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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230201/relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-display-an-altered-lipoprotein-profile-with-dysfunctional-hdl
#1
Winde Jorissen, Elien Wouters, Jeroen F Bogie, Tim Vanmierlo, Jean-Paul Noben, Denis Sviridov, Niels Hellings, Veerle Somers, Roland Valcke, Bart Vanwijmeersch, Piet Stinissen, Monique T Mulder, Alan T Remaley, Jerome J A Hendriks
Lipoproteins modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In the chronic inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS), reports on lipoprotein level alterations are inconsistent and it is unclear whether lipoprotein function is affected. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we analysed the lipoprotein profile of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients, progressive MS patients and healthy controls (HC). We observed smaller LDL in RRMS patients compared to healthy controls and to progressive MS patients...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223467/hypertension-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-adulthood-prospective-and-sibling-studies-in-the-hunt-study-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study-in-norway
#2
Ingvild V Alsnes, Lars J Vatten, Abigail Fraser, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Janet Rich-Edwards, Pål R Romundstad, Bjørn O Åsvold
Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220878/homozygous-carriers-of-the-tcf7l2-rs7903146-t-allele-show-altered-postprandial-response-in-triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#3
L Engelbrechtsen, T H Hansen, Y Mahendran, P Pyl, E Andersson, A Jonsson, A Gjesing, A Linneberg, T Jørgensen, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele shows the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among common gene variants. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of metabolites following a meal test in individuals carrying the high risk rs790346 TT genotype (cases) and low-risk CC genotype (controls). Sixty-two men were recruited based on TCF7L2 genotype, 31 were TT carriers and 31 were age- and BMI-matched CC carriers. All participants consumed a test meal after 12 hours of fasting. Metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218439/the-effects-of-exogenous-fatty-acids-and-niacin-on-human-monocyte-macrophage-plasticity
#4
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Dolores Rodriguez, Magdalena P Cardelo, Maria C Naranjo, Beatriz Bermudez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana, Sergio Lopez
SCOPE: Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191490/dietary-triglycerides-as-signaling-molecules-that-influence-reward-and-motivation
#5
Chloé Berland, Céline Cansell, Thomas S Hnasko, Christophe Magnan, Serge Luquet
The reinforcing and motivational aspects of food are tied to the release of the dopamine in the mesolimbic system (ML). Free fatty acids from triglyceride (TG)-rich particles are released upon action of TG-lipases found at high levels in peripheral oxidative tissue (muscle, heart), but also in the ML. This suggests that local TG-hydrolysis in the ML might regulate food seeking and reward. Indeed, evidence now suggests that dietary TG directly target the ML to regulate amphetamine-induced locomotion and reward seeking behavior...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191321/postprandial-lipemia-and-the-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#6
Dmitry Kats, A Richey Sharrett, Henry N Ginsberg, Vijay Nambi, Christie M Ballantyne, Ron C Hoogeveen, Gerardo Heiss
OBJECTIVE: Excessive levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during postprandial lipemia (PPL) have been reported to be atherogenic. However, it is unclear whether the degree of PPL independently predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) given the scarcity of longitudinal data with standardised measures of postprandial change. We reexamined associations of PPL with incident CVD events in a population-based cohort using detailed measures of postprandial change from a standardised fat challenge...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185713/effects-of-pitavastatin-on-lipid-rich-carotid-plaques-studied-using-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Tao Feng, Xiaoxing Huang, Qundi Liang, Yun Liang, Yong Yuan, Li Feng, Wenjun Wu, Xuehong Xiao, Ying Han
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of pitavastatin in patients with atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty patients with atherosclerosis with lipid-rich carotid plaques were included and allocated into low-dose (2 mg/d) and high-dose (4 mg/d) pitavastatin groups with 48 weeks of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), and the inflammation-related factors interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine were determined...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183448/c-reactive-protein-levels-are-inversely-correlated-with-the-apolipoprotein-b-48-containing-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-production-rate-in-insulin-resistant-men
#8
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, André J Tremblay, Jean-Charles Hogue, Myriam Leclerc, Marie-Ève Labonté, Johanne Marin, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture
: The pro-inflammatory state and elevated plasma levels of post-prandial triglycerides (TG) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggested that the increase in the production rate of post-prandial lipoproteins observed in patients with insulin resistance (IR) may be caused, at least in part, by the dysregulation of intestinal insulin sensitivity triggered by inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IR, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the kinetics of TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 in a large sample of insulin sensitive (IS) and IR men...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183443/improvement-of-the-omega-3-index-of-healthy-subjects-does-not-alter-the-effects-of-dietary-saturated-fats-or-n-6pufa-on-ldl-profiles
#9
Cintia B Dias, Núria Amigó, Lisa G Wood, Roger Mallol, Xavier Correig, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary fat composition is known to modulate circulating lipid and lipoprotein levels. Although supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) has been shown to reduce plasma triglyceride levels, the effect of the interactions between LCn-3PUFA and the major dietary fats consumed has not been previously investigated. METHODS: In a randomized controlled parallel design clinical intervention, we examined the effect of diets rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA) or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) on plasma lipid levels and lipoprotein profiles (lipoprotein size, concentration and distribution in subclasses) in subjects with an adequate omega 3 index...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159869/aromatic-residues-in-the-c-terminus-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-mediate-lipid-binding-and-lpl-inhibition
#10
Nathan L Meyers, Mikael Larsson, Evelina Vorrsjö, Gunilla Olivecrona, Donald M Small
Plasma apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) levels correlate with triglyceride (TG) levels and are a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease outcomes. ApoC-III elevates TG in part by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). ApoC-III likely inhibits LPL by competing for lipid-binding. To probe this, we used oil-drop tensiometry to characterize binding of six apoC-III variants to lipid/water interfaces. This technique monitors the dependence of lipid-binding on surface pressure; which increases during TG hydrolysis by LPL...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126606/regulation-of-the-human-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-by-the-forkhead-box-transcription-factor-foxa2-hnf-3%C3%AE-in-hepatic-cells
#11
Maria Kanaki, Dimitris Kardassis
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) from circulating TG-rich lipoproteins. The role of LPL in the liver has been controversial but recent studies in mice with liver LPL overexpression or deficiency have revealed important new roles of the enzyme in glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify regulatory elements and factors that control the transcription of the human LPL gene in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis of the human LPL promoter revealed that the proximal region which harbors a binding site for the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA2/HNF-3β at position -47/-40 is important for its hepatic cell activity...
January 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121706/greater-remnant-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-with-pitavastatin-compared-to-pravastatin-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-intrepid-trial
#12
Parag H Joshi, P Elliott Miller, Seth S Martin, Steven R Jones, Joseph M Massaro, Ralph B D'Agostino, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, Craig Sponseller, Peter P Toth
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with HIV. An emerging CVD risk factor is triglyceride-rich remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: the sum of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol). The effects of statin therapy on lipoprotein subfractions, including RLP-C, in HIV-dyslipidemia are unknown. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the randomized INTREPID trial (NCT 01301066) comparing pitavastatin 4 mg daily vs...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104473/hyperlipidaemia-alone-and-in-combination-with-acidosis-can-increase-the-incidence-and-severity-of-statin-induced-myotoxicity
#13
Dhiaa A Taha, Atheer Zgair, Jong Bong Lee, Cornelia H de Moor, David A Barrett, Kimberley D Bruce, Mitchell Sungelo, Robert H Eckel, Pavel Gershkovich
The association of lipophilic statins with plasma lipoproteins in the presence of disturbed acid-base balance can modify the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of these drugs, resulting in alteration in their efficacy and toxicity profiles. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the role of hyperlipidaemia alone or in combination with acidosis/alkalosis in the development and potentiation of statin-induced myotoxicity. Statins association with plasma lipoproteins was examined under conditions of physiological and altered pH levels...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101628/rho-kinase-inhibitor-fasudil-mitigates-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-vascular-damage
#14
Nibrass Taher Abdali, Awny H Yaseen, Eman Said, Tarek M Ibrahim
The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2...
January 18, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095913/effects-of-a-purified-krill-oil-phospholipid-rich-in-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-non-human-primates-with-naturally-occurring-diabetes-type-2-and-dyslipidemia
#15
Petter-Arnt Hals, Xiaoli Wang, Yong-Fu Xiao
BACKGROUND: High serum levels of cholesterol, in particular low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are considered a significant risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, rigorous treatment regimens with statins and other pharmaceuticals have been used extensively to reduce elevated cholesterol levels. Literature data have not clearly concluded whether long-chain omega-3 fatty acids reduce, increase or leave circulating cholesterol unaffected. In the present study a novel krill-oil derived preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, was administered orally at increasing doses for 12 weeks to dyslipidemic non-human primates, and cholesterols and several other risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured before, during and after treatment...
January 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#16
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#17
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059951/human-genetic-insights-into-lipoproteins-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#18
Nathan O Stitziel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human genetic studies have been successfully used to identify genes and pathways relevant to human biology. Using genetic instruments composed of loci associated with human lipid traits, recent studies have begun to clarify the causal role of major lipid fractions in risk of cardiometabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The causal relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary disease has been firmly established. Of the remaining two major fractions, recent studies have found that HDL cholesterol is not likely to be a causal particle in atherogenesis, and have instead shifted the causal focus to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027591/tm6sf2-rs58542926-impacts-lipid-processing-in-liver-and-small-intestine
#19
Elizabeth A O'Hare, Rongze Yang, Laura Yerges-Armstrong, Urmilla Sreenivasan, Rebecca McFarland, Carmen C Leitch, Meredith H Wilson, Shilpa Narina, Alexis Gorden, Kathy Ryan, Alan R Shuldiner, Steve A Farber, G Craig Wood, Christopher D Still, Glenn S Gerhard, Janet D Robishaw, Carole Sztalryd, Norann A Zaghloul
: The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) loss-of-function variant, rs58542926, is a genetic risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to fibrosis, but is paradoxically associated with lower levels of hepatic-derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). TM6SF2 is expressed predominately in liver and small intestine, sites for triglyceride rich lipoprotein biogenesis and export. In light of this, we hypothesized that TM6SF2 may exhibit analogous effects on both liver and intestine lipid homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025448/cholesterol-levels-of-six-fractionated-serum-lipoproteins-and-its-relevance-to-coronary-heart-disease-risk-scores
#20
Daisuke Manita, Hiroshi Yoshida, Yuji Hirowatari
AIM: Evaluation of serum lipoprotein profiles including triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein, that is, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and chylomicron (CM) remnant is important to manage coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate CHD or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores with cholesterol levels of six fractionated lipoprotein classes {high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], IDL, VLDL, CM including CM remnant, and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]} in Japanese healthy men...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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