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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648715/midbrain-stimulation-evoked-lumbar-spinal-activity-and-fictive-locomotion-in-the-adult-decerebrate-mouse
#1
Katinka Stecina
BACKGROUND: Genetic techniques rendering murine models a popular choice for neuroscience research has led to important insights on neural networks controlling locomotor function. Using genetically altered mouse models for in vivo, electrophysiological studies in the adult state could validate key principles of locomotor network organization that have been described in neonatal, in vitro preparations. NEW METHOD: The experimental model presented here describes a decerebrate, in vivo adult mouse preparation in which focal, electrical midbrain stimulation was combined with monitoring lumbar neural activity and motor output after pre-collicular decerebration and neuromuscular blockade...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647557/kcc3-loss-of-function-contributes-to-andermann-syndrome-by-inducing-activity-dependent-neuromuscular-junction-defects
#2
Melissa Bowerman, Céline Salsac, Véronique Bernard, Claire Soulard, Annie Dionne, Emmanuelle Coque, Salim Benlefki, Pascale Hince, Patrick A Dion, Gillian Butler-Browne, William Camu, Jean-Pierre Bouchard, Eric Delpire, Guy A Rouleau, Cédric Raoul, Frédérique Scamps
Loss-of-function mutations in the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC3 lead to Andermann syndrome, a severe sensorimotor neuropathy characterized by areflexia, amyotrophy and locomotor abnormalities. The molecular events responsible for axonal loss remain poorly understood. Here, we establish that global or neuron-specific KCC3 loss-of-function in mice leads to early neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities and muscular atrophy that are consistent with the pre-synaptic neurotransmission defects observed in patients...
June 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642492/segregation-of-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-transmission-at-the-mixed-motoneuron-renshaw-cell-synapse
#3
Boris Lamotte d'Incamps, Gardave S Bhumbra, Joshua D Foster, Marco Beato, Philippe Ascher
In neonatal mice motoneurons excite Renshaw cells by releasing both acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate. These two neurotransmitters activate two types of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) (the homomeric α7 receptors and the heteromeric α*ß* receptors) as well as the two types of glutamate receptors (GluRs) (AMPARs and NMDARs). Using paired recordings, we confirm that a single motoneuron can release both transmitters on a single post-synaptic Renshaw cell. We then show that co-transmission is preserved in adult animals...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639940/genetic-specification-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-the-diaphragm-muscles-and-their-motor-innervation
#4
Camille Charoy, Sarah Dinvaut, Yohan Chaix, Laurette Morlé, Isabelle Sanyas, Muriel Bozon, Karine Kindbeiter, Bénédicte Durand, Jennifer M Skidmore, Lies De Groef, Motoaki Seki, Lieve Moons, Christiana Ruhrberg, James F Martin, Donna M Martin, Julien Falk, Valerie Castellani
The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs...
June 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#5
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637976/coordinated-control-of-the-tongue-during-suckling-like-activity-and-respiration
#6
Tomio Inoue, Kiyomi Nakayama, Yoshiaki Ihara, Satoshi Tachikawa, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Koji Takahashi, Takehiko Iijima
The tongue can move freely and is important in oral motor functions. Tongue movement must be coordinated with movement of the hyoid, mandible, and pharyngeal wall, to which it is attached. Our previous study using isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations showed that application of N-methyl-D-aspartate induces rhythmic activity in the hypoglossal nerve that is coincident with rhythmic activity in the ipsilateral trigeminal motor nerve. Partial or complete midline transection of the preparation only abolishes activity in the trigeminal motor nerve; therefore, the neuronal network contributing to coordinated activity of the jaw/tongue muscles is located on both sides of the preparation and sends motor commands to contralateral trigeminal motoneurons...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637975/projection-and-synaptic-connectivity-of-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus-neurons-controlling-jaw-reflexes
#7
Atsushi Yoshida, Masayuki Moritani, Yoshitaka Nagase, Yong Chul Bae
Neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) receive deep sensation (proprioception) from jaw-closing muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments and project primarily to the jaw-closing motoneuron pool (jaw-closing nucleus) of the trigeminal motor nucleus and to the supratrigeminal nucleus. Numerous articles have described the morphology and physiology of the central projections of Vmes afferents originating from the muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments. However, no report has provided a detailed description of projection and synaptic connectivity, especially of single afferents, and their functional implications...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632736/from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-movement-and-back-again
#8
Wondimu W Teka, Khaldoun C Hamade, William H Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#9
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629562/3t-mr-defecography-a-feasibility-study-in-sensorimotor-complete-spinal-cord-injured-patients-with-neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction
#10
Cornelia Putz, Celine D Alt, Cornelia Hensel, Björn Wagner, Simone Gantz, Hans-Jürgen Gerner, Norbert Weidner, Lars Grenacher
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether MR-defecography can be employed in sensorimotor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects as a potential diagnostic tool to detect defecational disorders associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) using standard parameters for obstructed defecation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective single centre clinical trial, we developed MR-defecography in traumatic sensorimotor complete paraplegic SCI patients with upper motoneuron type injury (neurological level of injury T1 to T10) using a conventional 3T scanner...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627417/regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-by-repetitive-passive-finger-movement-frequency
#11
Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory input induced by passive movement activates primary motor cortex (M1). We applied repetitive passive movement (RPM) of different frequencies to test if modulation of M1 excitability depends on RPM frequency. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in this study. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to left M1 were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) to assess corticospinal excitability (experiment 1: n=15), and F-waves were measured from the right FDI as an index of spinal motoneuron excitability (experiment 2: n=15)...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624492/cortical-function-and-corticomotoneuronal-adaptation-in-monomelic-amyotrophy
#12
José Manuel Matamala, Nimeshan Geevasinga, William Huynh, Thanuja Dharmadasa, James Howells, Neil G Simon, Parvathi Menon, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate corticomotoneuronal integrity in monomelic amyotrophy using threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TT-TMS). METHODS: Cortical excitability studies were prospectively performed in 8 monomelic amyotrophy patients and compared to 21 early-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and 40 healthy controls. Motor evoked potentials responses were recorded over abductor pollicis brevis. RESULTS: Maximal motor evoked potential (MEP/CMAP ratio) was significantly increased in monomelic amyotrophy compared with controls (monomelic amyotrophy 51...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621464/differences-in-excitability-properties-between-mg-ta-and-apb-motor-axons
#13
Cliff S Klein, Chen Ning Zhao, Hui Liu, Ping Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Excitability properties of motor nerves to different muscles are different, but the explanation is uncertain. We characterized motor axon excitability properties to the medial gastrocnemius (MG) in 27 adults, and made comparisons with the peroneal nerve to the tibialis anterior (TA) and median nerve to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) in 10 subjects. METHODS: Recordings of multiple excitability properties were made using threshold tracking, stimulating the nerves at the wrist or knee...
June 16, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#14
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619002/targeting-astrocytes-for-treatment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Mina Perić, Dinko Mitrečić, Pavle R Andjus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motoneurons. The two types, sporadic and familial differ in the aetiopathogenesis but have a similar neuropathology characterized by oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation. The disease is also characterized by a non-cell autonomous mechanism with astrocytes playing a central role by affecting synaptic glutamate, the blood-brain barrier, and metabolic and trophic support. Two types of therapeutic approaches focusing on astrocytes are presented: a) emerging molecular targets (potassium inward rectifier channels and aquaporins at the astrocyte endfeet, and IP3 receptor signaling pathway), and b) cell therapy with stem cell - generated and transplanted astrocytes...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619000/astrocytes-pathology-in-als-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#16
Sonja Johann
The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are multifactorial and include genetic and environmental factors. Nowadays, it is well accepted that neuronal loss is driven by non-cell autonomous toxicity. Non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, have been described to significantly contribute to motoneuron cell death and disease progression in cell culture experiments and animal models of ALS. Astrocytes are essential for neuronal survival and function by regulating neurotransmitter and ion homeostasis, immune response, blood flow and glucose uptake, antioxidant defence and growth factor release...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617431/nicotine-protects-rat-hypoglossal-motoneurons-from-excitotoxic-death-via-downregulation-of-connexin-36
#17
Silvia Corsini, Maria Tortora, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Motoneuron disease including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be due, at an early stage, to deficit in the extracellular clearance of the excitatory transmitter glutamate. A model of glutamate-mediated excitotoxic cell death based on pharmacological inhibition of its uptake was used to investigate how activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors by nicotine may protect motoneurons. Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) in neonatal rat brainstem slices were exposed to the glutamate uptake blocker DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) that evoked large Ca(2+) transients time locked among nearby HMs, whose number fell by about 30% 4 h later...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615341/high-frequency-epidural-stimulation-across-the-respiratory-cycle-evokes-phrenic-short-term-potentiation-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Marie H Hanna, Anna C Stamas, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey, David D Fuller
C2 spinal hemilesion (C2Hx) paralyzes the ipsilateral diaphragm, but recovery is possible through activation of "crossed spinal" synaptic inputs to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. We tested the hypothesis that high frequency epidural stimulation (HF-ES) would potentiate ipsilateral phrenic output after subacute and chronic C2Hx. HF-ES (300 Hz) was applied to the ventrolateral C4 or T2 spinal cord ipsilateral to C2Hx in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats. Stimulus duration was 60-sec and currents ranged from 100-1000 µA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#19
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608264/the-small-heat-shock-protein-b8-hspb8-efficiently-removes-aggregating-species-of-dipeptides-produced-in-c9orf72-related-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Riccardo Cristofani, Valeria Crippa, Giulia Vezzoli, Paola Rusmini, Mariarita Galbiati, Maria Elena Cicardi, Marco Meroni, Veronica Ferrari, Barbara Tedesco, Margherita Piccolella, Elio Messi, Serena Carra, Angelo Poletti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two neurodegenerative diseases in which similar pathogenic mechanisms are involved. Both diseases associate to the high propensity of specific misfolded proteins, like TDP-43 or FUS, to mislocalize and aggregate. This is partly due to their intrinsic biophysical properties and partly as a consequence of failure of the neuronal protein quality control (PQC) system. Several familial ALS/FTD cases are linked to an expansion of a repeated G4C2 hexanucleotide sequence present in the C9ORF72 gene...
June 12, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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