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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455904/hypoglossal-nerve-paralysis-in-a-child-after-a-dental-procedure
#1
Simona D Marino, Laura Schiavone, Flavia M C La Mendola, Tiziana Timpanaro, Maria Elena Cucuzza, Filippo Greco, Pierluigi Smilari, Agata Fiumara, Andrea Domenico Praticò
Unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is a rare complication of orthodontic procedures. The main reported causes of HNP are: orthopedic and otorhinolaryngology surgical interventions, and in particular maneuvers involving compression or overstretching of the hypoglossal nerve, dental procedures and traumas, and also infections, motoneuron disorders, tumors, vascular diseases. Diagnosis is usually performed by electrophysiology studies (EMG-VCN), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to exclude other causes...
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454667/pten-expression-in-astrocytic-processes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
T V Povysheva, Y O Mukhamedshina, A A Rizvanov, Y A Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451889/effects-of-patterned-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-on-soleus-spinal-motor-neuron-excitability
#3
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438795/independent-suboesophageal-neuronal-innervation-of-the-defense-gland-and-longitudinal-muscles-in-the-stick-insect-peruphasma-schultei-prothorax
#4
Konrad Stolz, Johannes Strauß, Joscha Arne Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
This study investigates the neuroanatomy of the defense gland and a related muscle in the stick insect Peruphasma schultei with axonal tracing and histological sections. The gland is innervated by three neurons through the Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), the ipsilateral neuron (ILN), the contralateral neuron (CLN) and the prothoracic intersegmental neuron (PIN). The ILN has a large soma which is typical for motoneurons that cause fast contraction of large muscles and its dendrites are located in motor-sensory and sensory neuropile areas of the SOG...
February 10, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436725/differences-in-muscle-performance-during-fatigue-may-explain-the-differences-in-motoneurone-excitability-between-acute-and-chronic-hypoxia
#5
Harrison T Finn, Simon C Gandevia, Janet L Taylor
We have with great interest read the paper by Ruggiero and colleagues, which explored the effects of acclimatization to hypoxia on motoneurone excitability during fatigue (Ruggiero et al. 2017) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435916/the-metabolic-disturbances-of-motoneurons-exposed-to-glutamate
#6
Blandine Madji Hounoum, Hélène Blasco, Emmanuelle Coque, Patrick Vourc'h, Patrick Emond, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Cédric Raoul, Sylvie Mavel
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is considered as one of the major pathophysiological factors of motoneuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motoneuron diseases. In order to expand our knowledge on mechanisms of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, the present study proposes to determine the metabolic consequences of glutamate and astrocytes in primary enriched motoneuron culture. Using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), we showed that the presence of astrocytes and glutamate profoundly modified the metabolic profile of motoneurons...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435486/transient-receptor-potential-channels-trpm4-and-trpc3-critically-contribute-to-respiratory-motor-pattern-formation-but-not-rhythmogenesis-in-rodent-brainstem-circuits
#7
Hidehiko Koizumi, Tibin T John, Justine X Chia, Mohammad F Tariq, Ryan S Phillips, Bryan Mosher, Yonghua Chen, Ryan Thompson, Ruli Zhang, Naohiro Koshiya, Jeffrey C Smith
Transient receptor potential channel, TRPM4, the putative molecular substrate for Ca2+-activated nonselective cation current (ICAN), is hypothesized to generate bursting activity of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) inspiratory neurons and critically contribute to respiratory rhythmogenesis. Another TRP channel, TRPC3, which mediates Na+/Ca2+ fluxes, may be involved in regulating Ca2+-related signaling, including affecting TRPM4/ICAN in respiratory pre-BötC neurons. However, TRPM4 and TRPC3 expression in pre-BötC inspiratory neurons and functional roles of these channels remain to be determined...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428556/effect-of-hypercapnia-on-self-sustained-muscle-activity
#8
Kei Hatano, Kazuki Shirakawa, Noboru Usuda, Ryouta Matsuura, Yoshinori Ohtsuka, Takahiro Yunoki
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hypercapnia on motor neuromuscular activity of the human triceps surae muscle. Nine subjects participated in trials in a normal breathing condition and a CO2 rebreathing condition. In both conditions, in order to provoke self-sustained muscle activity, percutaneous electrical train stimulation was applied to the tibial nerve while each subject lay on a bed. Self-sustained muscle activity, which is an indirect observation of plateau potentials in spinal motoneurons, was measured for 30 sec after the train stimulation by using surface electromyography...
February 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424359/motor-unit-number-index-munix-derivation-from-the-relationship-between-the-area-and-power-of-surface-electromyogram-a-computer-simulation-and-clinical-study
#9
Francesc Miralles
Objetive. MUNIX is a technique based on surface electromyogram (sEMG) that is gaining acceptance as a method to monitoring motor neuron loss because is reliable and produces less discomfort than other electrodiagnostic techniques aimed to the same purpose. MUNIX assumes that the relationship between the area of sEMG obtained at increasing levels of muscle activation and the values of a variable called "Ideal case motor unit count" (ICMUC), defined as the product of the ratio between area and power of the M-wave by that of the sEMG, is described by a decreasing power function...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423637/complementary-expression-of-calcium-binding-proteins-delineates-the-functional-organization-of-the-locomotor-network
#10
Eva M Berg, Maria Bertuzzi, Konstantinos Ampatzis
Neuronal networks in the spinal cord generate and execute all locomotor-related movements by transforming descending signals from supraspinal areas into appropriate rhythmic activity patterns. In these spinal networks, neurons that arise from the same progenitor domain share similar distribution patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, morphological and electrophysiological features. However, subgroups of them participate in different functionally distinct microcircuits to produce locomotion at different speeds and of different modalities...
February 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420729/combination-treatment-with-exogenous-gdnf-and-fetal-spinal-cord-cells-results-in-better-motoneuron-survival-and-functional-recovery-after-avulsion-injury-with-delayed-root-reimplantation
#11
Carolin Ruven, Smaranda-Ruxandra Badea, Wai-Man Wong, Wutian Wu
When spinal roots are torn off from the spinal cord, both the peripheral and central nervous system get damaged. As the motoneurons lose their axons, they start to die rapidly, whereas target muscles atrophy due to the denervation. In this kind of complicated injury, different processes need to be targeted in the search for the best treatment strategy. In this study, we tested glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) treatment and fetal lumbar cell transplantation for their effectiveness to prevent motoneuron death and muscle atrophy after the spinal root avulsion and delayed reimplantation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416504/electrophysiological-and-morphological-properties-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-rat-trigeminal-motor-nucleus
#12
Kayo Nishimura, Masahiro Ohta, Mitsuru Saito, Yukako Morita-Isogai, Hajime Sato, Eriko Kuramoto, Dong Xu Yin, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takeshi Kaneko, Takashi Yamashiro, Kenji Takada, Seog Bae Oh, Hiroki Toyoda, Youngnam Kang
The muscle contraction during voluntary movement is regulated by activities of α- and γ-motoneurons (αMNs and γMNs, respectively). The tension of jaw-closing muscles can be finely tuned over a wide range. This excellent function is likely to be achieved by the specific populations of αMNs innervating jaw-closing muscles. Indeed, we have recently demonstrated that in the rat dorsolateral trigeminal motor nucleus (dl-TMN), the size distribution of αMNs was bimodal and the population of smaller αMNs showed a size distribution similar to that of γMNs, by immunohistochemically identifying αMNs and γMNs based on the expressions of estrogen-related receptor gamma (Err3) and neuronal DNA binding protein NeuN together with ChAT...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413901/mir-137-3p-rescue-motoneuron-death-by-targeting-calpain-2
#13
Ying Tang, Rao Fu, Ze-Min Ling, Lin-Lin Liu, Guang-Yin Yu, Wen Li, Xin-Yu Fang, Zhe Zhu, Wu-Tian Wu, Li-Hua Zhou
Brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) is a type of injury that leads to motor function loss as a result of motoneurons (MNs) degeneration. Here we identified that the reduced expression of rat miR-137-3p in the ventral horn of spinal cord was associated with MNs death. However, the pathophysiological role of miR-137-3p in root avulsion remains poorly understood. We demonstrated that the calcium-activated neutral protease-2 (calpain-2) was a direct target gene of miR-137-3p with miR-137-3p binding to the 3'-untranslated region of calpain-2...
January 26, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412777/cardiac-modulation-of-alpha-motoneuron-discharges
#14
Timothy Webber Ford, Peter Kirkwood
Recordings of alpha motoneuron discharges from branches of the intercostal and abdominal nerves in anesthetized cats were analyzed for modulation during the cardiac cycle. Cardiac modulation was assessed by the construction of cross-correlation histograms between the R-wave of the ECG and the largest amplitude efferent spikes. In all but two recordings (which were believed to have either no or few alpha spikes), the histograms showed relatively short duration peaks and/or troughs (widths at half amplitude 4 - 50 ms) at lags of 10 - 150 ms...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410612/nav1-9-potentiates-oxidized-phospholipid-induced-trp-responses-only-under-inflammatory-conditions
#15
Corinna Martin, Carolin Stoffer, Milad Mohammadi, Julian Hugo, Enrico Leipold, Beatrice Oehler, Heike L Rittner, Robert Blum
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) like oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) were recently identified as novel proalgesic targets in acute and chronic inflammatory pain. These endogenous chemical irritants are generated in inflamed tissue and mediate their pain-inducing function by activating the transient receptor potential channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 expressed in sensory neurons. Notably, prototypical therapeutics interfering with OxPL were shown to inhibit TRP channel activation and pain behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409912/crush-injury-to-motor-nerves-in-the-g93a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-promotes-muscle-reinnervation-and-survival-of-functionally-intact-nerve-muscle-contacts
#16
P S Sharp, N Tyreman, K Jones, T Gordon
Selective survival of small motor nerve fibers and their neuromuscular contacts in the SOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests that smaller regenerated nerve fibers are more able to sustain reformed nerve-muscle connections as functionally intact motor units (MUs). The sciatic nerve was crushed unilaterally in SOD1G93A transgenic mice at 40 days of age and contractile forces of reinnervated muscles and their MUs were recorded at 90 days in order to determine the capacities of the nerves to regenerate and to form and retain functional neuromuscular connections...
January 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408351/in-vivo-two-photon-imaging-of-motoneurons-and-adjacent-glia-in-the-ventral-spinal-cord
#17
Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Phillip Rieder, Xianshu Bai, Anja Scheller, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Frank Kirchhoff
BACKGROUND: Interactions between motoneurons and glial cells are pivotal to regulate and maintain functional states and synaptic connectivity in the spinal cord. In vivo two-photon imaging of the nervous system provided novel and unexpected knowledge about structural and physiological changes in the grey matter of the forebrain and in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord. NEW METHOD: Here, we describe a novel experimental strategy to investigate the spinal grey matter, i...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405353/congenital-myasthenic-syndromes-with-acetylcholinesterase-deficiency-the-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Claire Legay
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse in vertebrates. This synapse connects motoneurons to muscles and is responsible for muscle contraction, a physiological process that is essential for survival. A key factor for the normal functioning of this synapse is the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the synaptic cleft. This is ensured by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which degrades ACh. A number of mutations in synaptic genes expressed in motoneurons or muscle cells have been identified and are causative for a class of neuromuscular diseases called congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs)...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405030/cross-talk-between-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-neurodegeneration-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Lucia Chico, Martina Modena, Annalisa Lo Gerfo, Giulia Ricci, Elena Caldarazzo Ienco, Larisa Ryskalin, Francesco Fornai, Gabriele Siciliano
The mechanisms underlying motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system with progressive paralysis, are complex and not yet fully understood. It is generally agreed that ALS is a multifactorial and multisystem disease due not only possibly to genetic causes but also to other factors like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, RNA dysmetabolism, autophagy, and excitotoxicity glutamate-mediate. Altered oxidative stress biomarker profile has been repeatedly reported in ALS patients, which may suggest that abnormal free radical production is relevant in the ALS pathogenesis...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403360/commentary-synaptic-excitation-in-spinal-motoneurons-alternates-with-synaptic-inhibition-and-is-balanced-by-outward-rectification-during-rhythmic-motor-network-activity
#20
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