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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243458/prevalence-of-life-supporting-prolonged-invasive-ventilation-support-in-finland
#1
Waltteri Siirala, Aki Vainionpää, Annette Kainu, Jaana Korpela, Klaus Olkkola, Riku Aantaa
BACKGROUND: There is no comprehensive data in our country on the prevalence of life-supporting prolonged invasive ventilation support. The objective of the survey was to clarify in all hospital districts of continental Finland the prevalence of patients who were dependent on invasive ventilation support, and the disease leading to the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The KOTIVEHNO 2015 survey was carried out as population-based cross-sectional study by sending a questionnaire to all doctors in charge of prolonged invasive ventilation support...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238292/effect-of-vegf-on-inflammatory-regulation-neural-survival-and-functional-improvement-in-rats-following-a-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#2
Jing Li, Shuangxi Chen, Zhikai Zhao, Yunhao Luo, Yuhui Hou, Heng Li, Liumin He, Libing Zhou, Wutian Wu
After complete transection of the thoracic spinal segment, neonatal rats exhibit spontaneous locomotor recovery of hindlimbs, but this recovery is not found in adult rats after similar injury. The potential mechanism related to the difference in recovery of neonatal and adult rats remains unknown. In this study, 342 animals were analyzed. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in spinal segments below injury sites was significantly higher in postnatal day 1 rats (P1) compared with 28-day-old adult rats (P28) following a complete T9 transection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230425/neuroprotective-potential-of-gentongping-in-rat-model-of-cervical-spondylotic-radiculopathy-targeting-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#3
Wen Sun, Kang Zheng, Bin Liu, Danping Fan, Hui Luo, Xiaoyuan Qu, Li Li, Xiaojuan He, Jianfeng Yi, Cheng Lu
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most general form of spinal degenerative disease and is characterized by pain and numbness of the neck and arm. Gentongping (GTP) granule, as a classical Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used in curing CSR, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of GTP on CSR. The rat model of CSR was induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results showed that GTP could significantly alleviate spontaneous pain as well as ameliorate gait...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229771/drosophila-female-specific-ilp7-motoneurons-are-generated-by-fruitless-dependent-cell-death-in-males-and-a-double-assurance-survival-role-for-transformer-in-females
#4
Sarah Rose C Garner, Monica C Castellanos, Katherine Baillie, Tianshun Lian, Douglas W Allan
Female-specific Ilp7 neuropeptide-expressing motoneurons (FS-Ilp7 motoneurons) are required in Drosophila for oviduct function in egg-laying. Here, we uncover cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying their female-specific generation. We demonstrate that programmed cell death (PCD) eliminates FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in males, and that this requires male-specific splicing of the sex determination gene fruitless (fru) into the FruMC isoform. However, in females, fru alleles that only generate FruM isoforms failed to kill FS-Ilp7 motoneurons...
December 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224041/identifying-and-monitoring-neurons-that-undergo-metamorphosis-regulated-cell-death-metamorphoptosis-by-a-neuron-specific-caspase-sensor-casor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Gyunghee Lee, Jaeman Kim, Yujin Kim, Siuk Yoo, Jae H Park
Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases...
December 9, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#6
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214211/targeted-kinase-inhibition-relieves-slowness-and-tremor-in-a-drosophila-model-of-lrrk2-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Amy C Cording, Nicolas Shiaelis, Stavroula Petridi, C Adam Middleton, Laurence G Wilson, Christopher J H Elliott
In a number of Drosophila models of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) flies climb more slowly than wild-type controls. However, this assay does not distinguish effects of PD-related genes on gravity sensation, "arousal", central pattern generation of leg movements, or muscle. To address this problem, we have developed an assay for the fly proboscis extension response (PER). This is attractive because the PER has a simple, well-identified reflex neural circuit, in which sucrose sensing neurons activate a pair of "command interneurons", and thence motoneurons whose activity contracts the proboscis muscle...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212914/distributed-force-feedback-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-regulation-of-limb-mechanics
#8
T Richard Nichols
This review is an update on the role of force feedback from Golgi tendon organs in the regulation of limb mechanics during voluntary movement. Some current ideas about the role of force feedback are based on circuit motifs linking idealized systems of agonists, synergists and antagonistic muscles. Force feedback is widely distributed across the muscles of a limb and cannot be understood based on these circuit motifs. Muscle architecture similarly cannot be understood in terms of idealized systems. It is hypothesized that distributed force feedback better represents the complex mechanical interactions of muscles, including viscoelastic coupling and inertial coupling across joints and axes of rotation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206768/inhibition-of-group-ia-afferents-between-brachioradialis-and-flexor-carpi-radialis-in-humans-a-study-using-an-electromyogram-averaging-method
#9
Mitsuhiro Nito, Wataru Hashizume, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Toshiaki Sato, Hiromi Fujii, Takuji Miyasaka, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
PURPOSE: Our previous studies using a poststimulus time histogram method demonstrated inhibitory spinal reflex arcs (inhibition) between the brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in humans. Group I afferents mediated the inhibition through an oligosynaptic path. In this study, effects of the inhibition on excitability of the motoneuron pools were examined, and we tried to clarify which afferents of group Ia or Ib are responsible for the inhibition. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of low-threshold afferents between BR and FCR on FCR and BR motoneuron pools, respectively, using an electromyogram-averaging method in 14 healthy human subjects...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195055/neuromuscular-junction-formation-aging-and-disorders
#10
Lei Li, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Synapses, the fundamental unit in neuronal circuits, are critical for learning and memory, perception, thinking, and reaction. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse formed between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers that is wrapped by Schwann cells (SCs). It is essential for controlling muscle contraction. NMJ formation requires intimate interactions among motoneurons, muscles, and SCs. Deficits in NMJ formation and maintenance cause neuromuscular disorders, including congenital myasthenic syndrome and myasthenia gravis...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190648/anterior-chamber-associated-immune-deviation-used-as-a-neuroprotective-strategy-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Beatriz Pineda-Rodriguez, Diana Toscano-Tejeida, Elisa García-Vences, Roxana Rodriguez-Barrera, Adrian Flores-Romero, Daniela Castellanos-Canales, Gabriel Gutierrez-Ospina, Laura Castillo-Carvajal, Esperanza Meléndez-Herrera, Antonio Ibarra
The inflammatory response is probably one of the main destructive events occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Its progression depends mostly on the autoimmune response developed against neural constituents. Therefore, modulation or inhibition of this self-reactive reaction could help to reduce tissue destruction. Anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID) is a phenomenon that induces immune-tolerance to antigens injected into the eye´s anterior chamber, provoking the reduction of such immune response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189907/neural-circuits-underlying-jaw-movements-for-the-prey-catching-behavior-in-frog-distribution-of-vestibular-afferent-terminals-on-motoneurons-supplying-the-jaw
#12
András Birinyi, Nóra Rácz, Szilvia Kecskes, Clara Matesz, Gabriella Kovalecz
Coordinated movement of the jaw is essential for catching and swallowing the prey. The majority of the jaw muscles in frogs are supplied by the trigeminal motoneurons. We have previously described that the primary vestibular afferent fibers, conveying information about the movements of the head, established close appositions on the motoneurons of trigeminal nerve providing one of the morphological substrates of monosynaptic sensory modulation of prey-catching behavior in the frog. The aim of our study was to reveal the spatial distribution of vestibular close appositions on the somatodendritic compartments of the functionally different trigeminal motoneurons...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187549/quantitative-input-output-relationships-between-human-soleus-muscle-spindle-afferents-and-motoneurons
#13
Alan McComas, Hubert deBruin, Winnie Fu
A method is described which, for the first time, allows instantaneous estimation of the Ia fiber input to human soleus motoneurons following electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. The basis of the method is to determine the thresholds of the most and least excitable 1a fibers to electrical stimulation, and to treat the intervening thresholds as having a normal distribution about the mean; the validity of this approach is discussed. It was found that, for the same Ia fibre input, the percentage of soleus motoneurons contributing to the H (Hoffmann)-reflex differed considerably among subjects; when the results were pooled, however, there was an approximately linear relationship between Ia input and motoneuron output...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182156/the-effects-of-model-composition-design-choices-on-high-fidelity-simulations-of-motoneuron-recruitment-and-firing-behaviors
#14
John M Allen, Sherif Elbasiouny
OBJECTIVE: Computational models often require tradeoffs, such as balancing detail with efficiency; yet optimal balance should incorporate sound design features that do not bias the results of the specific scientific question under investigation. The present study examines how model design choices impact simulation results. APPROACH: We developed a rigorously-validated high-fidelity computational model of the spinal motoneuron pool to study three long-standing model design practices which have yet to be examined for their impact on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force simulations...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181382/reinnervation-of-the-diaphragm-by-the-inferior-laryngeal-nerve-to-the-phrenic-nerve-in-ventilator-dependent-tetraplegic-patients-with-c3-5-damage
#15
Eric Verin, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Jesus Gonzalez-Bermejo, Benoit Veber, Brigitte Perrouin Verbe, Brigitte Soudrie, Anne Marie Leroi, Jean Paul Marie, Thomas Similowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of unilateral diaphragmatic reinnervation in humans by the inferior laryngeal nerve. This pilot study included chronically ventilated tetraplegic patients with destruction of phrenic nerve motoneurons. Five patients were included. They all had a high level of tetraplegia, with phrenic nerve motor neuron destruction. They were highly dependent on ventilation, without any possibility of weaning. They did not have other chronic pathologies, especially laryngeal disease...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180480/motor-module-activation-sequence-and-topography-in-the-spinal-cord-during-air-stepping-in-human-insights-into-the-traveling-wave-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#16
Hikaru Yokoyama, Kohtaroh Hagio, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs), which are modulated by peripheral and supraspinal inputs. The CPGs would consist of multiple motor modules generating basic muscle activity, which are distributed rostrocaudally along the spinal cord. To activate the motor modules in proper sequence, rostrocaudally traveling waves of activation in the spinal cord are important mechanisms in the CPGs. The traveling waves of activation have been observed in nonhuman vertebrates...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176945/sound-evoked-biceps-myogenic-potentials-reflect-asymmetric-vestibular-drive-to-spastic-muscles-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke-survivors
#17
Derek M Miller, William Z Rymer
Aberrant vestibular nuclear function is proposed to be a principle driver of limb muscle spasticity after stroke. We sought to determine whether altered cortical modulation of descending vestibulospinal pathways post-stroke could impact the excitability of biceps brachii motoneurons. Twelve chronic hemispheric stroke survivors aged 46-68 years were enrolled. Sound evoked biceps myogenic potentials (SEBMPs) were recorded from the spastic and contralateral biceps muscles using surface EMG electrodes. We assessed the impact of descending vestibulospinal pathways on biceps muscle activity and evaluated the relationship between vestibular function and the severity of spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175953/distinct-roles-of-different-pre-and-post-synaptic-ncam-isoforms-in-early-motoneuron-myotube-interactions-required-for-functional-synapse-formation
#18
Katsusuke Hata, Yuka Maeno-Hikichi, Norihiro Yumoto, Steven J Burden, Lynn T Landmesser
The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is expressed both pre- and postsynaptically during neuromuscular junction formation. Genetic deletion in mice of all three isoforms (180kD, 140kD and 120 kD), or just the 180 isoform, suggested that different isoforms played distinct roles in synaptic maturation. Here we characterized in mice of either sex the earliest adhesive contacts between the growth cones of motoneurons and myotubes and their subsequent maturation into functional synapses in co-cultures of motoneurons and myotubes, that expressed their normal complement of NCAM isoforms, or were lacking all isoforms either pre- or post-synaptically...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171432/locomotor-analysis-identifies-early-compensatory-changes-during-disease-progression-and-subgroup-classification-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Melissa M Haulcomb, Rena M Meadows, Whitney M Miller, Kathryn P McMillan, MeKenzie J Hilsmeyer, Xuefu Wang, Wesley T Beaulieu, Stephanie L Dickinson, Todd J Brown, Virginia M Sanders, Kathryn J Jones
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a motoneuron degenerative disease that is challenging to diagnose and presents with considerable variability in survival. Early identification and enhanced understanding of symptomatic patterns could aid in diagnosis and provide an avenue for monitoring disease progression. Use of the mSOD1G93A mouse model provides control of the confounding environmental factors and genetic heterogeneity seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, while investigating underlying disease-induced changes...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168874/bioreactor-model-of-neuromuscular-junction-with-electrical-stimulation-for-pharmacological-potency-testing
#20
Surapon N Charoensook, Damian J Williams, Syandan Chakraborty, Kam W Leong, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
In vitro models of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are emerging as a valuable tool to study synaptogenesis, synaptic maintenance, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Many models have previously been developed using a variety of cell sources for skeletal muscle and motoneurons. These models can advanced by integrating beneficial features of the native developmental milieu of the NMJ. We created a functional in vitro model of NMJ by bioreactor cultivation of transdifferentiated myocytes and stem cell-derived motoneurons, in the presence of electrical stimulation...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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