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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209334/pregnancy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-kidney-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Philip Webster, Liz Lightstone, Dianne B McKay, Michelle A Josephson
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 6% of women of childbearing age in high income countries, and is estimated to affect 3% of pregnant women. Advanced renal dysfunction, proteinuria, hypertension, and poorly controlled underlying primary renal disease are all significant risks for adverse maternal, fetal, and renal outcomes. In order to achieve the best outcomes, it is therefore of paramount importance that these pregnancies are planned, where possible, to allow the opportunity to counsel women and their partners in advance and to optimize these risks...
February 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208659/developmental-origins-of-chronic-kidney-disease-should-we-focus-on-early-life
#2
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called "developmental programming" or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196661/pediatric-medical-device-development-by-surgeons-via-capstone-engineering-design-programs
#3
Bryan S Sack, Rodolfo A Elizondo, Gene O Huang, Nicolette Janzen, Jimmy Espinoza, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Jennifer E Dietrich, Julie Hakim, Eric Richardson, Maria Oden, John Hanks, Balakrishna Haridas, James F Hury, Chester J Koh
BACKGROUND: There is a need for pediatric medical devices that accommodate the unique physiology and anatomy of pediatric patients that is increasingly receiving more attention. However, there is limited literature on the programs within children's hospitals and academia that can support pediatric device development. We describe our experience with pediatric device design utilizing collaborations between a children's hospital and two engineering schools. METHODS: Utilizing the academic year as a timeline, unmet pediatric device needs were identified by surgical faculty and matched with an engineering mentor and a team of students within the Capstone Engineering Design programs at two universities...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191781/direct-isolation-and-characterization-of-human-nephron-progenitors
#4
Stefano Da Sacco, Matthew E Thornton, Astgik Petrosyan, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sargis Sedrakyan, Brendan H Grubbs, Roger E De Filippo, Laura Perin
Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167587/snake-bite-induced-acute-kidney-injury-report-of-a-successful-outcome-during-pregnancy
#5
Sanjay Vikrant, Anupam Parashar
Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropics. Snake envenomation in pregnancy may cause fetal death and maternal mortality or morbidity. However, little is known about the toxic effects and optimal management during pregnancy after snake envenomation because of the rarity of cases. Herein, we report a case of a pregnant woman who was successfully treated for snake bite-induced acute kidney injury during the third trimester. She was treated with equine-derived polyvalent anti-snake venom without development of any adverse effects, hemodialysis, and supportive therapy...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161315/renal-development-in-the-fetus-and-premature-infant
#6
REVIEW
Stacy Rosenblum, Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly Reidy
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the leading congenital defects to be identified on prenatal ultrasound. CAKUT represent a broad spectrum of abnormalities, from transient hydronephrosis to severe bilateral renal agenesis. CAKUT are a major contributor to chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) in children. Prenatal imaging is useful to identify CAKUT, but will not detect all defects. Both genetic abnormalities and the fetal environment contribute to CAKUT. Monogenic gene mutations identified in human CAKUT have advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms of renal development...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148530/usp40-gene-knockdown-disrupts-glomerular-permeability-in-zebrafish
#7
Hisashi Takagi, Yukino Nishibori, Kan Katayama, Tomohisa Katada, Shohei Takahashi, Zentaro Kiuchi, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Hiroyasu Kamei, Hayato Kawakami, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Akihiko Kudo, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Hiromu Takematsu, Kunimasa Yan
Unbiased transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches have identified ubiquitin specific protease 40 (USP40) as a highly specific glomerular transcript. This gene product remains uncharacterized, and its biological function is completely unknown. Here, we showed that mouse and rat glomeruli exhibit specific expression of the USP40 protein, which migrated at 150 kDa and was exclusively localized in the podocyte cytoplasm of the adult kidney. Double-labeling immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy analysis of fetal and neonate kidney samples revealed that USP40 was also expressed in the vasculature, including in glomerular endothelial cells at the premature stage...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143994/intra-uterine-growth-retardation-and-development-of-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Haerani Rasyid, Syakib Bakri
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as a birth weight of a liveborn infant of <2,500 gram. In developed countries, LBW is commonly caused by preterm birth; while in developing countries, it is mostly due to intrauterine growth retardation. The concept of developmental origins of adult diseases, particularly on late-onset diseases such as hypertension and kidney disease, implies that there is a correlation between intrauterine milieu, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth and infant feeding. The 'fetal origin hypothesis' suggests that metabolic diseases are directly related to poor nutritional status in early life...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143670/maternal-and-fetal-folate-vitamin-b12-and-homocysteine-concentrations-and-childhood-kidney-outcomes
#9
Kozeta Miliku, Anne Mesu, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Eric A P Steegers, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND: Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are important factors for early development and may persistently influence kidney function in the offspring. We examined the associations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy with kidney outcomes in school-aged children. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: This study was performed among 4,226 pregnant women and their children...
January 28, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131847/inhibition-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2-by-the-fungicides-itraconazole-and-posaconazole
#10
Katharina R Beck, Murielle Bächler, Anna Vuorinen, Sandra Wagner, Muhammad Akram, Ulrich Griesser, Veronika Temml, Petra Klusonova, Hideaki Yamaguchi, Daniela Schuster, Alex Odermatt
Impaired 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2)-dependent cortisol inactivation can lead to electrolyte dysbalance, hypertension and cardiometabolic disease. Furthermore, placental 11β-HSD2 essentially protects the fetus from high maternal glucocorticoid levels, and its impaired function has been associated with altered fetal growth and a higher risk for cardio-metabolic diseases in later life. Despite its important role, 11β-HSD2 is not included in current off-target screening approaches. To identify potential 11β-HSD inhibitors amongst approved drugs, a pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening, followed by biological assessment of selected hits...
January 25, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130881/transplantation-of-hepatocytes-from-genetically-engineered-pigs-into-baboons
#11
Hayato Iwase, Hong Liu, Eva Schmelzer, Mohamed Ezzelarab, Martin Wijkstrom, Hidetaka Hara, Whayoung Lee, Jagjit Singh, Cassandra Long, Eric Lagasse, Jörg C Gerlach, David K C Cooper, Bruno Gridelli
BACKGROUND: Some patients with acute or acute-on-chronic hepatic failure die before a suitable human liver allograft becomes available. Encouraging results have been achieved in such patients by the transplantation of human hepatocyte progenitor cells from fetal liver tissue. The aim of the study was to explore survival of hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs after direct injection into the spleen and other selected sites in immunosuppressed baboons to monitor the immune response and the metabolic function and survival of the transplanted hepatocytes...
January 28, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116543/icariin-combined-with-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-significantly-improve-the-impaired-kidney-function-in-chronic-renal-failure
#12
Wen Li, Li Wang, Xiaoqian Chu, Huantian Cui, Yuhong Bian
At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) are isolated from the fetal umbilical cord which has a high self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential. Icariin (ICA), a kidney-tonifying Chinese Medicine can enhance the multipotency of huMSCs. Therefore, this work seeks to employ the use of ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of chronic renal failure...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#13
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101502/pregnant-woman-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-delivered-a-healthy-newborn-under-eculizumab-treatment
#14
Erol Demir, Halil Yazici, Yasemin Ozluk, Isin Kilicaslan, Aydin Turkmen
Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathy is a very rare condition; however, it significantly increases fetal or maternal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy may trigger atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The risk for pregnancy-associated aHUS is highest during the second pregnancy. The outcome is usually poor with 50-60% mortality; renal dysfunction and hypertension are the rule in those who survive the acute episode. After the development of complement regulation mechanisms and aHUS pathogenesis, eculizumab has been widely used as a first-line treatment in aHUS...
September 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101448/acetylsalicylic-acid-interferes-with-embryonic-kidney-growth-and-development-by-a-prostaglandin-independent-mechanism
#15
Simon J M Welham, Alexander J Sparrow, David S Gardner, Matthew J Elmes
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on ex vivo embryonic kidney growth and development. METHODS: Pairs of fetal mouse kidneys at embryonic day 12.5 were cultured ex vivo in increasing concentrations of ASA (0.04-0.4 mg/mL) for up to 7 d. One organ from each pair was grown in control media and was used as the internal control for the experimental contralateral organ. In some experiments, organs were treated with ASA for 48 h and then transferred either to control media alone or control media containing 10 μmol/L prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for a further 5 d...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101432/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-first-trimester-pregnancy-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab
#16
Gabriela Andries, Michael Karass, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Katherine Linder, Delong Liu, John Nelson, Rahul Pawar, Savneek Chugh
BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare disorder which is known to cause acute thrombotic microangiopathy during pregnancy with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused mostly by dysregulation of alternative complement pathway secondary to genetic mutations. Most of the cases reported have been in the post-partum period. We report a rare case of a patient who presents with thrombotic microangiopathy in the first trimester of her eleventh pregnancy and was successfully treated with eculizumab...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079791/a-possible-new-approach-in-the-prediction-of-late-gestational-hypertension-the-role-of-the-fetal-aortic-intima-media-thickness
#17
Silvia Visentin, Ambrogio P Londero, Martina Camerin, Enrico Grisan, Erich Cosmi
The aim was to determine the predictive role of combined screening for late-onset gestational hypertension by fetal ultrasound measurements, third trimester uterine arteries (UtAs) Doppler imaging, and maternal history. This prospective study on singleton pregnancies was conducted at the tertiary center of Maternal and Fetal Medicine of the University of Padua during the period between January 2012 and December 2014. Ultrasound examination (fetal biometry, fetal wellbeing, maternal Doppler study, fetal abdominal aorta intima-media thickness [aIMT], and fetal kidney volumes), clinical data (mother age, prepregnancy body mass index [BMI], and parity), and pregnancy outcomes were collected...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062422/spontaneous-rupture-of-renal-angiomyolipoma-during-pregnancy
#18
Li Ao, Eriko Ogasahara, Yasuhiko Okuda, Shuji Hirata
A renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign tumour of kidney origin. Pregnancy is known to be associated with an increased risk of tumour rupture causing hypovolaemic shock, which is usually managed surgically or through an embolisation procedure. However, having surgery during pregnancy predisposes the mother to a preterm delivery, and the unknown influences of radiation exposure to the fetus make the management of such cases very challenging. A 30-year-old pregnant woman had a sudden onset of gross haematuria at the 20th week of her pregnancy...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057124/-value-of-mri-in-prenatal-diagnosis-of-abnormal-fetal-kidneys
#19
H D Liu, H Yu, J G Zhao, X F Xu, N F Wang, W Wang, X Y He
Objective: To investigate the value of MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal fetal kidneys. Methods: From December 2014 to March 2016, 51 women underwent MRI and were confirmed as having fetuses with abnormal fetal kidneys when follow up. Their clinical and MRI profiles were analyzed retrospectively, including MRI manifestation, the fetal kidney signal intensity of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The signal intensity of DWI and ADC of the abnormal kidney and the normal opposite kidney, and those of the normal and abnormal kidneys in different individuals were compared...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051762/impact-of-long-term-high-fat-diet-intake-gestational-protein-restricted-offspring-on-kidney-morphology-and-function
#20
V H G Rizzi, L D B Sene, C D B Fernandez, J A R Gontijo, P A Boer
Emerging evidence highlights the far-reaching consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity on kidney morphological and functional disorders. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the effects of early HFD intake on renal function and morphology in maternal protein-restricted offspring (LP). LP and normal protein-intake offspring (NP) were fed HFD (LPH and NPH, respectively) or standard rodent (LPN and NPN) diet from the 8th to 13th week of age. Blood pressure, kidney function, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were analyzed...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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