346/disease-control-via-intensified-lipoprotein-apheresis-in-three-siblings-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#16
Christina Taylan, Andrea Schlune, Thomas Meissner, Karolis Ažukaitis, Floris E A Udink Ten Cate, Lutz T Weber
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the prevalent monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, carries the risk of premature coronary heart disease. Lipoprotein-apheresis is established in children with severe dyslipidemia. We present 3 siblings with a negative/negative residual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mutation (p.Trp577Arg), unresponsive to drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: Intensified lipoprotein-apheresis is well tolerated and results in permanently low lipid values without harming the health-related quality of life in children...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919116/stylohyoid-complex-eagle-syndrome-starting-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#17
Maite Gárriz-Luis, Pablo Irimia, Juan M Alcalde, Pablo Domínguez, Juan Narbona
Background There are only four previous pediatric reports of the glossopharyngeal neuralgic form of the stylohyoid complex syndrome. Stylohyoid complex has merely been described as cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia in children. Case Report A 12-year-old boy came to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of severe cranial pain (9/10) lasting for 5 to 15 minutes. Pain affected the right tonsillar fossa, ear, and mastoid region. Since the start at the age of 9 years, the frequency of painful episodes has progressively increased: when admitted to our clinics 3 years later, the child was having up to five episodes daily in spite of analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant drugs; he had abandoned school and leisure...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916450/dramatic-response-after-functional-hemispherectomy-in-a-patient-with-epileptic-encephalopathy-carrying-a-de-novo-col4a1-mutation
#18
Naomi Hino-Fukuyo, Atsuo Kikuchi, Masaki Iwasaki, Yuko Sato, Yuki Kubota, Tomoko Kobayashi, Tojo Nakayama, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Natsuko Arai-Ichinoi, Tetsuya Niihori, Ryo Sato, Tasuku Suzuki, Hiroki Kudo, Ryo Funayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Shigeo Kure
We describe the first case of a successful functional hemispherectomy in a patient with epileptic encephalopathy and a de novo collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) mutation. A 4-year-old girl was COL4A1 mutation-positive and suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy, hemiplegia, and developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging detected no porencephaly, and she had no cataract or renal abnormality. Following a presurgical evaluation for epilepsy, she underwent a functional hemispherectomy. She has been seizure free with no intracranial hemorrhage or other perioperative complications...
December 1, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915986/molecular-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metallo-beta-lactamase-a-first-report-of-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital
#19
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mansoure Hosseini, Amir Esmaeil Alyari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aerouginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causes clinical infections among ill patients. Metallo- Beta- lactamases (MBLs) are important mechanisms of carbapenem (drug of choice) resistance among Pseudomonas aerouginosa isolates. The aim of this study was to determine B- lactamases genes (bla-genes) in P. aerouginosa isolates and to detect percentage of MBLs among P. aerouginosa isolates in different wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of P...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914138/therapeutic-response-for-functional-abdominal-pain-in-children-with-occult-constipation-laxatives-versus-prokinetic-drugs
#20
Eun Kyo Ha, Homin Jang, Su Jin Jeong
The relationship between functional abdominal pain (FAP) and occult constipation (OC) in children who did not meet the Rome III criteria for constipation has rarely been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of OC in patients with FAP and to compare the effectiveness of prokinetic drugs and laxatives for FAP and OC. Pediatric outpatients (n = 212; aged 4-15 years) who satisfied the Rome III criteria for childhood FAP were divided into 2 groups based on Leech scores: group 1 < 8; group 2 ≥ 8...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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