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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671707/prediction-of-cognitive-performance-and-subjective-sleepiness-using-a-model-of-arousal-dynamics
#1
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605797/self-reported-sleep-duration-affects-tandem-gait-but-not-steady-state-gait-outcomes-among-healthy-collegiate-athletes
#2
David R Howell, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang, Thomas A Buckley, Rebekah Mannix, Alexandra Stillman, William P Meehan
BACKGROUND: Sleep deficits are associated with motor and cognitive function deficits, even in the absence of a recent concussion. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the amount of self-reported sleep prior to pre-season concussion testing affect single-task and dual-task instrumented steady-state gait and timed tandem gait test performance? METHODS: One hundred and fourteen healthy collegiate athletes (mean age 18.8 ± 0.7 years; 60% female) reported the amount of sleep they received during the prior night and completed a timed tandem gait test and an instrumented assessment of steady-state gait in both single-task and dual-task conditions...
March 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580072/bright-light-exposure-before-bedtime-impairs-response-inhibition-the-following-morning-a-non-randomized-crossover-study
#3
Jung-Ick Byun, Byeong Uk Lee, Yong Seo Koo, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Jangsup Moon, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Jong-Min Lim, Heon-Jeong Lee, Eunil Lee, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
INTRODUCTION: Bright light exposure in the late evening can affect cognitive function the following morning either by changing the biological clock and/or disturbing sleep, but the evidence for this effect is scarce, and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we first aimed to evaluate the effect of bright light exposure before bedtime on frontal lobe activity the following morning using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a Go/NoGo task. Second, we aimed to evaluate the effects of bright light exposure before bedtime on polysomnographic measures and on a frontal lobe function test the following morning...
March 26, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555485/cognitive-performance-in-adolescents-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-treatment-effects-and-a-comparison-with-good-sleepers
#4
C Richardson, G Micic, N Cain, K Bartel, B Maddock, M Gradisar
The present study aimed to investigate whether Australian adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder have impaired cognitive performance and whether chronobiological treatment for Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder improves adolescents' sleep, daytime functioning and cognitive performance. Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (mean = 15.68 ± 2.1 y, 62% f) reported significantly later sleep timing (d = 1.03-1.45), less total sleep time (d = 0.82) and greater daytime sleepiness (d = 2...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528974/changes-in-morning-salivary-melatonin-correlate-with-prefrontal-responses-during-working-memory-performance
#5
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479335/light-and-cognition-roles-for-circadian-rhythms-sleep-and-arousal
#6
REVIEW
Angus S Fisk, Shu K E Tam, Laurence A Brown, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Light exerts a wide range of effects on mammalian physiology and behavior. As well as synchronizing circadian rhythms to the external environment, light has been shown to modulate autonomic and neuroendocrine responses as well as regulating sleep and influencing cognitive processes such as attention, arousal, and performance. The last two decades have seen major advances in our understanding of the retinal photoreceptors that mediate these non-image forming responses to light, as well as the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms by which circadian rhythms are generated and entrained to the external light/dark (LD) cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453638/effects-of-cpap-therapy-on-cognitive-and-psychomotor-performances-in-patients-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-prospective-1-year-study
#7
Renata Pecotic, Ivana Pavlinac Dodig, Maja Valic, Tea Galic, Linda Lusic Kalcina, Natalija Ivkovic, Zoran Dogas
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We prospectively investigated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on long-term cognitive and psychomotor performances, and excessive daytime sleepiness in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. METHODS: A total of 40 patients were recruited and 23 patients with severe OSA fully completed the study protocol to investigate the effects of CPAP therapy on psychomotor performance at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 year following initiation of the therapy...
February 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#8
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135639/sleep-and-athletic-performance
#9
REVIEW
Andrew M Watson
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#10
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073187/sleep-and-cognitive-performance-of-african-americans-and-european-americans-before-and-during-circadian-misalignment-produced-by-an-abrupt-9-h-delay-in-the-sleep-wake-schedule
#11
Gemma M Paech, Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
We conducted two studies of circadian misalignment in non-Hispanic African and European-Americans. In the first, the sleep/wake (light/dark) schedule was advanced 9 h, similar to flying east, and in the second these schedules were delayed 9 h, similar to flying west or sleeping during the day after night work. We confirmed that the free-running circadian period is shorter in African-Americans compared to European-Americans, and found differences in the magnitude and direction of circadian rhythm phase shifts which were related to the circadian period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029302/acute-kynurenine-challenge-disrupts-sleep-wake-architecture-and-impairs-contextual-memory-in-adult-rats
#12
Ana Pocivavsek, Annalisa M Baratta, Jessica A Mong, Shaun S Viechweg
Study Objectives: Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900721/effects-of-per3-clock-gene-polymorphisms-on-aging-related-changes-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
Delphine Dewandre, Mercedes Atienza, Mayely P Sanchez-Espinosa, Jose L Cantero
Considerable evidence suggests that circadian rhythmicity is progressively disrupted in senescence. Among clock genes, Period3 (PER3) has been associated with circadian phenotypes, homeostatic regulation of sleep, and cognitive performance in young adults. However, the effects of PER3 genotype on aging-related changes in both cognitive function and cortical integrity remain largely unknown. To shed light into this issue, we have investigated differences in cognitive performance, patterns of cortical thickness, and cortical glucose consumption in normal elderly subjects homozygous carriers of the short (PER3(4/4), n = 32) and long repeat alleles (PER3(5/5), n = 32)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668621/circadian-disruption-affects-initial-learning-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-an-automated-set-shifting-task-in-adult-long-evans-rats
#14
Audrey L Robertson, Rekha C Balachandran, Megan M Mahoney, Paul A Eubig
A sizeable percent of adults are subject to circadian disturbances such as shift work, which involves misalignment of time of light exposure, activity periods, sleep, and eating. Chronic adherence to disruptive circadian schedules can negatively impact cognitive functioning. Developing preclinical models of circadian disruption allow investigation of the relationship and underlying mechanisms between circadian disruption and cognitive functioning. We placed adult Long-Evans rats of both sexes on a 12:12h light:dark schedule in which rats performed an automated operant-behavior task for 3months, with daily testing occurring either 4h after lights-on or lights-off...
June 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652199/good-night-sleep-tight-the-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-spatial-associative-learning-in-zebrafish
#15
Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Steven Tran, Priscila Fernandes Silva, Ana Carolina Luchiari
Learning and memory are vital to an animal's survival, and numerous factors can disrupt cognitive performance. Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved physiological process known to be important for the consolidation of learning and memory. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism sharing organizational and functional characteristics with other vertebrates, providing great translational relevance. In our study, we used a simple spatial associative learning task to quantify the effects of sleep deprivation (partial vs...
August 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637029/blue-enriched-morning-light-as-a-countermeasure-to-light-at-the-wrong-time-effects-on-cognition-sleepiness-sleep-and-circadian-phase
#16
Mirjam Münch, Claudia Nowozin, Johannes Regente, Frederik Bes, Jan De Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Amely Wahnschaffe, Dieter Kunz
Light during the day and darkness at night are crucial factors for proper entrainment of the human circadian system to the solar 24-h day. However, modern life and work styles have led to much more time spent indoors, often with lower daytime and higher evening/nighttime light intensity from electrical lighting than outdoors. Whether this has long-term consequences for human health is being currently investigated. We tested if bright blue-enriched morning light over several days could counteract the detrimental effects of inadequate daytime and evening lighting...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536499/decreasing-sedentary-behavior-effects-on-academic-performance-meta-cognition-and-sleep
#17
June J Pilcher, Drew M Morris, Stewart A Bryant, Paul A Merritt, Hayley B Feigl
There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study (N = 117) compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h a week. During the 10 weeks, the students studied for tests or worked on other required academic activities while working at their assigned desk...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449894/young-children-with-down-syndrome-show-normal-development-of-circadian-rhythms-but-poor-sleep-efficiency-a-cross-sectional-study-across-the-first-60-months-of-life
#18
Fabian Fernandez, Casandra C Nyhuis, Payal Anand, Bianca I Demara, Norman F Ruby, Goffredina Spanò, Caron Clark, Jamie O Edgin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep consolidation and circadian activity rhythms in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) under light and socially entrained conditions within a familiar setting. Given previous human and animal data suggesting intact circadian regulation of melatonin across the day and night, it was hypothesized that behavioral indices of circadian rhythmicity would likewise be intact in the sample with DS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 66 infants and young children with DS, aged 5-67 months, and 43 typically developing age-matched controls...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444394/tissue-specific-dissociation-of-diurnal-transcriptome-rhythms-during-sleep-restriction-in-mice
#19
Jana Husse, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Johanna L Barclay, Nadine Naujokat, Judit Meyer-Kovac, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster
Study objectives: Shortened or mistimed sleep affects metabolic homeostasis, which may in part be mediated by dysregulation of endogenous circadian clocks. In this study, we assessed the contribution of sleep disruption to metabolic dysregulation by analysing diurnal transcriptome regulation in metabolic tissues of mice subjected to a sleep restriction (SR) paradigm. Methods: Male mice were subjected to 2 × 5 days of SR with enforced waking during the first 6 hours of the light phase...
June 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430522/impact-of-naturalistic-lighting-on-hospitalized-stroke-patients-in-a-rehabilitation-unit-design-and-measurement
#20
Anders West, Poul Jennum, Sofie Amalie Simonsen, Birgit Sander, Milena Pavlova, Helle K Iversen
INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE: Stroke is a major cause of acquired cerebral disability among adults, frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, disrupted sleep and fatigue. New ways of intervention to prevent these complications are therefore needed. The major circadian regulator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is mainly controlled by natural daylight, and the blue spectrum is considered the most powerful. During stroke rehabilitation, patients typically are mostly indoors and therefore not exposed to the natural daytime variation in light intensity...
April 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
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