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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

Francisco Navarro, Eduardo Forján, María Vázquez, Zaida Montero, Elisabeth Bermejo, Miguel Ángel Castaño, Alberto Toimil, Enrique Chagüaceda, Miguel Ángel García-Sevillano, Marisa Sánchez, María José Domínguez, Rosario Pásaro, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, José María Vega
BACKGROUND: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Eric Piver, Audrey Boyer, Julien Gaillard, Anne Bull, Elodie Beaumont, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier
OBJECTIVE: HCV particles are associated with very low-density lipoprotein components in chronically infected patients. These hybrid particles, or 'lipo-viro particles' (LVPs), are rich in triglycerides, and contain the viral RNA, the capsid protein, E1E2 envelope glycoproteins and apolipoproteins B and E. However, their specific ultrastructural organisation has yet to be determined. We developed a strategy for the preparation of any viral sample that preserves the native structure of the LVPs, facilitating their precise morphological characterisation...
October 11, 2016: Gut
Xavier Deplanque, Delphine Muscente-Paque, Eric Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Kirsten A Berk, Ranitha Vongpromek, Meizi Jiang, Wolfgang J Schneider, Reinier Timman, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Hideaki Bujo, Eric J G Sijbrands, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in those with obesity. Plasma soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis and has been linked to the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, adiposity, and vascular complications in T2D. We aimed to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma sLR11 levels in overweight and obese individuals with T2D...
September 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Rahul Sarma, Sima Kumari, Ramakrishnan Elancheran, Meetali Deori, Rajlakshmi Devi
Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yuji Hirowatari, Daisuke Manita, Keiko Kamachi, Akira Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits are associated with obesity which is a risk factor to coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective is to estimate the change of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and other lipoprotein classes by calorie-restriction with obesity index and Framingham risk score (FRS). METHODS: Sixty women (56+9 years) were recruited. Their caloric-intakes were reduced during 6-month period, and the calorie from fat was not more than 30%. Lipoprotein profiles were estimated at baseline and after 6-month period of calorie-restriction...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jesús Millán, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Juan F Ascaso, Mariano Blasco, Angel Brea, Ángel Díaz, Pedro González-Santos, Teresa Mantilla, Juan Pedro-Botet, Xavier Pintó
Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia...
September 12, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
ApoC-III was discovered almost 50 years ago, but for many years, it did not attract much attention. However, as epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have associated apoC-III with low levels of triglycerides and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has emerged as a novel and potentially powerful therapeutic approach to managing dyslipidemia and CVD risk. The atherogenicity of apoC-III has been attributed to both direct lipoprotein lipase-mediated mechanisms and indirect mechanisms, such as promoting secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), provoking proinflammatory responses in vascular cells and impairing LPL-independent hepatic clearance of TRL remnants...
October 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Sabine Baumgartner, Ronald P Mensink, Jogchum Plat
BACKGROUND: Evidence is increasing that plant sterols and stanols not only lower fasting serum low-density lipoprotein concentrations, but also those of triglycerides (TG). Insight into effects of these components on postprandial TG metabolism, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is missing. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the 8-hour postprandial response after consuming plant sterol or stanol enriched margarine as part of a mixed meal. METHODS: This postprandial study was part of a randomized crossover study in which 42 subjects consumed plant sterol enriched (3 g/d plant sterols), plant stanol enriched (3 g/d plant stanols), and control margarines for 4 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Peter Bramlage, Stefanie Lanzinger, Wolfgang Rathmann, Anton Gillessen, Nikolaus Scheper, Sebastian M Schmid, Matthias Kaltheuner, Jochen Seufert, Thomas Danne, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Dyslipidaemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Characterised by high levels of triglyceride (TG)-rich and small dense low-density lipoprotein particles, as well as low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), diabetic dyslipidaemia differs from non-diabetic individuals. Data regarding lipid abnormalities in T2DM patients, and the effect of treatment, are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combined data from the German DIVE (DIabetes Versorgungs-Evaluation) and the DPV (Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation) database to produce a large cohort of patients with T2DM...
September 4, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sun Hee Hong, Mijeong Kim, Jeong Sook Noh, Yeong Ok Song
Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. Perilla oil (PO) is a vegetable oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 PUFA. In this study, antiatherogenic effects and related mechanisms of PO were investigated in atherosclerotic mice. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice (male, n = 27) were fed high-cholesterol and high-fat diets containing 10 % w/w lard (LD), PO, or sunflower oil (SO) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations reduced in the PO and SO groups compared to the concentrations in the LD group (P < 0...
October 2016: Lipids
Anette Varbo, Anne Langsted, Børge G Nordestgaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Kevin C Maki, John R Guyton, Carl E Orringer, Ian Hamilton-Craig, Dominik D Alexander, Michael H Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
James P Corsetti, Ron T Gansevoort, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a component of all major lipoprotein classes with multiple functions including clearance of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles and hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein, thus affording several avenues for apoE involvement in atherosclerosis development. ApoE has 3 isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) based on a common genetic polymorphism. Numerous studies have been performed assessing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk relative to the 6 resulting genotypes; however, surprisingly, few studies have been performed assessing risk attributable to apoE plasma levels either alone or in addition also taking into account apoE genotypes...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Richa Chandra, Birgit Mellis, Kyana Garza, Samee A Hameed, James M Jurica, Ana V Hernandez, Mia N Nguyen, Chandra K Mittal
BACKGROUND: Remnant lipoproteins (RLP) are a metabolically derived subpopulation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in human blood that are involved in the metabolism of dietary fats or triglycerides. RLP, the smaller and denser variants of TRL particles, are strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and were listed as an emerging atherogenic risk factor by the AHA in 2001. METHODS: Varying analytical techniques used in clinical studies in the size determination of RLP contribute to conflicting hypotheses in regard to whether larger or smaller RLP particles contribute to CVD progression, though multiple pathways may exist...
November 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Nidhi Agrawal, Patricia Freitas Corradi, Namrata Gumaste, Ira J Goldberg
Cholesterol reduction has markedly reduced major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and shown regression of atherosclerosis in some studies. However, CVD has for decades also been associated with increased levels of circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Whether this is due to a direct toxic effect of these lipoproteins on arteries or whether this is merely an association is unresolved. More recent genetic analyses have linked genes that modulate TG metabolism with CVD. Moreover, analyses of subgroups of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) subjects in clinical trials using fibric acid drugs have been interpreted as evidence that TG reduction reduces CVD events...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatyana V Kirichenko, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Varvara A Orekhova, Alessio Ravani, Paolo Poggio, Igor A Sobenin, Yuri V Bobryshev, Alexander N Orekhov
The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rishi Puri, Steven E Nissen, Mingyuan Shao, Mohamed B Elshazly, Yu Kataoka, Samir R Kapadia, E Murat Tuzcu, Stephen J Nicholls
OBJECTIVES: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels reflect the full burden of cholesterol transported in atherogenic lipoproteins. Genetic studies suggest a causal association between elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. We evaluated associations between achieved non-HDLC and TG levels on changes in coronary atheroma volume. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 9 clinical trials involving 4957 patients with coronary disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and were evaluated against on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels...
August 11, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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