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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924760/p-wave-dispersion-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, José Grindler, Acácio Fernandes-Cardoso, Adrian Baranchuk
P-wave dispersion (PWD, Pd or Pdis) is a noninvasive electrocardiographic (ECG) marker for atrial remodeling and predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). PWD is defined as the difference between the widest and the narrowest P-wave duration recorded from the 12 ECG leads. Increased P-wave duration and PWD reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time with lack of a well-coordinated conduction system within the atrial muscles, with inhomogeneous, asynchronic, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with the CG + GG genotype IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism [1] and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses mainly between the left and right atria, interstitial/extracellular fibroblast activation and collagen deposition with fibrosis (via TGF-β) in atrial tissue, insufficient blood supply, significant not isotropic myoelectric activity, and thin wall thickness and consequent expansion tendency all well-known electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) [2]...
July 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917149/wavelet-packet-feature-assessment-for-high-density-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-and-channel-selection-toward-stroke-rehabilitation
#2
Dongqing Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
This study presents wavelet packet feature assessment of neural control information in paretic upper limb muscles of stroke survivors for myoelectric pattern recognition, taking advantage of high-resolution time-frequency representations of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. On this basis, a novel channel selection method was developed by combining the Fisher's class separability index and the sequential feedforward selection analyses, in order to determine a small number of appropriate EMG channels from original high-density EMG electrode array...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898382/towards-real-time-estimation-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-using-delay-locked-loop
#3
Lin Xu, Chiara Rabotti, Massimo Mischi
Decrease in muscle-fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during sustained contraction has been widely accepted as myoelectric manifestation of muscle fatigue. Several methods have been proposed in the literature for MFCV estimation by analysing surface electromyography (EMG), e.g., cross-correlation (CC) function and maximum likelihood (ML). However, for all the available methods, windowing of the EMG signal and computationally demanding calculations are required, limiting the possibility to continuously monitor muscle fatigue in real time...
November 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879592/reinnervated-split-muscle-technique-for-creating-additional-myoelectric-sites-in-an-animal-model
#4
Maria Florencia Deslivia, Hyun-Joo Lee, Rizki Fajar Zulkarnain, Bin Zhu, Arnold Adikrishna, In-Ho Jeon, Keehoon Kim
BACKGROUND: This study proposes a novel reinnervated split-muscle operation to create additional myoelectric sites as sources of command signals of myoelectric prostheses for enhanced dexterous hand-to-wrist motions. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprocedure electromyographic properties of the muscles as distinct myoelectric sites in a rat model. METHODS: The reinnervated split-muscle group (n = 6) had the gastrocnemius muscle separated along its longitudinal axis and nerves transferred to each new muscle (peroneal nerve to lateral muscle head and tibial to medial one); the non-split-muscle group (n = 6) only had nerve transfers with its muscle intact...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873553/real-time-control-of-an-exoskeleton-hand-robot-with-myoelectric-pattern-recognition
#5
Zhiyuan Lu, Xiang Chen, Xu Zhang, Kay-Yu Tong, Ping Zhou
Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873551/on-the-methodological-implications-of-extracting-muscle-synergies-from-human-locomotion
#6
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
We investigated the influence of three different high-pass (HP) and low-pass (LP) filtering conditions and a Gaussian (GNMF) and inverse-Gaussian (IGNMF) non-negative matrix factorization algorithm on the extraction of muscle synergies from myoelectric signals during human walking and running. To evaluate the effects of signal recording and processing on the outcomes, we analyzed the intraday and interday computation reliability. Results show that the IGNMF achieved a significantly higher reconstruction quality and on average needs one less synergy to sufficiently reconstruct the original signals compared to the GNMF...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845347/gesture-recognition-by-instantaneous-surface-emg-images
#7
Weidong Geng, Yu Du, Wenguang Jin, Wentao Wei, Yu Hu, Jiajun Li
Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814466/evaluation-of-extreme-learning-machine-for-classification-of-individual-and-combined-finger-movements-using-electromyography-on-amputees-and-non-amputees
#8
Khairul Anam, Adel Al-Jumaily
The success of myoelectric pattern recognition (M-PR) mostly relies on the features extracted and classifier employed. This paper proposes and evaluates a fast classifier, extreme learning machine (ELM), to classify individual and combined finger movements on amputees and non-amputees. ELM is a single hidden layer feed-forward network (SLFN) that avoids iterative learning by determining input weights randomly and output weights analytically. Therefore, it can accelerate the training time of SLFNs. In addition to the classifier evaluation, this paper evaluates various feature combinations to improve the performance of M-PR and investigate some feature projections to improve the class separability of the features...
October 1, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807418/evaluating-emg-feature-and-classifier-selection-for-application-to-partial-hand-prosthesis-control
#9
Adenike A Adewuyi, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
Pattern recognition-based myoelectric control of upper-limb prostheses has the potential to restore control of multiple degrees of freedom. Though this control method has been extensively studied in individuals with higher-level amputations, few studies have investigated its effectiveness for individuals with partial-hand amputations. Most partial-hand amputees retain a functional wrist and the ability of pattern recognition-based methods to correctly classify hand motions from different wrist positions is not well studied...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799908/assessment-of-myoelectric-controller-performance-and-kinematic-behavior-of-a-novel-soft-synergy-inspired-robotic-hand-for-prosthetic-applications
#10
Simone Fani, Matteo Bianchi, Sonal Jain, José Simões Pimenta Neto, Scott Boege, Giorgio Grioli, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782888/gastric-myoelectrical-activity-abnormalities-of-electrogastrography-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia
#11
Yusuf Kayar, Ahmet Danalıoğlu, Abdullah Al Kafee, Şükrü Okkesim, Hakan Şentürk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is unclear and not well documented. Some gastric motility abnormalities have been reported to be important factors. Transcutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is an experimental method that is used to assess FD. We aimed to compare FD patients with control subjects in terms of motility abnormalities according to the EGG results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with FD and thirty control subjects were included...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775538/a-system-for-electrotactile-feedback-using-electronic-skin-and-flexible-matrix-electrodes-experimental-evaluation
#12
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764182/characterization-of-in-body-to-on-body-wireless-radio-frequency-link-for-upper-limb-prostheses
#13
Antonietta Stango, Kamya Yekeh Yazdandoost, Francesco Negro, Dario Farina
Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG) signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749154/portable-myoelectric-brace-use-increases-upper-extremity-recovery-and-participation-but-does-not-impact-kinematics-in-chronic-poststroke-hemiparesis
#14
Nienke W Willigenburg, Michael P McNally, Timothy E Hewett, Stephen J Page
The authors examined the efficacy of an 8-week regimen combining repetitive task-specific practice (RTP) with a myoelectric brace (RTP+Myomo) on paretic upper extremity (UE; use in valued activities, perceived recovery, and reaching kinematics) in 12 subjects (4 men; M age = 53.5 years; mean time poststroke = 61.7 months). Seven subjects were administered RTP+Myomo therapy, and 5 were administered RTP only. Both groups participated in individualized, 45-min therapy sessions occurring 3 days/week over an 8-week period...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705961/muscle-tendon-units-localization-and-activation-level-analysis-based-on-high-density-surface-emg-array-and-nmf-algorithm
#15
Chengjun Huang, Xiang Chen, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. APPROACH: Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678506/gastric-electrical-stimulation-for-gastroparesis-and-chronic-unexplained-nausea-and-vomiting
#16
REVIEW
John M Wo, Thomas V Nowak, Shamaila Waseem, Matthew P Ward
Gastroparesis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Some patients have debilitating vomiting, weight loss, and dehydration, while others have effortless regurgitation of undigested foods or postprandial distress suggestive of functional dyspepsia. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been proposed as an effective treatment option for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy. Evidence suggests that the clinically available device, a low-energy high-frequency GES, activates the vagal afferent pathways to influence the central control mechanisms for nausea and vomiting...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676792/global-care-of-upper-limbs-agenesis
#17
Nathaly Quintero-Prigent, Frédéric Clavier, Naima Brennetot, Colina Martinot-Lagarde
Upper limbs birth defects are rare. There is an international classification of these malformations. The most frequent cause is the stop in the cross development of the forearm. The announcement of the malformation is a strong psychological trauma for parents, whether it occurs before the birth or if we find out when the baby is born. Beyond the grief of the perfect child, parents are very worried about activities of daily living, about the future of the child and his relationships with others. We have to inform and to support them during to the development and growth of the child...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618968/multichannel-electrotactile-feedback-for-simultaneous-and-proportional-myoelectric-control
#18
Gauravkumar K Patel, Strahinja Dosen, Claudio Castellini, Dario Farina
OBJECTIVE: Closing the loop in myoelectric prostheses by providing artificial somatosensory feedback to the user is an important need for prosthetic users. Previous studies investigated feedback strategies in combination with the control of one degree of freedom of simple grippers. Modern hands, however, are sophisticated multifunction systems. In this study, we assessed multichannel electrotactile feedback integrated with an advanced method for the simultaneous and proportional control of individual fingers of a dexterous hand...
October 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597824/combining-vibrotactile-feedback-with-volitional-myoelectric-control-for-robotic-transtibial-prostheses
#19
Baojun Chen, Yanggang Feng, Qining Wang
In recent years, the development of myoelectric control for robotic lower-limb prostheses makes it possible for amputee users to volitionally control prosthetic joints. However, the human-centered control loop is not closed due to the lack of sufficient feedback of prosthetic joint movement, and it may result in poor control performance. In this research, we propose a vibrotactile stimulation system to provide the feedback of ankle joint position, and validate the necessity of combining it with volitional myoelectric control to achieve improved control performance...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597823/the-reality-of-myoelectric-prostheses-understanding-what-makes-these-devices-difficult-for-some-users-to-control
#20
Alix Chadwell, Laurence Kenney, Sibylle Thies, Adam Galpin, John Head
Users of myoelectric prostheses can often find them difficult to control. This can lead to passive-use of the device or total rejection, which can have detrimental effects on the contralateral limb due to overuse. Current clinically available prostheses are "open loop" systems, and although considerable effort has been focused on developing biofeedback to "close the loop," there is evidence from laboratory-based studies that other factors, notably improving predictability of response, may be as, if not more, important...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
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