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Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158401/kinesin-dependent-mechanism-for-controlling-triglyceride-secretion-from-the-liver
#1
Priyanka Rai, Mukesh Kumar, Geetika Sharma, Pradeep Barak, Saumitra Das, Siddhesh S Kamat, Roop Mallik
Despite massive fluctuations in its internal triglyceride content, the liver secretes triglyceride under tight homeostatic control. This buffering function is most visible after fasting, when liver triglyceride increases manyfold but circulating serum triglyceride barely fluctuates. How the liver controls triglyceride secretion is unknown, but is fundamentally important for lipid and energy homeostasis in animals. Here we find an unexpected cellular and molecular mechanism behind such control. We show that kinesin motors are recruited to triglyceride-rich lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver by the GTPase ARF1, which is a key activator of lipolysis...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151984/hepatic-and-aortic-arch-expression-and-serum-levels-of-syndecan-1-in-apoe-mice
#2
Elena I Leonova, Elena S Sadovnikova, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Oxana V Galzitskaya, Arkady N Murashev, Alexandr S Solonin
Background: Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-1 (Sdc1) acts as a receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), growth factors, chemokines and enzymes. Due to the disordered structure, its function is as diverse as its ligands. In this paper, we have analyzed hepatic and aortic arch expression of Sdc1 in ApoE(-/-) mice and examined their association with biochemical changes in plasma during the atheroma formation. Methods: ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice as a model of atherosclerosis were used...
2017: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143803/use-of-novel-high-protein-functional-food-products-as-part-of-a-calorie-restricted-diet-to-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-lean-body-mass-in-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Carol S Johnston, Barry Sears, Mary Perry, Jessica R Knurick
Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR) can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day) using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day) with a similar level of calorie restriction...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135687/environmental-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-postprandial-lipemia
#4
Laurence D Parnell, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the prolonged increase in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following food consumption, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation, environment and the interplay between these direct an individual's postprandial lipid response. From such interplay, inducible and reversible epigenetic changes arise. Increasing evidence suggests epigenetic variation contributes to postprandial response in lipids and risk...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124482/apociii-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-modulation-by-the-novel-lipid-lowering-agent-volanesorsen
#5
REVIEW
Natalia A Rocha, Cara East, Jun Zhang, Peter A McCullough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is now recognized as a key regulator in severe hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicronemia, and conditions of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnant excess due to its inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase, leading to decreased hepatic reuptake of TRLs, as well as enhanced synthesis and secretion of VLDL from the liver. ApoCIII gain-of-function mutations are associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD), and contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 9, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121499/atorvastatin-accelerates-clearance-of-lipoprotein-remnants-generated-by-activated-brown-fat-to-further-reduce-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis
#6
Geerte Hoeke, Yanan Wang, Andrea D van Dam, Isabel M Mol, Eveline Gart, Henk G Klop, Susan M van den Berg, Elsbet H Pieterman, Hans M G Princen, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Jimmy F P Berbée, Mariëtte R Boon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reduces both hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by increasing the uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids by BAT, accompanied by formation and clearance of lipoprotein remnants. We tested the hypothesis that the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants generated by BAT activation would be accelerated by concomitant statin treatment, thereby further reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. METHODS: APOE*3-Leiden...
October 26, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116404/review-of-cardiometabolic-effects-of-prescription-omega-3-fatty-acids
#7
REVIEW
Megan F Burke, Frances M Burke, Daniel E Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations with significant dietary fish intake tend to have lower cardiovascular (CV) risk and demonstrable physiologic differences including lower lipid/lipoprotein levels and other direct and indirect effects on the arterial wall and inhibiting factors that promote atherosclerosis. Treatment with high doses of pharmacologic-grade omega-3 fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements achieves significant reductions in triglycerides (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein- (non-HDL-) and TG-rich lipoprotein- (TRL-) cholesterol levels...
November 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102496/plasma-inducible-degrader-of-the-ldlr-soluble-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-levels-as-potential-biomarkers-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-children
#8
Josefa Girona, Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Daiana Ibarretxe, Mercedes Heras, Nuria Amigo, Albert Feliu, Luis Masana, Nuria Plana
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in children is under-detected. Plasma biomarkers associated with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) function could help identifying FH children. OBJECTIVES: We aim to assess the clinical value of inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL), soluble LDLR (sLDLR), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plasma concentrations in children with FH compared with control children (CCh). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in a Lipid Unit from a University hospital...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100061/apolipoprotein-c-ii-new-findings-related-to-genetics-biochemistry-and-role-in-triglyceride-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Anna Wolska, Richard L Dunbar, Lita A Freeman, Masako Ueda, Marcelo J Amar, Denis O Sviridov, Alan T Remaley
Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a small exchangeable apolipoprotein found on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), such as chylomicrons (CM) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and on high-density lipoproteins (HDL), particularly during fasting. ApoC-II plays a critical role in TRL metabolism by acting as a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the main enzyme that hydrolyses plasma triglycerides (TG) on TRL. Here, we present an overview of the role of apoC-II in TG metabolism, emphasizing recent novel findings regarding its transcriptional regulation and biochemistry...
October 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097515/adiposity-and-genetic-factors-in-relation-to-triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-the-women-s-genome-health-study
#10
Shafqat Ahmad, Samia Mora, Paul W Franks, Marju Orho-Melander, Paul M Ridker, Frank B Hu, Daniel I Chasman
BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased tri-glycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown. METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC)...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096837/the-role-of-antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy-against-apolipoprotein-ciii-in-hypertriglyceridemia
#11
Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
Increased triglyceride levels (higher than ∼1000 mg/dL) are associated with an increased risk for pancreatitis. Apolipoprotein-CIII (apo-CIII) plays a key role in the metabolism of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While loss of function mutations in the gene encoding apo-CIII (APOC3) are associated with low triglyceride levels and a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), overexpression of APOC3 is associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Although many drugs such as fibrates, statins and omega-3 fatty acids modestly decrease triglyceride levels (and apo-CIII concentrations), there are many patients who still have severe hypertriglyceridemia and are at risk for pancreatitis and potentially CVD...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094044/comparison-between-the-hypolipidemic-activity-of-parsley-and-carob-in-hypercholesterolemic-male-rats
#12
Haddad A El Rabey, Madeha N Al-Seeni, Habibah B Al-Ghamdi
Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091879/protective-effect-of-the-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-tripodanthus-acutifolius-in-hypercholesterolemic-wistar-rats
#13
Ritiéle Pinto Coelho, Denise Lima Feksa, Patrícia Martinez Oliveira, Angélica Aparecida da Costa Güllich, Bruna Cocco Pilar, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar Piccoli, Vanusa Manfredini
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major public health problem, as they are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Tripodanthus acutifolius (TA) is a hemiparasite plant used for medicinal purposes with great antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about its hypolipemic effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tripodanthus acutifolius leaves in hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. The animals were divided into: (1) NC (Normocaloric Control); (2) HC (Hypercaloric Control); (3) Oral Simvastatin Suspension 10mg/kg (SIM); (4) TA extract 50mg/kg (TA 50mg/kg) and (5) TA 100mg/kg...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083408/exome-wide-association-study-of-plasma-lipids-in-300-000-individuals
#14
Dajiang J Liu, Gina M Peloso, Haojie Yu, Adam S Butterworth, Xiao Wang, Anubha Mahajan, Danish Saleheen, Connor Emdin, Dewan Alam, Alexessander Couto Alves, Philippe Amouyel, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Dominique Arveiler, Themistocles L Assimes, Paul L Auer, Usman Baber, Christie M Ballantyne, Lia E Bang, Marianne Benn, Joshua C Bis, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, Jette Bork-Jensen, Erwin P Bottinger, Ivan Brandslund, Morris Brown, Fabio Busonero, Mark J Caulfield, John C Chambers, Daniel I Chasman, Y Eugene Chen, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Rajiv Chowdhury, Cramer Christensen, Audrey Y Chu, John M Connell, Francesco Cucca, L Adrienne Cupples, Scott M Damrauer, Gail Davies, Ian J Deary, George Dedoussis, Joshua C Denny, Anna Dominiczak, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Tapani Ebeling, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Tõnu Esko, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Mary F Feitosa, Marco Ferrario, Jean Ferrieres, Ian Ford, Myriam Fornage, Paul W Franks, Timothy M Frayling, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Lars G Fritsche, Philippe Frossard, Valentin Fuster, Santhi K Ganesh, Wei Gao, Melissa E Garcia, Christian Gieger, Franco Giulianini, Mark O Goodarzi, Harald Grallert, Niels Grarup, Leif Groop, Megan L Grove, Vilmundur Gudnason, Torben Hansen, Tamara B Harris, Caroline Hayward, Joel N Hirschhorn, Oddgeir L Holmen, Jennifer Huffman, Yong Huo, Kristian Hveem, Sehrish Jabeen, Anne U Jackson, Johanna Jakobsdottir, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Gorm B Jensen, Marit E Jørgensen, J Wouter Jukema, Johanne M Justesen, Pia R Kamstrup, Stavroula Kanoni, Fredrik Karpe, Frank Kee, Amit V Khera, Derek Klarin, Heikki A Koistinen, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Kari Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Timo Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Anne Langsted, Lenore J Launer, Torsten Lauritzen, David C M Liewald, Li An Lin, Allan Linneberg, Ruth J F Loos, Yingchang Lu, Xiangfeng Lu, Reedik Mägi, Anders Malarstig, Ani Manichaikul, Alisa K Manning, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Eirini Marouli, Nicholas G D Masca, Andrea Maschio, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P Morris, Alanna C Morrison, Antonella Mulas, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Patricia B Munroe, Matt J Neville, Jonas B Nielsen, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jose M Ordovas, Roxana Mehran, Christoper J O'Donnell, Marju Orho-Melander, Cliona M Molony, Pieter Muntendam, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Colin N A Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Aniruddh P Patel, Oluf Pedersen, Markus Perola, Annette Peters, Charlotta Pisinger, Giorgio Pistis, Ozren Polasek, Neil Poulter, Bruce M Psaty, Daniel J Rader, Asif Rasheed, Rainer Rauramaa, Dermot F Reilly, Alex P Reiner, Frida Renström, Stephen S Rich, Paul M Ridker, John D Rioux, Neil R Robertson, Dan M Roden, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Serena Sanna, Naveed Sattar, Ellen M Schmidt, Robert A Scott, Peter Sever, Raquel S Sevilla, Christian M Shaffer, Xueling Sim, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kerrin S Small, Albert V Smith, Blair H Smith, Sangeetha Somayajula, Lorraine Southam, Timothy D Spector, Elizabeth K Speliotes, John M Starr, Kathleen E Stirrups, Nathan Stitziel, Konstantin Strauch, Heather M Stringham, Praveen Surendran, Hayato Tada, Alan R Tall, Hua Tang, Jean-Claude Tardif, Kent D Taylor, Stella Trompet, Philip S Tsao, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Natalie R van Zuydam, Anette Varbo, Tibor V Varga, Jarmo Virtamo, Melanie Waldenberger, Nan Wang, Nick J Wareham, Helen R Warren, Peter E Weeke, Joshua Weinstock, Jennifer Wessel, James G Wilson, Peter W F Wilson, Ming Xu, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Robin Young, Eleftheria Zeggini, He Zhang, Neil S Zheng, Weihua Zhang, Yan Zhang, Wei Zhou, Yanhua Zhou, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Joanna M M Howson, John Danesh, Mark I McCarthy, Chad A Cowan, Goncalo Abecasis, Panos Deloukas, Kiran Musunuru, Cristen J Willer, Sekar Kathiresan
We screened variants on an exome-focused genotyping array in >300,000 participants (replication in >280,000 participants) and identified 444 independent variants in 250 loci significantly associated with total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG). At two loci (JAK2 and A1CF), experimental analysis in mice showed lipid changes consistent with the human data. We also found that: (i) beta-thalassemia trait carriers displayed lower TC and were protected from coronary artery disease (CAD); (ii) excluding the CETP locus, there was not a predictable relationship between plasma HDL-C and risk for age-related macular degeneration; (iii) only some mechanisms of lowering LDL-C appeared to increase risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D); and (iv) TG-lowering alleles involved in hepatic production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TM6SF2 and PNPLA3) tracked with higher liver fat, higher risk for T2D, and lower risk for CAD, whereas TG-lowering alleles involved in peripheral lipolysis (LPL and ANGPTL4) had no effect on liver fat but decreased risks for both T2D and CAD...
October 30, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071106/equivalent-reductions-in-body-weight-during-the-beef-wise-study-beef-s-role-in-weight-improvement-satisfaction-and-energy
#15
R D Sayer, K J Speaker, Z Pan, J C Peters, H R Wyatt, J O Hill
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight-reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. METHODS: A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to consume either a HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) or a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60) during a 16-week weight loss intervention...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065507/fatty-acids-consumption-the-role-metabolic-aspects-involved-in-obesity-and-its-associated-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Priscila Silva Figueiredo, Aline Carla Inada, Gabriela Marcelino, Carla Maiara Lopes Cardozo, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Alinne Pereira de Castro, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Priscila Aiko Hiane
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters...
October 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051554/recombinant-incretin-secreting-microbe-improves-metabolic-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rodents
#17
Paul M Ryan, Elaine Patterson, Robert M Kent, Helena Stack, Paula M O'Connor, Kiera Murphy, Veronica L Peterson, Rupasri Mandal, David S Wishart, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Randy J Seeley, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and its analogues represent a new generation of anti-diabetic drugs, which have also demonstrated propensity to modulate host lipid metabolism. Despite this, drugs of this nature are currently limited to intramuscular administration routes due to intestinal degradation. The aim of this study was to design a recombinant microbial delivery vector for a GLP-1 analogue and assess the efficacy of the therapeutic in improving host glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism in diet induced obese rodents...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046479/lipoprotein-lipase-reaches-the-capillary-lumen-in-chickens-despite-an-apparent-absence-of-gpihbp1
#18
Cuiwen He, Xuchen Hu, Rachel S Jung, Mikael Larsson, Yiping Tu, Sandra Duarte-Vogel, Paul Kim, Norma P Sandoval, Tara R Price, Christopher M Allan, Brian Raney, Haibo Jiang, André Bensadoun, Rosemary L Walzem, Richard I Kuo, Anne P Beigneux, Loren G Fong, Stephen G Young
In mammals, GPIHBP1 is absolutely essential for transporting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to the lumen of capillaries, where it hydrolyzes the triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In all lower vertebrate species (e.g., birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish), a gene for LPL can be found easily, but a gene for GPIHBP1 has never been found. The obvious question is whether the LPL in lower vertebrates is able to reach the capillary lumen. Using purified antibodies against chicken LPL, we showed that LPL is present on capillary endothelial cells of chicken heart and adipose tissue, colocalizing with von Willebrand factor...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978316/pemafibrate-k-877-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-modulator-for-management-of-atherogenic-dyslipidaemia
#19
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Fruchart
Despite best evidence-based treatment including statins, residual cardiovascular risk poses a major challenge for clinicians in the twenty first century. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, in particular elevated triglycerides, a marker for increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, is an important contributor to lipid-related residual risk, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic options include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists, (fibrates), but these have low potency and limited selectivity for PPARα...
October 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969633/relation-between-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-apolipoprotein-b-ratio-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Shigemasa Tani, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Kenji Kawauchi, Rei Matsuo, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/apolipoprotein B (LDL-C/apoB) ratio has conventionally been used as an index of the LDL-particle size. Smaller LDL-particle size is associated with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorders, often leading to atherogenesis. We investigated the association between the LDL-C/apoB ratio and TG metabolism in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, the LDL-C/apoB ratio, which provides an estimate of the LDL-particle size, was calculated in 684 consecutive patients with one additional risk factor...
October 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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