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sleep light cognitive performance

Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila Fernandes Silva, Marcelo Borges Nogueira, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model for neurobehavioral studies with translational relevance to humans. Many aspects of sleep have been studied, but we still do not understand how and why sleep deprivation alters behavioral and physiological processes. A number of hypotheses suggest its role in memory consolidation. In this respect, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sleep deprivation on memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio), using an object discrimination paradigm. Four treatments were tested: control, partial sleep deprivation, total sleep deprivation by light pulses, and total sleep deprivation by extended light...
September 19, 2016: Animal Cognition
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mads F Hjorth, Louise B Sørensen, Rikke Andersen, Camilla B Dyssegaard, Christian Ritz, Inge Tetens, Kim F Michaelsen, Arne Astrup, Niels Egelund, Anders Sjödin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Kneginja Richter, Jens Acker, Sophia Adam, Guenter Niklewski
BACKGROUND: Excessive fatigue and insomnia are common among shift workers and can lead to negative effects such as reduced work performance, processing errors, accidents at work, absenteeism, reduced quality of life, and symptoms of depression. Moreover, work in rotating shifts can be a risk factor for different somatic and psychiatric diseases and may contribute to poor health, especially in elder adults and women. This review aims to show non-pharmacological preventive measures against fatigue and insomnia in shift workers...
2016: EPMA Journal
Reut Gruber, Merrill S Wise
Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and "off-line" processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson, Andrew D Krystal
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Nina Milosavljevic, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Christopher A Procyk, Robert J Lucas
Functional imaging and psychometric assessments indicate that bright light can enhance mood, attention, and cognitive performance in humans. Indirect evidence links these events to light detection by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) [1-9]. However, there is currently no direct demonstration that mRGCs can have such an immediate effect on mood or behavioral state in any species. We addressed this deficit by using chemogenetics to selectively activate mRGCs, simulating the excitatory effects of bright light on this cell type in dark-housed mice...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Agnès Daurat, Majdouline Sarhane, Michel Tiberge
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airflow cessation, resulting in brief arousals and intermittent hypoxemia. OSAS is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, and cognitive difficulties. The overall pattern of cognitive impairment in OSAS is complex, and research in this field is mixed. On balance, OSAS have negative effects on cognition, most likely in the domain of attention/vigilance, verbal and visual delayed long-term memory, and executive functions...
June 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Daniel F Kripke
This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia...
2016: F1000Research
K Chamari, W Briki, A Farooq, T Patrick, T Belfekih, C P Herrera
This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg(-1)·min(-1)) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR)...
March 2016: Biology of Sport
V Daneault, M Dumont, É Massé, G Vandewalle, J Carrier
Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Jacqueline M Lane, Irma Vlasac, Simon G Anderson, Simon D Kyle, William G Dixon, David A Bechtold, Shubhroz Gill, Max A Little, Annemarie Luik, Andrew Loudon, Richard Emsley, Frank A J L Scheer, Deborah A Lawlor, Susan Redline, David W Ray, Martin K Rutter, Richa Saxena
Our sleep timing preference, or chronotype, is a manifestation of our internal biological clock. Variation in chronotype has been linked to sleep disorders, cognitive and physical performance, and chronic disease. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported chronotype within the UK Biobank cohort (n=100,420). We identify 12 new genetic loci that implicate known components of the circadian clock machinery and point to previously unstudied genetic variants and candidate genes that might modulate core circadian rhythms or light-sensing pathways...
2016: Nature Communications
Glenn J Landry, Ryan S Falck, Michael W Beets, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Given the world's aging population, the staggering economic impact of dementia, the lack of effective treatments, and the fact a cure for dementia is likely many years away - there is an urgent need to develop interventions to prevent or at least delay dementia's progression. Thus, lifestyle approaches to promote healthy aging are an important line of scientific inquiry. Good sleep quality and physical activity (PA) are pillars of healthy aging, and as such, are an increasing focus for intervention studies aimed at promoting health and cognitive function in older adults...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Madhumita Premkumar, Tarulata Sable, Dinesh Dhanwal, Richa Dewan
Background. Altered circadian cortisol and melatonin rhythms in healthy subjects exposed to an extreme polar photoperiod results in changes in mood and sleep, which can influence cognitive performance. Materials and Methods. We assessed the circadian rhythm of 20 subjects who wintered over at Maitri (70°S, 11°E), India's permanent Antarctic station, from November 2010 to December 2011. Serum cortisol and melatonin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay at 8 am, 3 pm, 8 pm, and 2 am in a single day, once each during the polar summer and winter photoperiods...
2013: Neuroscience Journal
Mathieu Nédélec, Shona Halson, Abd-Elbasset Abaidia, Said Ahmaidi, Gregory Dupont
In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep, potentially leading to sleep deprivation. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current available literature regarding the potential acute and chronic stressors (i.e., psychological, sociological and physiological stressors) placed on elite soccer players that may result in compromised sleep quantity and/or quality. Sleep is an essential part of the recovery process as it provides a number of important psychological and physiological functions...
October 2015: Sports Medicine
Ashna Ramkisoensing, Johanna H Meijer
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions as a circadian clock that drives 24-h rhythms in both physiology and behavior. The SCN is a multicellular oscillator in which individual neurons function as cell-autonomous oscillators. The production of a coherent output rhythm is dependent upon mutual synchronization among single cells and requires both synaptic communication and gap junctions. Changes in phase-synchronization between individual cells have consequences on the amplitude of the SCN's electrical activity rhythm, and these changes play a major role in the ability to adapt to seasonal changes...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Hichem Slama, Gaétane Deliens, Rémy Schmitz, Philippe Peigneux, Rachel Leproult
Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants...
2015: PloS One
Jin-Hu Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Shan-Guang Chen, Xiao-Ping Chen, Ke Lv, Zhi-Li Huang, Yi-Lan Wu
The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth's environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we summarize our understanding of both the influence of the space environment on the circadian timing system and sleep and the impact of these changes on astronaut physiology and performance...
2014: Military Medical Research
Cathy Alessi, Michael V Vitiello
INTRODUCTION: Up to 40% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of non-drug treatments for primary insomnia in older people (aged 60 years and older)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
2015: Clinical Evidence
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