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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302272/relation-of-fasting-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-cholesterol-to-coronary-artery-calcium-score-from-the-elsa-brasil-study
#1
Marcio S Bittencourt, Raul D Santos, Henrique Staniak, Rodolfo Sharovsky, Rao Kondapally, Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, Kausik K Ray, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo
Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300080/hypertriglyceridaemia-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease
#2
REVIEW
Željko Reiner
An elevated serum level of LDL cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of elevated triglyceride levels is debated. Controversies regarding hypertriglyceridaemia as an independent risk factor for CVD have occurred partly because elevated triglyceride levels are often a component of atherogenic dyslipidaemia - they are associated with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of small dense LDL particles, which are highly atherogenic. Findings from several large studies indicate that elevated levels of triglycerides (either fasting or nonfasting) or, more specifically, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, are independently associated with increased risk of CVD...
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299204/the-coadministration-of-unoxidized-and-oxidized-desi-ghee-ameliorates-the-toxic-effects-of-thermally-oxidized-ghee-in-rabbits
#3
Alam Zeb, Islam Uddin
Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294373/rationale-and-design-of-reduce-it-reduction-of-cardiovascular-events-with-icosapent-ethyl-intervention-trial
#4
Deepak L Bhatt, Ph Gabriel Steg, Eliot A Brinton, Terry A Jacobson, Michael Miller, Jean-Claude Tardif, Steven B Ketchum, Ralph T Doyle, Sabina A Murphy, Paresh N Soni, Rene A Braeckman, Rebecca A Juliano, Christie M Ballantyne
Residual cardiovascular risk persists despite statins, yet outcome studies of lipid-targeted therapies beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have not demonstrated added benefit. Triglyceride elevation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces triglyceride-rich lipoproteins without raising LDL-C. Omega-3s have postulated pleiotropic cardioprotective benefits beyond triglyceride-lowering. To date, no large, multinational, randomized clinical trial has proved that lowering triglycerides on top of statin therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276521/a-randomized-trial-and-novel-spr-technique-identifies-altered-lipoprotein-ldl-receptor-binding-as-a-mechanism-underlying-elevated-ldl-cholesterol-in-apoe4s
#5
M V Calabuig-Navarro, K G Jackson, C F Kemp, D S Leake, C M Walden, J A Lovegrove, A M Minihane
At a population level APOE4 carriers (~25% Caucasians) are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The penetrance of genotype is however variable and influenced by dietary fat composition, with the APOE4 allele associated with greater LDL-cholesterol elevation in response to saturated fatty acids (SFA). The etiology of this greater responsiveness is unknown. Here a novel surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR) is developed and used, along with hepatocyte (with the liver being the main organ modulating lipoprotein metabolism and plasma lipid levels) uptake studies to establish the impact of dietary fatty acid composition on, lipoprotein-LDL receptor (LDLR) binding, and hepatocyte uptake, according to APOE genotype status...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267856/association-of-rare-and-common-variation-in-the-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-with-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Amit V Khera, Hong-Hee Won, Gina M Peloso, Colm O'Dushlaine, Dajiang Liu, Nathan O Stitziel, Pradeep Natarajan, Akihiro Nomura, Connor A Emdin, Namrata Gupta, Ingrid B Borecki, Rosanna Asselta, Stefano Duga, Piera Angelica Merlini, Adolfo Correa, Thorsten Kessler, James G Wilson, Matthew J Bown, Alistair S Hall, Peter S Braund, David J Carey, Michael F Murray, H Lester Kirchner, Joseph B Leader, Daniel R Lavage, J Neil Manus, Dustin N Hartzel, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, Jaume Marrugat, Roberto Elosua, Ruth McPherson, Martin Farrall, Hugh Watkins, Eric S Lander, Daniel J Rader, John Danesh, Diego Ardissino, Stacey Gabriel, Cristen Willer, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Danish Saleheen, Frederick E Dewey, Sekar Kathiresan
Importance: The activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the rate-determining step in clearing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation. Mutations that damage the LPL gene (LPL) lead to lifelong deficiency in enzymatic activity and can provide insight into the relationship of LPL to human disease. Objective: To determine whether rare and/or common variants in LPL are associated with early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cross-sectional study, LPL was sequenced in 10 CAD case-control cohorts of the multinational Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium and a nested CAD case-control cohort of the Geisinger Health System DiscovEHR cohort between 2010 and 2015...
March 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230201/relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-display-an-altered-lipoprotein-profile-with-dysfunctional-hdl
#7
Winde Jorissen, Elien Wouters, Jeroen F Bogie, Tim Vanmierlo, Jean-Paul Noben, Denis Sviridov, Niels Hellings, Veerle Somers, Roland Valcke, Bart Vanwijmeersch, Piet Stinissen, Monique T Mulder, Alan T Remaley, Jerome J A Hendriks
Lipoproteins modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In the chronic inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS), reports on lipoprotein level alterations are inconsistent and it is unclear whether lipoprotein function is affected. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we analysed the lipoprotein profile of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients, progressive MS patients and healthy controls (HC). We observed smaller LDL in RRMS patients compared to healthy controls and to progressive MS patients...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223467/hypertension-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-adulthood-prospective-and-sibling-studies-in-the-hunt-study-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study-in-norway
#8
Ingvild V Alsnes, Lars J Vatten, Abigail Fraser, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Janet Rich-Edwards, Pål R Romundstad, Bjørn O Åsvold
Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220878/homozygous-carriers-of-the-tcf7l2-rs7903146-t-allele-show-altered-postprandial-response-in-triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#9
L Engelbrechtsen, T H Hansen, Y Mahendran, P Pyl, E Andersson, A Jonsson, A Gjesing, A Linneberg, T Jørgensen, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele shows the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among common gene variants. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of metabolites following a meal test in individuals carrying the high risk rs790346 TT genotype (cases) and low-risk CC genotype (controls). Sixty-two men were recruited based on TCF7L2 genotype, 31 were TT carriers and 31 were age- and BMI-matched CC carriers. All participants consumed a test meal after 12 hours of fasting. Metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218439/the-effects-of-exogenous-fatty-acids-and-niacin-on-human-monocyte-macrophage-plasticity
#10
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Dolores Rodriguez, Magdalena P Cardelo, Maria C Naranjo, Beatriz Bermudez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana, Sergio Lopez
SCOPE: Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191490/dietary-triglycerides-as-signaling-molecules-that-influence-reward-and-motivation
#11
Chloé Berland, Céline Cansell, Thomas S Hnasko, Christophe Magnan, Serge Luquet
The reinforcing and motivational aspects of food are tied to the release of the dopamine in the mesolimbic system (ML). Free fatty acids from triglyceride (TG)-rich particles are released upon action of TG-lipases found at high levels in peripheral oxidative tissue (muscle, heart), but also in the ML. This suggests that local TG-hydrolysis in the ML might regulate food seeking and reward. Indeed, evidence now suggests that dietary TG directly target the ML to regulate amphetamine-induced locomotion and reward seeking behavior...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191321/postprandial-lipemia-and-the-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#12
Dmitry Kats, A Richey Sharrett, Henry N Ginsberg, Vijay Nambi, Christie M Ballantyne, Ron C Hoogeveen, Gerardo Heiss
OBJECTIVE: Excessive levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during postprandial lipemia (PPL) have been reported to be atherogenic. However, it is unclear whether the degree of PPL independently predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) given the scarcity of longitudinal data with standardised measures of postprandial change. We reexamined associations of PPL with incident CVD events in a population-based cohort using detailed measures of postprandial change from a standardised fat challenge...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185713/effects-of-pitavastatin-on-lipid-rich-carotid-plaques-studied-using-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Tao Feng, Xiaoxing Huang, Qundi Liang, Yun Liang, Yong Yuan, Li Feng, Wenjun Wu, Xuehong Xiao, Ying Han
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of pitavastatin in patients with atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty patients with atherosclerosis with lipid-rich carotid plaques were included and allocated into low-dose (2 mg/d) and high-dose (4 mg/d) pitavastatin groups with 48 weeks of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), and the inflammation-related factors interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine were determined...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183448/c-reactive-protein-levels-are-inversely-correlated-with-the-apolipoprotein-b-48-containing-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-production-rate-in-insulin-resistant-men
#14
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, André J Tremblay, Jean-Charles Hogue, Myriam Leclerc, Marie-Ève Labonté, Johanne Marin, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture
The pro-inflammatory state and elevated plasma levels of post-prandial triglycerides (TG) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggested that the increase in the production rate of post-prandial lipoproteins observed in patients with insulin resistance (IR) may be caused, at least in part, by the dysregulation of intestinal insulin sensitivity triggered by inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IR, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the kinetics of TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 in a large sample of insulin sensitive (IS) and IR men...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183443/improvement-of-the-omega-3-index-of-healthy-subjects-does-not-alter-the-effects-of-dietary-saturated-fats-or-n-6pufa-on-ldl-profiles
#15
Cintia B Dias, Núria Amigó, Lisa G Wood, Roger Mallol, Xavier Correig, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary fat composition is known to modulate circulating lipid and lipoprotein levels. Although supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) has been shown to reduce plasma triglyceride levels, the effect of the interactions between LCn-3PUFA and the major dietary fats consumed has not been previously investigated. METHODS: In a randomized controlled parallel design clinical intervention, we examined the effect of diets rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA) or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) on plasma lipid levels and lipoprotein profiles (lipoprotein size, concentration and distribution in subclasses) in subjects with an adequate omega 3 index...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159869/aromatic-residues-in-the-c-terminus-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-mediate-lipid-binding-and-lpl-inhibition
#16
Nathan L Meyers, Mikael Larsson, Evelina Vorrsjö, Gunilla Olivecrona, Donald M Small
Plasma apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) levels correlate with triglyceride (TG) levels and are a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease outcomes. ApoC-III elevates TG in part by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). ApoC-III likely inhibits LPL by competing for lipid-binding. To probe this, we used oil-drop tensiometry to characterize binding of six apoC-III variants to lipid/water interfaces. This technique monitors the dependence of lipid-binding on surface pressure; which increases during TG hydrolysis by LPL...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126606/regulation-of-the-human-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-by-the-forkhead-box-transcription-factor-foxa2-hnf-3%C3%AE-in-hepatic-cells
#17
Maria Kanaki, Dimitris Kardassis
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) from circulating TG-rich lipoproteins. The role of LPL in the liver has been controversial but recent studies in mice with liver LPL overexpression or deficiency have revealed important new roles of the enzyme in glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify regulatory elements and factors that control the transcription of the human LPL gene in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis of the human LPL promoter revealed that the proximal region which harbors a binding site for the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA2/HNF-3β at position -47/-40 is important for its hepatic cell activity...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121706/greater-remnant-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-with-pitavastatin-compared-to-pravastatin-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-intrepid-trial
#18
Parag H Joshi, P Elliott Miller, Seth S Martin, Steven R Jones, Joseph M Massaro, Ralph B D'Agostino, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, Craig Sponseller, Peter P Toth
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with HIV. An emerging CVD risk factor is triglyceride-rich remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: the sum of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol). The effects of statin therapy on lipoprotein subfractions, including RLP-C, in HIV-dyslipidemia are unknown. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the randomized INTREPID trial (NCT 01301066) comparing pitavastatin 4 mg daily vs...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104473/hyperlipidaemia-alone-and-in-combination-with-acidosis-can-increase-the-incidence-and-severity-of-statin-induced-myotoxicity
#19
Dhiaa A Taha, Atheer Zgair, Jong Bong Lee, Cornelia H de Moor, David A Barrett, Kimberley D Bruce, Mitchell Sungelo, Robert H Eckel, Pavel Gershkovich
The association of lipophilic statins with plasma lipoproteins in the presence of disturbed acid-base balance can modify the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of these drugs, resulting in alteration in their efficacy and toxicity profiles. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the role of hyperlipidaemia alone or in combination with acidosis/alkalosis in the development and potentiation of statin-induced myotoxicity. Statins association with plasma lipoproteins was examined under conditions of physiological and altered pH levels...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101628/rho-kinase-inhibitor-fasudil-mitigates-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-vascular-damage
#20
Nibrass Taher Abdali, Awny H Yaseen, Eman Said, Tarek M Ibrahim
The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2...
January 18, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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