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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211791/motor-control-of-drosophila-feeding-behavior
#1
Olivia Schwarz, Ali Asgar Bohra, Xinyu Liu, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Jan Pielage
The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209439/post-polio-syndrome-cases-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Agnieszka Rolewska
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202568/developmental-role-of-dscam-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#3
Carl Farah
Studying the development of spinal circuitry is essential in understanding the motor behaviors that arise from them. In their study, Thiry et al. (J Neurophysiol 115: 1338-1354, 2016) show that loss of DSCAM leads to locomotor impairments that may stem from specific changes in spinal connectivity altering the balance of central and peripheral excitatory drive onto spinal motoneurons. These findings, as well as additional insights and future directions, are discussed in the context of the recent literature.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197100/rho-kinase-inhibition-with-fasudil-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-symptomatic-treatment-potential-after-disease-onset
#4
René Günther, Alexander Balck, Jan C Koch, Tobias Nientiedt, Michael Sereda, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor, Lars Tönges
Despite an improved understanding of the genetic background and the pathomechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) no novel disease-modifying therapies have been successfully implemented in clinical routine. Riluzole still remains the only clinically approved substance in human ALS treatment with limited efficacy. We have previously identified pharmacological rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors as orally applicable substances in SOD1.G93A transgenic ALS mice (SOD1(G93A)), which are able to extend survival time and improve motor function after presymptomatic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#5
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192829/tens-alleviates-muscle-weakness-attributable-to-attenuation-of-ia-afferents
#6
Y Konishi, P J McNair, D A Rice
Quadriceps weakness is a notable problem following knee damage. Research has shown effectiveness of TENS in improving Quadriceps weakness associated with arthrogenic muscle inhibition. However, these studies were not focused upon short term delivery of TENS, nor did they examine the potential mechanism(s). The present study examined the effect of 25-30 s of TENS upon weakness induced temporarily by a prolonged vibration. Subjects performed eccentric MVCs under 2 conditions (TENS and no-TENS). First, MVC was measured at baseline...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177529/a-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-projection-to-medial-rectus-motoneurons-supplying-singly-and-multiply-innervated-extraocular-muscle-fibers
#7
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Paul J May
We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149391/spatial-control-of-reflexes-posture-and-movement-in-normal-conditions-and-after-neurological-lesions
#8
Anatol G Feldman, Mindy F Levin
Control of reflexes is usually associated with central modulation of their sensitivity (gain) or phase-dependent inhibition and facilitation of their influences on motoneurons (reflex gating). Accumulated empirical findings show that the gain modulation and reflex gating are secondary, emergent properties of central control of spatial thresholds at which reflexes become functional. In this way, the system pre-determines, in a feedforward and task-specific way, where, in a spatial domain or a frame of reference, muscles are allowed to work without directly prescribing EMG activity and forces...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148646/microcircuit-formation-following-transplantation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-into-peripheral-nerve
#9
Philippe Magown, Victor F Rafuse, Robert M Brownstone
Motoneurons derived from embryonic stem cells can be transplanted into the tibial nerve, where they extend axons to functionally innervate target muscle. Here, we studied spontaneous muscle contractions in these grafts three months following transplantation. One-half of the transplanted grafts generated rhythmic muscle contractions of variable patterns, either spontaneously or in response to brief electrical stimulation. Activity generated by transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived neurons was driven by glutamate and was modulated by muscarinic and GABAergic/glycinergic transmission...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148643/developmental-nicotine-exposure-alters-potassium-currents-in-hypoglossal-motoneurons-of-neonatal-rat
#10
Marina Cholanian, Jesse Wealing, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
We previously showed that nicotine exposure in utero and after birth via breast milk [developmental nicotine exposure (DNE)] is associated with many changes in the structure and function of hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs), including a reduction in the size of the dendritic arbor and an increase in cell excitability. Interestingly, the elevated excitability was associated with a reduction in the expression of glutamate receptors on the cell body. Together, these observations are consistent with a homeostatic compensation aimed at restoring cell excitability...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148553/perk-activation-mitigates-tau-pathology-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#11
Julius Bruch, Hong Xu, Thomas W Rösler, Anderson De Andrade, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Thomas Arzberger, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Ulrich Müller, Günter U Höglinger
The RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is genetically associated with the tauopathy progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). To elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying this association, we explored PERK activity in brains of PSP patients and its function in three tauopathy models (cultured human neurons overexpressing 4-repeat wild-type tau or treated with the environmental neurotoxin annonacin, and P301S tau transgenic mice). In vitro, treatment with a pharmacological PERK activator CCT020312 or PERK overexpression reduced tau phosphorylation, tau conformational change and 4-repeat tau isoforms, and increased cell viability...
February 1, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139855/wildtype-motoneurons-als-linked-sod1-mutation-and-glutamate-profoundly-modify-astrocyte-metabolism-and-lactate-shuttling
#12
Blandine Madji Hounoum, Sylvie Mavel, Emmanuelle Coque, Franck Patin, Patrick Vourc'h, Sylviane Marouillat, Lydie Nadal-Desbarats, Patrick Emond, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Cédric Raoul, Hélène Blasco
The selective degeneration of motoneuron that typifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implicates non-cell-autonomous effects of astrocytes. However, mechanisms underlying astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity remain largely unknown. According to the determinant role of astrocyte metabolism in supporting neuronal function, we propose to explore the metabolic status of astrocytes exposed to ALS-associated conditions. We found a significant metabolic dysregulation including purine, pyrimidine, lysine, and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways in astrocytes expressing an ALS-causing mutated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) when co-cultured with motoneurons...
April 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132610/upper-limb-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Jens A Petersen, Martina Spiess, Armin Curt, Norbert Weidner, Rüdiger Rupp, Rainer Abel, Martin Schubert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The course of central and peripheral motor recovery after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) may be investigated by electrophysiological measures. The goal of this study was to compare the 2 over the first year after injury in relation to motor gains. METHODS: Compound motor action potentials (CMAPs), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and F-waves were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi and CMAP and F-waves from abductor hallucis muscles in 305 patients at about 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months following an acute traumatic SCI...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129919/loss-of-huntingtin-stimulates-capture-of-retrograde-dense-core-vesicles-to-increase-synaptic-neuropeptide-stores
#14
Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128465/oro-facial-impairment-in-stroke-patients
#15
REVIEW
Martin Schimmel, Takahiro Ono, Otto L T Lam, Frauke Müller
Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review is to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128448/chronic-infusion-of-sod1-g93a-astrocyte-secreted-factors-induces-spinal-motoneuron-degeneration-and-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-healthy-rats
#16
U N Ramírez-Jarquín, F Rojas, B van Zundert, R Tapia
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease and studies in vitro show that motoneuron degeneration is triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. However, whether soluble toxic factor(s) released by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expressing astrocytes induces death of motoneurons and leads to motor dysfunction in vivo is not known. To directly test this, healthy adult rats were treated with conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocytes (ACM) that express human (h) SOD1(G93A) (ACM-hG93A) via chronic osmotic pump infusion in the lumbar spinal cord...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128057/muscle-coordination-and-locomotion-in-humans
#17
Francesca Sylos-Labini, Myrka Zago, Pierre A Guertin, Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko
Locomotion is a semi-automatic daily task. Several studies show that muscle activity is fairly stereotyped during normal walking. Nevertheless, each human leg contains over 50 muscles and locomotion requires flexibility in order to adapt to different conditions as, for instance, different speeds, gaits, turning, obstacle avoidance, altered gravity levels, etc. Therefore, locomotor control has to deal with a certain level of flexibility and non-linearity. In this review, we describe and discuss different findings dealing with both simplicity and variability of the muscular control, as well as with its maturation during development...
January 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125929/trans-synaptic-degeneration-of-motoneurons-distal-to-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-compression-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#18
Chaojun Zheng, Yu Zhu, Feizhou Lu, Xiaosheng Ma, Dong Tian, Jianyuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of chronic cervical spinal cord compression upon remote motor unit function in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). METHODS: Fifty-three CSM patients and 47 healthy subjects were included. Bilateral motor unit number estimations (MUNEs) were recorded from both abductor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis brevis, and bilateral flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflexes were examined in all subjects along with the nine-hole peg test (NHPT)...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123025/sodium-pumps-mediate-activity-dependent-changes-in-mammalian-motor-networks
#19
Laurence D Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J Broadhead, Keith T Sillar, Gareth B Miles
: Ubiquitously expressed sodium pumps are best known for maintaining the ionic gradients and resting membrane potential required for generating action potentials. However, activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity can also influence neuronal firing and regulate rhythmic network output. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor networks in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. The sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of drug-induced locomotor bursting, effects that were dependent on the presence of the neuromodulator dopamine...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120238/neurophysiological-mechanisms-underpinning-stretch-induced-force-loss
#20
REVIEW
Gabriel S Trajano, Kazunori Nosaka, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well known that prolonged passive muscle stretch reduces maximal muscle force production. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that adaptations occurring within the nervous system play a major role in this stretch-induced force reduction. This article reviews the existing literature, and some new evidence, regarding acute neurophysiological changes in response to passive muscle stretching. We discuss the possible contribution of supra-spinal and spinal structures to the force reduction after passive muscle stretch...
January 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
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