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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#1
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527715/influence-of-netrin-1-on-reinnervation-of-laryngeal-muscles-following-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injury
#2
Ignacio Hernandez-Morato, Shira Koss, Sansar Sharma, Michael J Pitman
Following recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, recovery results in poor functional restitution of the paralyzed vocal fold. Netrin-1 has been found to be upregulated in the rat posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) during nerve regeneration, We evaluated the effect of ectopic Netrin-1 in the PCA during RLN reinnervation. The right RLN was transected and Netrin-1 was injected into the PCA (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20μg/ml). At 7 days post injury fluorescent retrograde tracer was injected into PCA and Thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526579/differential-involvement-of-vesicular-and-glial-glutamate-transporters-around-spinal-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Tomohiro Ohgomori, Ryo Yamasaki, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Kenji Kadomatsu, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shozo Jinno
From a view point of the glutamate excitotoxicity theory, several studies have suggested that abnormal glutamate homeostasis via dysfunction of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) may underlie neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the detailed role of GLT-1 in the pathogenies of ALS remains controversial. To assess this issue, here we elucidated structural alterations associated with dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis using SOD1(G93A) mice, a genetic model of familial ALS...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#4
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520806/als-skeletal-muscle-shows-enhanced-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-fibrosis-and-induction-of-fibro-adipogenic-progenitor-markers
#5
David Gonzalez, Osvaldo Contreras, Daniela L Rebolledo, Juan Pablo Espinoza, Brigitte van Zundert, Enrique Brandan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which upper and lower motoneurons degenerate leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. Several studies indicate that skeletal muscle contributes to disease progression; however the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Fibrosis is a common feature in skeletal muscle under chronic damage conditions such as those caused by muscular dystrophies or denervation. However, the exact mechanisms of fibrosis induction and the cellular bases of this pathological response are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520775/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-androgen-receptor-expression-and-sociosexual-behavior-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#6
Eric R Schuppe, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Cathleen Drilling, Michael Black, Matthew S Grober
Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511915/altered-ionic-currents-and-amelioration-by-igf-1-and-pacap-in-motoneuron-derived-cells-modelling-sbma
#7
Aura M Jiménez Garduño, Leon J Juárez-Hernández, María J Polanco, Laura Tosatto, Daniela Michelatti, Daniele Arosio, Manuela Basso, Maria Pennuto, Carlo Musio
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's disease, is a motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tandem repeat encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA is triggered by the binding of mutant AR to its natural ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To investigate the neuronal alterations of motor neuron cell models of SBMA, we applied patch-clamp methods to verify how polyQ expansions in the AR alter cell ionic currents...
May 10, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507192/performance-fatigability-mechanisms-and-task-specificity
#8
Sandra K Hunter
Performance fatigability is characterized as an acute decline in motor performance caused by an exercise-induced reduction in force or power of the involved muscles. Multiple mechanisms contribute to performance fatigability and originate from neural and muscular processes, with the task demands dictating the mechanisms. This review highlights that (1) inadequate activation of the motoneuron pool can contribute to performance fatigability, and (2) the demands of the task and the physiological characteristics of the population assessed, dictate fatigability and the involved mechanisms...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501695/expression-of-aromatase-and-estrogen-receptors-in-lumbar-motoneurons-of-mice
#9
Ying-Xiao Ji, Mei Zhao, Ya-Ling Liu, Li-Sha Chen, Peng-Li Hao, Can Sun
Estrogen exerts protective roles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the expression of aromatase (ARO) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in the motoneurons of spinal cord, has not yet been elucidated. By immunohistochemistry, we found that ARO and ERs were present in the ventral horn of adult mice lumbar spinal cord, and colocalized with SMI-32, a motoneuron specific marker. Within motoneurons, we observed that ARO is detected primarily in the cytoplasm, with fewer ARO in the nucleus; ERα and ERβ mainly localized in the nucleus with less in the cytoplasm; while GPR30 is located in soma and processes...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495518/prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-diclofenac-sodium-does-not-affect-total-neuron-numbers-in-spinal-segment-t13-in-rats
#10
Murat Çetin Ragbetli, Mikail Kara, Neşe Çölçimen, Necat Koyun, Gamze Çakmak, Veysel Akyol, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the total number of neurons in segment T13 of the spinal cord of offspring of pregnant rats using stereological methods. Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats weighing 150-200g were used. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups; a control group, a sham group and a DS (1mg/kg, intramuscular) exposed group. The DS and sham groups received injection from the 5(th) day of gestation to the 19(th). 28 days after birth, the offspring rats were perfused with 4% buffered formalin...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489540/nonlinear-frequency-domain-analysis-of-the-transformation-of-cortical-inputs-by-a-motoneuron-pool-muscle-complex
#11
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488382/neuron-specific-knockdown-of-the-drosophila-fat-induces-reduction-of-life-span-deficient-locomotive-ability-shortening-of-motoneuron-terminal-branches-and-defects-in-axonal-targeting
#12
Aya Nakamura, Ryo Tanaka, Kazushige Morishita, Hideki Yoshida, Yujiro Higuchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485493/regionalization-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-human-vastus-medialis
#13
Alessio Gallina, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Tanya D Ivanova, S Jayne Garland
The localization of motor unit territories provides an anatomical basis to suggest that the CNS may have more independence in motor unit recruitment and control strategies than what was previously thought. In this study, we investigated whether the human spinal cord has the neuromuscular circuitry to independently activate motor units located in different regions of the vastus medialis. Mechanical taps were applied to multiple locations in the vastus medialis (VM) in nine healthy individuals. Regional responses within the muscle were observed using a grid of 5 × 13 surface EMG electrodes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476946/in-vivo-calcium-signaling-during-synaptic-refinement-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#15
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
Neural activity plays a key role in pruning aberrant synapses in various neural systems, including the mammalian cortex, where low frequency (0.01 Hz) calcium oscillations refine topographic maps. However, the activity-dependent molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Activity-dependent pruning also occurs at embryonic Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), where low frequency Ca(2+) oscillations are required for synaptic refinement and the response to the muscle-derived chemorepellant Sema2a...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473192/characterization-of-a-cerebral-palsy-like-model-in-rats-analysis-of-gait-pattern-and-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-motor-areas
#16
Adriana Souza Dos Santos, Wellington de Almeida, Bruno Popik, Bruno Marques Sbardelotto, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Marcelo Alves de Souza, Lígia Aline Centenaro
In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468994/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-lower-limb-motoneurons-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#17
M A Urbin, Recep Ali Ozdemir, Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
Recovery of lower-limb function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Here, we examined whether paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) changes transmission at spinal synapses of lower-limb motoneurons in humans with chronic incomplete SCI and aged-matched controls. We used 200 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the leg representation of the motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 2 ms before antidromic potentials evoked in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (PCMS+) or when antidromic potentials arrived 15 or 28 ms before corticospinal volleys (PCMS-) on separate days...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462691/neurodegeneration-in-the-spinal-ventral-horn-prior-to-motor-impairment-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#18
Patrick Grabher, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Gergely David, Patrick Freund
Remote grey matter pathology has been suggested rostral to the compression site in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). We used computational neuroimaging to assess in-vivo the extent and functional relevance of neurodegeneration in ventral and dorsal horns above the site of compression in the cervical cord of CSM patients. Twenty patients with CSM and eighteen healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution structural and diffusion MRI protocol at vertebra C2/C3. Patients received comprehensive clinical assessments...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459438/pericytes-impair-capillary-blood-flow-and-motor-function-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Yaqing Li, Ana M Lucas-Osma, Sophie Black, Mischa V Bandet, Marilee J Stephens, Romana Vavrek, Leo Sanelli, Keith K Fenrich, Antonio F Di Narzo, Stella Dracheva, Ian R Winship, Karim Fouad, David J Bennett
Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) are controlled by neuronal activity. For example, widespread vessel constriction (vessel tone) is induced by brainstem neurons that release the monoamines serotonin and noradrenaline, and local vessel dilation is induced by glutamatergic neuron activity. Here we examined how vessel tone adapts to the loss of neuron-derived monoamines after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We find that, months after the imposition of SCI, the spinal cord below the site of injury is in a chronic state of hypoxia owing to paradoxical excess activity of monoamine receptors (5-HT1) on pericytes, despite the absence of monoamines...
May 1, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459188/the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-sma-and-als-how-does-it-contribute-to-motoneuron-degeneration
#20
Niko Hensel, Peter Claus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping clinical phenotypes based on impaired motoneuron function. However, the pathomechanisms of both diseases are largely unknown, and it is still unclear whether they converge on the molecular level. SMA is a monogenic disease caused by low levels of functional Survival of Motoneuron (SMN) protein, whereas ALS involves multiple genes as well as environmental factors. Recent evidence argues for involvement of actin regulation as a causative and dysregulated process in both diseases...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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