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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898581/kinetics-of-plasma-triglycerides-in-abdominal-obesity
#1
Elias Björnson, Martin Adiels, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity is associated with a number of important metabolic abnormalities including liver steatosis, insulin resistance and an atherogenic lipoprotein profile (termed dyslipidemia). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of this dyslipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results from kinetic studies using stable isotopes indicate that the hypertriglyceridemia associated with abdominal obesity stems from dual mechanisms: (1) enhanced secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and (2) impaired clearance of these lipoproteins...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897978/effects-of-hazelnut-consumption-on-blood-lipids-and-body-weight-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gianluca Bonitta, Chiara Bologna, Antonio Isu, Davide Guido, Mariangela Rondanelli
Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834112/restorative-role-of-persimmon-leaf-diospyros-kaki-to-gamma-irradiation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-tissue-injury-in-rats
#4
Omaima M Ashry, Elham M Hussein, Afrag Sh Abd El-Azime
PURPOSE: This study tends to evaluate the efficacy of persimmon leaf extract) PL (as a rich plant source in modulation of radiation induced liver injury and some metabolic variations in gamma irradiated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PL at the dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight (P1000) was administered to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body γ- irradiation (6Gy). RESULTS: Irradiated rats showed significant decreases in hepatic glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities with significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity designating oxidative stress...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832992/studies-on-the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-and-its-mechanism-of-the-iridoids-rich-fraction-in-valeriana-jatamansi-jones
#5
Jiali Zhu, Keke Xu, Xuemei Zhang, Jiahong Cao, Zhanrong Jia, Ruocong Yang, Chaoying Ma, Chang Chen, Tiane Zhang, Zhiyong Yan
Valeriana jatamansi Jones, a plant with heart-shaped leaves in the Valeriana genus of Valerianaceae, is widely used in Chinese folk medicine. Iridoid is an important constituent of V. jatamansi that contributes to the pharmacological efficacy of the herb. This study aims to investigate the regulation of lipid metabolism and its mechanism of the iridoids rich fraction in V. jatamansi (IRFV). A high fat diet was used to establish the hyperlipidemia rat model, with 2mg/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 7...
November 7, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807734/lipid-lowering-with-soluble-dietary-fiber
#6
REVIEW
Prasanth Surampudi, Byambaa Enkhmaa, Erdembileg Anuurad, Lars Berglund
Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798489/the-future-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-therapy
#7
Michael H Davidson, Lane B Benes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the potential role by which a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) may beneficially modify cardiovascular risk by modifying the cholesterol composition of atherogenic lipoproteins. This hypothesis is being tested in the STRENGTH trial, which is enrolling 13 000 patients on statins at high cardiovascular risk with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) treated with an OM3-carboxylic acid. RECENT FINDINGS: Complex mixtures of OM3-FAs containing predominately eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid in combination with statins lowers non-HDL by reducing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) while shifting small LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to large LDL-C...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784698/remnant-cholesterol-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-atherosclerosis-progression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778191/impact-of-adding-eicosapentaenoic-acid-to-statin-therapy-on-plasma-pentraxin-3-level-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Shigemasa Tani, Ken Nagao, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the additional administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving statin has the potential to lower the serum pentraxin 3 (PTX3) level, an indicator of plaque stabilization. METHODS: We randomly assigned CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to an EPA group (1800 mg/day, n = 53) or control group (n = 53). RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the change in the plasma PTX3 level between the groups...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770802/the-emerging-role-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-beyond-effects-on-triglyceride-metabolism
#10
Mengdie Luo, Daoquan Peng
Apolipoprotein C-III has been referred to as an important participant in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, leading to hypertriglyceridemia and thereafter cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that apolipoprotein C-III is a multifaceted protein which not only regulates triglyceride metabolism, but also participates in the atherosclerotic lesion formation and several other pathological processes involved in atherosclerosis. Based on data from experiments and clinical trials, some novel therapies such as antisense technology emerge...
October 22, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768909/high-fructose-corn-syrup-55-consumption-alters-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-promotes-triglyceride-accumulation
#11
Kaitlin Mock, Sundus Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756449/microalgae-as-a-safe-food-source-for-animals-nutritional-characteristics-of-the-acidophilic-microalga-coccomyxa-onubensis
#12
Francisco Navarro, Eduardo Forján, María Vázquez, Zaida Montero, Elisabeth Bermejo, Miguel Ángel Castaño, Alberto Toimil, Enrique Chagüaceda, Miguel Ángel García-Sevillano, Marisa Sánchez, María José Domínguez, Rosario Pásaro, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, José María Vega
BACKGROUND: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729393/ultrastructural-organisation-of-hcv-from-the-bloodstream-of-infected-patients-revealed-by-electron-microscopy-after-specific-immunocapture
#13
Eric Piver, Audrey Boyer, Julien Gaillard, Anne Bull, Elodie Beaumont, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier
OBJECTIVE: HCV particles are associated with very low-density lipoprotein components in chronically infected patients. These hybrid particles, or 'lipo-viro particles' (LVPs), are rich in triglycerides, and contain the viral RNA, the capsid protein, E1E2 envelope glycoproteins and apolipoproteins B and E. However, their specific ultrastructural organisation has yet to be determined. We developed a strategy for the preparation of any viral sample that preserves the native structure of the LVPs, facilitating their precise morphological characterisation...
October 11, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707453/proprietary-tomato-extract-improves-metabolic-response-to-high-fat-meal-in-healthy-normal-weight-subjects
#14
Xavier Deplanque, Delphine Muscente-Paque, Eric Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697674/levels-of-the-soluble-ldl-receptor-relative-lr11-decrease-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-upon-diet-induced-weight-loss
#15
Kirsten A Berk, Ranitha Vongpromek, Meizi Jiang, Wolfgang J Schneider, Reinier Timman, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Hideaki Bujo, Eric J G Sijbrands, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in those with obesity. Plasma soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis and has been linked to the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, adiposity, and vascular complications in T2D. We aimed to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma sLR11 levels in overweight and obese individuals with T2D...
September 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642282/polyphenol-rich-extract-of-garcinia-pedunculata-fruit-attenuates-the-hyperlipidemia-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#16
Rahul Sarma, Sima Kumari, Ramakrishnan Elancheran, Meetali Deori, Rajlakshmi Devi
Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638928/annals-express-effect-of-dietary-modification-by-calorie-restriction-on-cholesterol-levels-in-lipoprotein-a-and-other-lipoprotein-classes
#17
Yuji Hirowatari, Daisuke Manita, Keiko Kamachi, Akira Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits are associated with obesity which is a risk factor to coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective is to estimate the change of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and other lipoprotein classes by calorie-restriction with obesity index and Framingham risk score (FRS). METHODS: Sixty women (56+9 years) were recruited. Their caloric-intakes were reduced during 6-month period, and the calorie from fat was not more than 30%. Lipoprotein profiles were estimated at baseline and after 6-month period of calorie-restriction...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633523/-the-real-measurement-of-non-hdl-cholesterol-atherogenic-cholesterol
#18
Jesús Millán, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Juan F Ascaso, Mariano Blasco, Angel Brea, Ángel Díaz, Pedro González-Santos, Teresa Mantilla, Juan Pedro-Botet, Xavier Pintó
Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia...
September 12, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632920/defatted-safflower-seed-extract-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-and-improves-lipid-profiles-in-c57bl-6j-ob-ob-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613744/why-is-apolipoprotein-ciii-emerging-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target-to-reduce-the-burden-of-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
ApoC-III was discovered almost 50 years ago, but for many years, it did not attract much attention. However, as epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have associated apoC-III with low levels of triglycerides and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has emerged as a novel and potentially powerful therapeutic approach to managing dyslipidemia and CVD risk. The atherogenicity of apoC-III has been attributed to both direct lipoprotein lipase-mediated mechanisms and indirect mechanisms, such as promoting secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), provoking proinflammatory responses in vascular cells and impairing LPL-independent hepatic clearance of TRL remnants...
October 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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