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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Muhei Tanaka, Akane Miki, Yukiko Kobayashi, Sayori Wada, Masashi Kuwahata, Yasuhiro Kido, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of low carbohydrate diet on human health is still controversial. Whole grain, which is carbohydrate rich in fiber, has protective effects on human health. Thus, we assumed that intake of carbohydrate to fiber ratio has an important role in human health. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study of 164 patients with type 2 diabetes. Habitual food and nutrient intake were assessed and estimated by a self-administered diet history questionnaire...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Cuiwen He, Thomas A Weston, Rachel S Jung, Patrick Heizer, Mikael Larsson, Xuchen Hu, Christopher M Allan, Peter Tontonoz, Karen Reue, Anne P Beigneux, Michael Ploug, Andrea Holme, Matthew Kilburn, Paul Guagliardo, David A Ford, Loren G Fong, Stephen G Young, Haibo Jiang
The processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in capillaries provides lipids for vital tissues, but our understanding of TRL metabolism is limited, in part because TRL processing and lipid movement have never been visualized. To investigate the movement of TRL-derived lipids in the heart, mice were given an injection of [2 H]triglyceride-enriched TRLs, and the movement of 2 H-labeled lipids across capillaries and into cardiomyocytes was examined by NanoSIMS. TRL processing and lipid movement in tissues were extremely rapid...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Somaye Fatahi, Elnaz Daneshzad, Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Nick Bellissimo, Neil R Brett, Leila Azadbakht
OBJECTIVE: Previous interventions have reported desirable effects of diets rich in whole grains or rich in fruits and vegetables on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and weight management. However, data are lacking regarding the effect of these fiber sources separately. The aim of this randomized clinical feeding trial was to investigate the effects of fiber-rich diets with different sources of fiber (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) on weight loss and CVD risk factors in overweight and obese women...
April 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Andre J Tremblay, Valéry Lemelin, Benoit Lamarche, Patrick Couture
The mechanisms underlying the oversecretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in insulin-resistance (IR) states in humans remain to be fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the plasma levels of insulin and glucose and the intestinal expression of key genes involved in chylomicron metabolism in a large sample of nondiabetic men displaying various degrees of IR. Duodenal biopsies were obtained by gastroduodenoscopy in 127 men free of intestinal disease...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Motoki Yamashita, Atsushi Iwata, Yuta Kato, Makito Futami, Satoshi Imaizumi, Takashi Kuwano, Amane Ike, Makoto Sugihara, Hiroaki Nishikawa, Bo Zhang, Shin'ichiro Yasunaga, Keijiro Saku, Shin-Ichiro Miura
Several studies have reported that elevated triglyceride (TG) levels may be more strongly associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in females than in males. We examined gender differences in the relationship between TG levels and coronary atherosclerosis using integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB IVUS) in CAD patients treated with statins. Three hundred seventy-eight CAD patients (105 females and 273 males) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using IB IVUS, and who were already receiving statin treatment, were included...
April 25, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Wieneke Dijk, Cédric Le May, Bertrand Cariou
Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin 9 (PCSK9) - a protein therapeutically targeted to lower plasma cholesterol levels - might regulate plasma TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels. We provide a timely and critical review of the current evidence for a role of PCSK9 in TRL metabolism by assessing the impact of PCSK9 gene variants, by reviewing recent clinical data with PCSK9 inhibitors, and by describing the potential mechanisms by which PCSK9 might regulate TRL metabolism...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Satoshi Hirayama, Hironori Nagasaka, Akira Honda, Haruki Komatsu, Takahiro Kodama, Ayano Inui, Ichiro Morioka, Shunsaku Kaji, Tsuyoshi Ueno, Kenji Ihara, Mariko Yagi, Zenro Kizaki, Kazuhiko Bessho, Hiroki Kondou, Tohru Yorifuji, Hirokazu Tsukahara, Kazumoto Iijima, Takashi Miida
Context: Citrin-deficient infants present neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), which resolves at 12 months. Thereafter, they have normal liver function associated with hypercholesterolemia, and a preference for lipid-rich carbohydrate-restricted diets. However, some develop adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), which is associated with metabolic abnormalities. Objectives: To identify the causes of hypercholesterolemia in citrin-deficient children post-NICCD...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Luciano F Drager, Thauany M Tavoni, Vanessa M Silva, Raul D Santos, Rodrigo P Pedrosa, Luiz A Bortolotto, Carmen G C Vinagre, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Raul C Maranhao
This study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥30 events/hour) and 12 age, body mass index and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 hours fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triolein was injected intravenously followed by blood samples collection at pre-established time...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Abhishek K Singh, Binod Aryal, Balkrishna Chaube, Noemi Rotllan, Luis Varela, Tamas L Horvath, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) controls triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism. This process is mediated by the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme that catalyzed the hydrolysis of triglyceride (TAG) in glycerol and fatty acids (FA), which are burned to generate heat. LPL activity is regulated by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a secretory protein produced in adipose tissues (AT), liver, kidney, and muscle. While the role of ANGPTL4 in regulating lipoprotein metabolism is well established, the specific contribution of BAT derived ANGPTL4 in controlling lipid and glucose homeostasis is not well understood...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
André C Carpentier
Patients with diabetes are at very high risk of hospitalization and death from heart failure. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, autonomic neuropathy, and kidney failure all play a role in this increased risk. However, cardiac metabolic abnormalities are now recognized to play a role in this increased risk. Increased reliance on fatty acids to produce energy might predispose the diabetic heart to oxidative stress and ischemic damage. Intramyocellular accumulation of toxic lipid metabolites leads to a number of cellular abnormalities that might also contribute to cardiac remodelling and cardiac dysfunction...
January 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, Rana Fayyad, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J Kastelein, Shari Melamed, Philip Barter, David D Waters, Kausik K Ray
Background -Mendelian randomization data suggest genetic determinants of lifetime higher triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-cholesterol (TRL-C) are causally related to cardiovascular disease and therefore a potential therapeutic target. The relevance of TRL-C among patients receiving statins is unknown. We assessed the relationship between TRL-C and cardiovascular risk, and whether this risk was modifiable among patients receiving statins in the TNT trial. Methods -Patients with coronary heart disease [CHD] and LDL-C 130-250mg/dL entered an 8-week run-in phase with atorvastatin 10mg/day (ATV10)...
April 4, 2018: Circulation
Nosheen Asghar, Zarina Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Muhammad Imran, Rabia Shabir Ahmad, Syed Makhdoom Hussain
BACKGROUND: In recent times, focus on plant research has improved all over the world and essential parts of plants provide bioactive compounds in human diet. The bael (Aegle marmelos) has enormous traditional uses in the treatment of chronic diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcers and as a laxative. The main focus of this study was characterization of bael leaf extract for its bioactive constituents, antihypercholestrolemic and antilipidemic perspectives. METHODS: After proximate composition of bael powder, the aqueous extract of bael leaf was used for phytochemical profiling (alkaloids, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content)...
April 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Maaike Kockx, Leonard Kritharides
Plasma triglyceride levels are causally related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, the authors summarize their understanding of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, previous and newly identified regulators, and their relevance as candidate targets for therapeutic intervention.
May 2018: Cardiology Clinics
Kuruvanthe S Rachana, Mallahalli S Manu, Gopal M Advirao
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the major complications associated with diabetes. It is characterized by the degeneration of the myelin sheath around axons, referred to as demyelination. Such demyelinations are often caused by reduced lipid component of the myelin sheath. Since, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) provides the lipid for myelin sheath by hydrolysing the triglyceride rich lipoproteins, and also helps in the uptake of lipids by the Schwann cells (SCs) for its utilization, LPL is considered as the important factor in the regeneration of myelin sheath during diabetic neuropathy...
March 17, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Kimberley D Bruce, Sachi Gorkhali, Katherine Given, Alison M Coates, Kristen E Boyle, Wendy B Macklin, Robert H Eckel
Severe demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis (MS), can be devastating for many young lives. To date, the factors resulting in poor remyelination and repair are not well understood, and reparative therapies that benefit MS patients have yet to be developed. We have previously shown that the activity and abundance of Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)-the rate-limiting enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-is increased in Schwann cells and macrophages following nerve crush injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting that LPL may help scavenge myelin-derived lipids...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Phillip C Delekta, John C Shook, Todd A Lydic, Martha H Mulks, Neal D Hammer
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Cesare R Sirtori, Massimiliano Ruscica, Željko Reiner
BACKGROUND: Statins are well-established low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering drugs. Elevated apolipoprotein CIII (Apo CIII) levels are associated with elevated triglyceride-rich particles, which are also considered to be a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials was to assess the effect of statins on Apo CIII concentrations. METHODS: Randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of statin treatment on cholesterol lowering that include lipoprotein measurement were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (up to July 31, 2017)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
KyeongJin Kim, Ira J Goldberg, Mark J Graham, Meenakshi Sundaram, Enrico Bertaggia, Samuel X Lee, Li Qiang, Rebecca A Haeusler, Daniel Metzger, Pierre Chambon, Zemin Yao, Henry N Ginsberg, Utpal B Pajvani
Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
M John Chapman, Alexina Orsoni, Paul Robillard, Patrice Therond, Philippe Giral
BACKGROUND: Statins impact the metabolism, concentrations, composition, and function of circulating lipoproteins. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated time course relationships between statin-mediated reduction in atherogenic apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing particles and dynamic intravascular remodeling of ApoAI-containing lipoprotein subpopulations in the mixed dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypercholesterolemic, obese males (n = 12) were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/d) and response evaluated at 6, 42, and 180 days...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Kisantini Murugesu, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Amirin Sadikun
BACKGROUND: Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves has been previously shown to pos-sess antihyperlipidemic effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanol-ic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials. RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reduc-tions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0...
March 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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