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Cahit Kaya, Cheryl Hanley-Maxwell, Fong Chan, Timothy Tansey
BACKGROUND: It is important to investigate receipt of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, service patterns and outcomes for youth with autism, so that limited public resources can be used more efficiently. METHOD: This study used chi-squared automatic interaction detector, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between demographic variables, receipt of VR services and employment outcomes for transition-age youth (TAY) with Autism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Véronique Rachet-Darfeuille
While the protection of the body is the primary vocation of law, legislation also aims to regulate any actions which may cause it harm. Such actions include care procedures. It is in this contradiction that the legal status of the human body lies, not without a certain amount of ambiguity.
January 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Gillean Hilton, Carolyn A Unsworth, Ruth Stuckey, Gregory C Murphy
BACKGROUND: Vocational potential in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are unrealised with rates of employment substantially lower than in the labour force participation of the general population and the pre-injury employment rates. OBJECTIVES: To understand the experience and pathway of people achieving employment outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury by; classifying participants into employment outcome groups of stable, unstable and without employment; identifying pre and post-injury pathways for participants in each group and, exploring the experiences of people of seeking, gaining and maintaining employment...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Swati Mehta, Shannon Janzen, Amanda McIntyre, Jerome Iruthayarajah, Eldon Loh, Robert Teasell
Objective: To examine the difference in functional outcomes and therapy intensity among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with comorbid depression and pain symptoms compared to those without these symptoms. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 100 patients admitted to a specialized SCI inpatient rehabilitation unit. Standard demographic factors were collected. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with comorbid depression and pain symptoms and those without. Outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Valéria Sipos, Anita Pálinkás, Nóra Kovács, Karola Orsolya Csenteri, Ferenc Vincze, József Gergő Szőllősi, Tibor Jenei, Magor Papp, Róza Ádány, János Sándor
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of general practitioners' (GPs') smoking cessation support (SCS). STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and April 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANT: A sample of 2904 regular smokers aged 18 years or older was selected randomly from 18 general medical practices involved in a national representative, general medical practice-based morbidity monitoring system...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Jude Mary Cénat, Daniel Derivois, Martine Hébert, Laetitia Mélissande Amédée, Amira Karray
In Haiti, as in several developing countries, the phenomenon of street children has become a major public health issue. These children are often victims of traumas and adverse life events. This article aimed to investigate traumas experienced by street children and their coping and resilience strategies used to deal with adversities in a logic of survival, relying on a mixed method approach. A group of 176 street children, aged 7-18 (n = 21 girls), recruited in Port-au-Prince, completed measures assessing PTSD, social support and resilience...
February 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Marina Kukla, Morris D Bell, Paul H Lysaker
This single blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) enhanced with cognitive remediation (CBT+CR) to CBT alone and an active control condition on work and neurocognition outcomes for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Seventy-five adult outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to three study conditions (N=25 per group). The CBT intervention was the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention program (IVIP), consisting of weekly group and individual sessions focused on work-related content...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Amie R Newins, Sarah M Wilson, Tiffany A Hopkins, Kristy Straits-Troster, Harold Kudler, Patrick S Calhoun
The study investigated barriers to the utilization of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care services among female veterans who served in served in Iraq and Afghanistan, including reasons for not choosing VA health care, reasons for not seeking mental health treatment, and types of desired VA services. Female respondents to a survey assessing Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans' needs and health (N = 186) completed measures of military history, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, barriers to VA health care, and preferences for services...
February 8, 2018: Psychological Services
Jiacong Luo, Andrew Lee, Dena E Cohen, Carey Colson, Steven M Brunelli
It is widely thought that patients with end-stage renal disease who remain vocationally active and/or commercially insured following dialysis initiation have better clinical outcomes and higher quality of life than those who do not. However, scientifically robust data are lacking. Here, we examined whether vocational status (active, N = 1848; inactive, N = 10,001) and, separately, insurance status (commercial, N = 4858; Medicare/self-pay, N = 13,329; Medicaid, N = 3528) were associated with clinical outcomes and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) scores among a cohort of patients who initiated dialysis at a large US dialysis organization during 2015-2016...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Anne-Sophie Schwarz, Bent Nielsen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen
Aim: In 2007, the legal obligation to deliver alcohol treatment to the public was transferred to the 98 municipalities of Denmark. This resulted in changes in how alcohol treatment centers in Denmark work. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient profiles and treatment outcomes in the alcohol treatment centers regarding regional variation and changes over time. Subjects and methods: This is a descriptive, register-based study of patients enrolled in alcohol treatment centers from 2006-2014 in Denmark...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Pengjuan Hu, Lili Huang, Shuang Zhou, Qiang Shi, Dan Xiao, Chen Wang
INTRODUCTION: In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. METHODS: A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing...
February 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Dilek Avci, Kevser Tari Selcuk, Serap Kaynak
OBJECTIVE: Working adolescents are at a greater risk of mental disorders than are non-working adolescents. The present study was aimed at determining the magnitude and determinants of emotional and behavioral problems in working adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 343 adolescents attending two vocational training centers in the province of Balikesir between January 2016 and March 2016. The data were collected with the Personal Information Form, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Angela Potes, Gabriel Souza, Katerina Nikolitch, Romeo Penheiro, Yara Moussa, Eric Jarvis, Karl Looper, Soham Rej
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarises the current state of research on mindfulness in SPMI, given the pressing need to provide alternative, scalable and cost-effective treatment modalities for patients with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). METHODS: Articles included mindfulness-based interventions for SPMI. Excluded articles included qualitative studies, acceptance and compassion therapies, case reports and reviews. Studies were identified by searching the databases Medline, Embase and PsycINFO...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Philip D Harvey, Anzalee Khan, Richard S E Keefe
Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Meeyoung O Min, Sonia Minnes, June-Yung Kim, Miyoung Yoon, Lynn T Singer
Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation modeling was conducted to examine longitudinal relationships between individual assets (social competence, positive values and identity) and problem behaviors in 373 adolescents (174 boys, 199 girls) who participated in a prospective study on the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure from birth. More behavioral problems at age 12 were related to fewer individual assets at age 15, while greater individual assets were related to more behavioral problems, with a non-significant yet nuanced (p = ...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Mary C Zanarini, Christina M Temes, Frances R Frankenburg, D Bradford Reich, Garrett M Fitzmaurice
One purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative rates of excellent recovery for borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects followed prospectively for 20 years. Another purpose was to find the best set of baseline predictors of excellent recovery for borderline patients. A total of 290 inpatients meeting rigorous criteria for borderline personality disorder and 72 axis II comparison subjects completed semistructured interviews and self-report measures during their index admission. Subjects were reassessed prospectively over 10 contiguous two-year waves of follow-up...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Gail Powell-Cope
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the signature injury of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and neighboring countries. Although similarities exist between veterans and service members with TBI, levels of severity and different constellations of coexisting comorbid conditions affect them differently. These conditions affect physical, cognitive, and emotional function, which in turn can complicate community reintegration (CR), or the ability to return to family, vocational, and community life...
February 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Yu I Pigolkin, Yu V Lomakin, E N Leonova
Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003 and since that time has become integrated into the unified European educational space. The key element of the new form of the higher education process is the self-guided unsupervised work of the students. Motivation is needed to promote the involvement of the students in the educational process which implies the necessity of the goal-oriented initiative for the acquisition of professional knowledge and practical experience in the field of forensic medicine. To achieve this goal, the Department of Forensic Medicine of I...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Getty Huisman-de Waal, Rebecca Feo, Hester Vermeulen, Maud Heinen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to explore the perspectives of nursing students on their education concerning basic nursing care, learned either during theoretical education or clinical placement, with a specific focus on nutrition and communication. BACKGROUND: Basic care activities lie at the core of nursing, but are ill-informed by evidence and often poorly delivered. Nursing students' education on basic care might be lacking, and the question remains how they learn to deliver basic care in clinical practice...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Ntsikelelo Pefile, Joyce Diphale Mothabeng, Saloshni Naidoo
OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic and socio-economic profiles, and injury related characteristics of people who sustain SCIs in KZN in order to provide baseline information to instigate a model that guides employment outcomes amongst PLWSCI. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of medical files was done. SETTING: King Dinizulu Hospital Spinal Unit (KDHSU), this being the biggest provider of acute care for people who sustain SCI in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa was the setting for our study...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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