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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149767/the-effects-of-sleep-on-the-neural-correlates-of-pattern-separation
#1
Christopher R Doxey, Cooper Hodges, Ty Bodily, Nathan M Muncy, C Brock Kirwan
Effective memory representations must be specific to prevent interference between episodes that may overlap in terms of place, time, or items present. Pattern separation, a computational process performed by the hippocampus, overcomes this interference by establishing non-overlapping memory representations. Although it is widely accepted that declarative memories are consolidated during sleep, the effects of sleep on pattern separation have yet to be elucidated. We used whole-brain, high-resolution functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of sleep on a task that places high demands on pattern separation...
November 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148201/current-perspectives-on-the-role-of-tonsillectomy
#2
REVIEW
Samuel R Greig
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common paediatric surgical procedures performed in Australasia. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the indications for the procedure (and the evidence base for each of these indications), as well as describe the surgical technique and perioperative management and risks for a non-surgical audience. The primary indications for tonsillectomy are obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (where it is most commonly performed in association with adenoidectomy) and recurrent pharyngotonsillitis...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147148/the-effects-of-depression-anxiety-and-sleep-disturbances-on-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Yesim Güzey Aras, Abdülkadir Tunç, Belma Doğan Güngen, Adil Can Güngen, Yusuf Aydemir, Bekir Enes Demiyürek
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances on cognitive functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. In this prospective case-control study, demographic data, smoking history, depression, anxiety, sleep quality and cognitive status of 48 COPD patients and 36 healthy volunteers aged 40-90 years were recorded. The Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess depression, anxiety and sleep quality, respectively in COPD patients...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144168/the-effects-of-extended-nap-periods-on-cognitive-physiological-and-subjective-responses-under-simulated-night-shift-conditions
#4
Jonathan Davy, Matthias Göbel
Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141671/inhibiting-the-microglia-activation-improves-the-spatial-memory-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-rat-hippocampus-during-48%C3%A2-h-of-sleep-deprivation
#5
Meetu Wadhwa, Amit Prabhakar, Koushik Ray, Koustav Roy, Punita Kumari, Prabhash Kumar Jha, Krishna Kishore, Sanjeev Kumar, Usha Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation could be a significant contributing factor in the same. An increase in regional brain pro-inflammatory cytokines induces cognitive deficits, however, the magnitude of the effect under SD is not apparent. It is plausible that microglia activation could be involved in the SD-induced cognitive impairment by modulation of neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and brain-derived neuronal factor (BDNF) level...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140907/the-singapore-sling-f1-race-team-cognitive-function-and-mood-responses-during-the-singapore-grand-prix
#6
Barry V O'Neill, Kirsty M Davies, Tess E Morris
The current investigation measured cognitive performance, subjective ratings of mood and sleep in Formula 1® (F1) race team members during the 2013 Singapore Grand Prix. Two weeks prior to the Singapore Grand Prix participants (n = 16; mean age 33.5 years, range 22-48 years) underwent baseline cognitive assessments as well as a questionnaire on mood and sleep quality/duration. These assessments were repeated on the race weekend prior to practice (S1) and post qualifying (S2). A significant increase in simple reaction time (SRT), that is slowing of total response time was observed from baseline to S1 (33...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135639/sleep-and-athletic-performance
#7
Andrew M Watson
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129030/effects-of-cpap-and-mandibular-advancement-device-treatment-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Martha Schwartz, Luis Acosta, Yuan-Lung Hung, Mariela Padilla, Reyes Enciso
The purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) in improving the quality of life (sleepiness, cognitive, and functional outcomes) in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Authors identified randomized, placebo-controlled studies from MEDLINE through PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as risk of bias...
November 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128194/treatment-of-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep-clinical-and-eeg-characteristics-and-response-to-147-treatments-in-47-patients
#9
Bart van den Munckhof, Christian Alderweireld, Susanne Davelaar, Heleen C van Teeseling, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Kees P J Braun, Floor E Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome is characterized by near-continuous sleep-induced epileptiform activity and acquired cognitive deficits. Treatment is assumed mandatory to improve cognitive outcome. We aimed to compare EEG characteristics, subjective evaluation and objective neuropsychological assessment as measures to evaluate treatment efficacy, and to analyze possible predictors. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with ESES syndrome treated in our center...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126328/repeated-administration-effects-on-psychomotor-vigilance-test-pvt-performance
#10
Mathias Basner, Emanuel Hermosillo, Jad Nasrini, Sarah McGuire, Salil Saxena, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, David F Dinges
Study Objectives: The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is reported to be free of practice effects that can otherwise confound the effects of sleep loss and circadian misalignment on performance. This differentiates the PVT from more complex cognitive tests. To our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated practice effects on the PVT across multiple outcome domains, depending on administration interval, and in ecologically more valid settings. Methods: We administered a validated 3-minute PVT (PVT-B) 16 times in 45 subjects (23 male, mean±SD age 32...
November 8, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120885/habitual-snoring-at-age-3-years-links-with-parent-rated-remembering-in-daily-life-and-academic-achievement-at-age-7-years
#11
Rebekah Luo, Barbara C Galland, Amelia I Gill, Patrick Dawes, Elizabeth Schaughency
OBJECTIVE: Habitual snoring in school-aged children is well known to link with poorer cognitive functioning and academic performance, but few studies have explored later developmental outcomes related to snoring initiated in early childhood. The aims of this study were to examine whether habitual snoring at age 3 years predicted perceived memory and academic functioning at age 7 years. METHODS: Parents (n = 460) of children aged 7 years 2 ± 5 months completed a community follow-up survey about their perceptions of their child's sleep and health, memory in daily activities, and academic performance relevant to numeracy and literacy skills...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#12
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114564/the-effect-of-pretest-exercise-on-baseline-computerized-neurocognitive-test-scores
#13
Alec Pawlukiewicz, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary Solomon
Background: Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111021/differences-in-clinical-characteristics-when-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-precedes-or-comes-after-the-onset-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Takashi Nomura, Masafumi Kishi, Kenji Nakashima
OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is important not only as a preclinical symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), but also as an aggravating symptom of PD. However, it is not known whether the onset of RBD in relation to PD affects the clinical characteristics of PD. A cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics of PD between patients with RBD occurring before and after the onset of PD was conducted. METHODS: Interviews regarding RBD symptoms were conducted and polysomnography was performed on 136 patients with PD...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#15
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109237/sleep-deprivation-promotes-habitual-control-over-goal-directed-control-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#16
Jie Chen, Jie Liang, Xiao Lin, Yang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#17
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097703/healthy-adults-display-long-term-trait-like-neurobehavioral-resilience-and-vulnerability-to-sleep-loss
#18
Laura E Dennis, Rachael J Wohl, Lauren A Selame, Namni Goel
Sleep loss produces well-characterized cognitive deficits, although there are large individual differences, with marked vulnerability or resilience among individuals. Such differences are stable with repeated exposures to acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) within a short-time interval (weeks). Whether such stability occurs with chronic sleep restriction (SR) and whether it endures across months to years in TSD, indicating a true trait, remains unknown. In 23 healthy adults, neurobehavioral vulnerability to TSD exposures, separated by 27-2,091 days (mean: 444 days; median: 210 days), showed trait-like stability in performance and subjective measures (82-95% across measures)...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097698/circadian-preference-towards-morningness-is-associated-with-lower-slow-sleep-spindle-amplitude-and-intensity-in-adolescents
#19
Ilona Merikanto, Liisa Kuula, Tommi Makkonen, Róbert Bódizs, Risto Halonen, Kati Heinonen, Jari Lahti, Katri Räikkönen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Individual circadian preference types and sleep EEG patterns related to spindle characteristics, have both been associated with similar cognitive and mental health phenotypes. However, no previous study has examined whether sleep spindles would differ by circadian preference. Here, we explore if spindle amplitude, density, duration or intensity differ by circadian preference and whether these associations are moderated by spindle location, frequency, and time distribution across the night. The participants (N = 170, 59% girls; mean age = 16...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091821/are-gastrointestinal-and-sleep-problems-associated-with-behavioral-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Xiao-Lei Yang, Shuang Liang, Ming-Yang Zou, Cai-Hong Sun, Pan-Pan Han, Xi-Tao Jiang, Wei Xia, Li-Jie Wu
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from concurrent medical symptoms, including gastrointestinal (GI) and sleeping problems. However, there is limited information on the correlation between co-morbidities and autistic behavioral symptoms. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of GI and sleep problems in Chinese ASD children, examined the impacts of GI and sleep problems on autistic behavioral symptoms, and investigated the factors associated with GI and sleep problems. The survey included 169 ASD and 172 healthy children...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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