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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510477/performance-based-outcomes-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-in-professional-athletes-differ-between-sports
#1
Harry T Mai, Danielle S Chun, Andrew D Schneider, Brandon J Erickson, Ryan D Freshman, Benjamin Kester, Nikhil N Verma, Wellington K Hsu
BACKGROUND: Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. PURPOSE: To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508338/fluid-balance-in-team-sport-athletes-and-the-effect-of-hypohydration-on-cognitive-technical-and-physical-performance
#2
REVIEW
Ryan P Nuccio, Kelly A Barnes, James M Carter, Lindsay B Baker
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions...
May 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504915/prevalence-of-os-styloideum-in-national-hockey-league-players
#3
Harry G Greditzer, Ian D Hutchinson, Christian S Geannette, Robert N Hotchkiss, Bryan T Kelly, Hollis G Potter
BACKGROUND: Os styloideum describes an accessory carpal ossicle between the trapezoid, the capitate, and the second and third metacarpals. Injuries to this tissue have been described as part of the carpal boss syndrome. While the etiology of os styloideum remains uncertain, it may represent a physiologic response to altered loading forces in the wrist, similar to the development of cam-type deformity in the hips of ice hockey players or the Bennett lesion in the shoulders of baseball pitchers...
May 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500954/finger-forces-in-fastball-baseball-pitching
#4
Hiroshi Kinoshita, Satoshi Obata, Daiki Nasu, Koji Kadota, Tomoyuki Matsuo, Glenn S Fleisig
Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball...
May 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492862/establishing-baseline-normative-values-for-the-child-sport-concussion-assessment-tool
#5
M Alison Brooks, Traci R Snedden, Benjamin Mixis, Scott Hetzel, Timothy A McGuine
Importance: The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT3) is a postconcussion sideline assessment tool measuring symptoms, cognition, and balance in preadolescent children. Minimal normative baseline data exist to aid decision making in clinical and athletic settings. Objective: To collect normative baseline data for the Child SCAT3 in a large cohort of young athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 31 to August 12, 2014, at various sporting events (basketball, soccer, baseball, and swimming) in Central Wisconsin among children 5 to 13 years of age who were English-speaking and did not report a lower leg injury within the past 2 months or a concussion within the past month...
May 8, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486333/the-relationship-between-the-push-off-ground-reaction-force-and-ball-speed-in-high-school-baseball-pitchers
#6
Sakiko Oyama, Joseph B Myers
Baseball pitching is a sequential movement that requires transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the throwing arm. Therefore, the ground reaction force (GRF) during push off is suggested to play a roll in production of ball speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between GRF characteristics during push off and ball speed in high school baseball pitchers. A total of 52 pitchers performed fast pitches from an indoor pitching mound. A force plate embedded in an indoor mound was used to capture the push off GRF...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451602/exceeding-pitch-count-recommendations-in-little-league-baseball-increases-the-chance-of-requiring-tommy-john-surgery-as-a-professional-baseball-pitcher
#7
Brandon J Erickson, Peter N Chalmers, Michael J Axe, Anthony A Romeo
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence has suggested a connection between youth pitch counts and subsequent elbow injury. For players within the Little League World Series (LLWS), detailed historical player data are available. Some of these players progress to both professional play and require an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). PURPOSE: To determine the percentage of LLWS pitchers who proceed to play professional (major or minor league) baseball, the rate of UCLR in former LLWS pitchers who played professional baseball, and the risk to those who exceeded current pitch count recommendations while playing in the LLWS...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430758/the-refractive-error-of-professional-baseball-players
#8
Daniel M Laby, David G Kirschen
PURPOSE: High levels of visual acuity are required to hit a baseball effectively. Research has shown that any decrease in vision is likely caused by low-order optical aberrations. This study is designed to validate the SVOne autorefractor, and describe the amount and type, of low-order optical aberrations present in a large cohort of professional baseball players. METHODS: A retrospective chart review on the 608 Major League Baseball players evaluated during the 2016 Spring Training Season was performed...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398820/magnetic-resonance-imaging-predictors-of-failure-in-the-nonoperative-management-of-ulnar-collateral-ligament-injuries-in-professional-baseball-pitchers
#9
Salvatore J Frangiamore, T Sean Lynch, Michael D Vaughn, Lonnie Soloff, Michael Forney, Joseph F Styron, Mark S Schickendantz
BACKGROUND: A medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the elbow is an increasingly common injury in professional baseball pitchers. Predictors of success and failure are not well defined for the nonoperative management of these injuries. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of objective measures to predict failure of the nonoperative management of UCL injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Thirty-two professional pitchers (82%) met inclusion criteria and underwent an initial trial of nonoperative treatment for UCL tears based on clinical and radiological findings...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375396/muscle-spasms-twitches-in-arm-upon-throwing-%C3%A2-dx
#10
Kyle Bradford Jones, Juliann Allred, David Shprecher
Involuntary upper right arm muscle contractions and spasms, which began intermittently when the patient was a teenager, were now a real problem for him as an adult. The patient was having difficulty rolling a baseball underhand to players as part of infield practice and he was experiencing muscle spasms when lifting his right arm over his head. "Twitches" in the patient's upper arm were making drinking difficult, but he had no problems feeding himself, writing, or performing other basic activities of daily living...
April 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361662/throwing-skills
#11
Saeed Ghorbani, Andreas Bund
Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprise various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learners show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age = 23.7 years, SD = 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355083/systematic-review-of-outcomes-reporting-in-professional-baseball-a-call-for-increased-validation-and-consistency
#12
Jelle P van der List, Christopher L Camp, Alec L Sinatro, Joshua S Dines, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Historically, treatment efficacy of professional baseball injuries has been determined by assessing the return-to-play (RTP) rate or using patient-reported functional outcomes scores; however, these methods may not be sensitive and specific enough for elite athletes. As a consequence, performance-based statistics are increasingly being reported in the medical literature. PURPOSE: To (1) assess how treatment efficacy is currently reported in professional baseball players; (2) examine the variability in the reporting of these measures in terms of frequency, length of time followed, and units of measure; and (3) identify any attempts to validate these performance-based statistics...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345616/shoulder-stretching-intervention-reduces-the-incidence-of-shoulder-and-elbow-injuries-in-high-school-baseball-players-a-time-to-event-analysis
#13
Hitoshi Shitara, Atsushi Yamamoto, Daisuke Shimoyama, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Tsuyoshi Sasaki, Noritaka Hamano, Akira Ueno, Fumitaka Endo, Atsufumi Oshima, Hideo Sakane, Masahiro Tachibana, Yusuke Tomomatsu, Tsuyoshi Tajika, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Toshihisa Osawa, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
We prospectively evaluated the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. Ninety-two pitchers participated in this study and were taught to perform stretching and strength exercises aimed at improving shoulder external rotation strength in the preseason. The pitchers freely chose to participate in one of four groups [SM-group: performed both exercises, S-group: performed stretching exercise only, M-group: performed strength training only, and N-group: performed neither intervention]...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344452/the-effects-of-a-sports-nutrition-education-intervention-on-nutritional-status-sport-nutrition-knowledge-body-composition-and-performance-during-off-season-training-in-ncaa-division-i-baseball-players
#14
Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa
This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328567/effects-of-a-simulated-game-on-upper-extremity-pitching-mechanics-and-muscle-activations-among-various-pitch-types-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#15
Gretchen D Oliver, Hillary Plummer, Lisa Henning, Michael Saper, Gabrielle Glimer, Allison Brambeck, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Throwing requires proper stability and orientation of the pelvis and scapula for efficient energy transfer during pitching. Fatigue of the pelvis and scapular musculature throughout the course of a game can impair pitching performance, and place excessive demands on the throwing arm leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in pelvis, torso, and upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations between the fastball, change-up, and curveball pitches in youth baseball pitchers following a simulated game...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323792/the-effect-of-intermittent-vest-cooling-on-thermoregulation-and-cardiovascular-strain-in-baseball-catchers
#16
Stacy Bishop, David J Szymanski, Greg A Ryan, Robert L Herron, Phil A Bishop
Baseball catchers are exposed to multiple physiological challenges while playing outside during the spring and summer months, many of which deal with recovery and thermoregulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent cooling on core temperature, cardiovascular strain, exertion, and recovery during a simulated catching performance in the heat. Six trained college-aged baseball catchers performed in a controlled, hot (35 °C) and humid (25% relative humidity) environment in a counter-balanced, cross-over design...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321427/the-effect-of-the-number-of-carries-on-injury-risk-and-subsequent-season-s-performance-among-running-backs-in-the-national-football-league
#17
Matthew J Kraeutler, John W Belk, Eric C McCarty
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several studies have correlated pitch count with an increased risk for injury among baseball pitchers. However, no studies have attempted to draw a similar conclusion based on number of carries by running backs (RBs) in football. PURPOSE: To determine whether there is a correlation between number of carries by RBs in the National Football League (NFL) and risk of injury or worsened performance in the subsequent season. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303472/chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-the-forearm-of-a-collegiate-softball-pitcher
#18
REVIEW
Austin Cole, John L Hiatt, Christopher Arnold, Terry Sites, Ramon Ylanon
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a recognized condition in the lower limb, with many reports in the literature. However, very few instances include CECS of the upper limb. This article presents the case of a collegiate softball pitcher presenting with CECS in her right forearm. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a softball player with CECS, with only one similar incident in a major league baseball player. PURPOSE: The rarity of this condition normally places it low on the differential diagnosis...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282749/visual-abilities-distinguish-pitchers-from-hitters-in-professional-baseball
#19
David Klemish, Benjamin Ramger, Kelly Vittetoe, Jerome P Reiter, Surya T Tokdar, Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum
This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that differences in sensorimotor abilities exist between hitters and pitchers in a large cohort of baseball players of varying levels of experience. Secondary data analysis was performed on 9 sensorimotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery. Bayesian hierarchical regression modelling was applied to test for differences between pitchers and hitters in data from 566 baseball players (112 high school, 85 college, 369 professional) collected at 20 testing centres...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276988/are-professional-handball-players-at-risk-for-developing-a-glenohumeral-internal-rotation-deficit-in-their-dominant-arm
#20
Pedro Seabra, Carola F Van Eck, Márcia Sá, João Torres
OBJECTIVES: Overhead athletes, such as baseball players, have been shown to have adaptive changes in the shoulder range of motion (ROM) of their dominant arm. Professional handball players are a unique subtype of overhead athletes with very different demands from baseball players. The aim of this study was to determine if professional handball players demonstrate differences in shoulder ROM between their dominant and non-dominant arm and try to relate them with new variables. METHODS: Fifty professional male handball players were included and completed a questionnaire regarding age at which they started to play, number of hours they practice a week, field position and arm dominance...
May 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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