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Fetal cardiac

Shiraz A Maskatia, Rodrigo Ruano, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Pouya Javadian, Joshua A Kailin, Michael A Belfort, Carolyn A Altman, Nancy A Ayres
INTRODUCTION: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is the major cause for fetal demise in monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies. Estimated combined cardiac output (CCO) has not been studied in this setting. The primary aims of this study were to compare CCO in twin donor and recipient fetuses and assess differences in CCO before and after laser coagulation therapy. A secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship of CCO with perinatal mortality, defined as intrauterine or neonatal mortality (≤30 days of age) in fetuses that underwent laser coagulation therapy...
October 19, 2016: Echocardiography
Jimena Giudice, Zheng Xia, Wei Li, Thomas A Cooper
The RNA binding protein Celf1 regulates alternative splicing in the nucleus and mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Celf1 is strongly down-regulated during mouse postnatal heart development. Its re-induction in adults induced severe heart failure and reversion to fetal splicing and gene expression patterns. However, the impact of Celf1 depletion on cardiac transcriptional and posttranscriptional dynamics in neonates has not been addressed. We found that homozygous Celf1 knock-out neonates exhibited cardiac dysfunction not observed in older homozygous animals, although homozygous mice are smaller than wild type littermates throughout development...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A Helbing, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers, Bero O Verburg
BACKGROUND: There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study examines fetal sex differences in cardiovascular development in utero. METHODS: In 1028 pregnant women, we assessed fetal circulation using pulsed wave Doppler examinations between 28 and 34 weeks gestation. To test associations between fetal sex and fetal circulation measurements, linear regression models were used adjusting for fetal size, gestational age, and fetal heart rate...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Stefan Orwat, Gerhard-Paul Diller, Iris M van Hagen, Renate Schmidt, Daniel Tobler, Matthias Greutmann, Regina Jonkaitiene, Amro Elnagar, Mark R Johnson, Roger Hall, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Helmut Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Controversial results on maternal risk and fetal outcome have been reported in women with aortic stenosis (AS). OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to investigate maternal and fetal outcomes in patients with AS in a large cohort. METHODS: The Registry on Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease (ROPAC) is a global, prospective observational registry of women with structural heart disease, providing a uniquely large study population. Data of women with moderate (peak gradient 36 to 63 mm Hg) and severe AS (peak gradient ≥64 mm Hg) were analyzed...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Wendy Rosales, Juan Carulla, Jeison García, Diana Vargas, Fernando Lizcano
Epigenetic changes induced by histone demethylases play an important role in differentiation and pathological changes in cardiac cells. However, the role of the jumonji family of demethylases in the development of cardiac hypertrophy remains elusive. In this study, the presence of different histone demethylases in cardiac cells was evaluated after hypertrophy was induced with neurohormones. A cell line from rat cardiomyocytes was used as a biological model. The phenotypic profiles of the cells, as well as the expression of histone demethylases, were studied through immunofluorescence, transient transfection, western blot, and qRT-PCR analysis after inducing hypertrophy by angiotensin II and endothelin-1...
2016: BioMed Research International
Zhiqiang Lin, Haidong Guo, Yuan Cao, Sylvia Zohrabian, Pingzhu Zhou, Qing Ma, Nathan VanDusen, Yuxuan Guo, Jin Zhang, Sean M Stevens, Feng Liang, Qimin Quan, Pim R van Gorp, Amy Li, Cristobal Dos Remedios, Aibin He, Vassilios J Bezzerides, William T Pu
Binding of the transcriptional co-activator YAP with the transcription factor TEAD stimulates growth of the heart and other organs. YAP overexpression potently stimulates fetal cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation, but YAP's mitogenic potency declines postnatally. While investigating factors that limit YAP's postnatal mitogenic activity, we found that the CM-enriched TEAD1 binding protein VGLL4 inhibits CM proliferation by inhibiting TEAD1-YAP interaction and by targeting TEAD1 for degradation. Importantly, VGLL4 acetylation at lysine 225 negatively regulated its binding to TEAD1...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Cell
Anne S Bassett, Gregory Costain, Christian R Marshall
Most major neuropsychiatric outcomes of concern to families are not detectable by prenatal ultrasound. The introduction of genome-wide chromosomal microarray analysis to prenatal clinical diagnostic testing has increased the detection of pathogenic 22q11.2 deletions, which cause the most common genomic disorder. The recent addition of this and other microdeletions to non-invasive prenatal screening methods using cell-free fetal DNA has further propelled interest in outcomes. Conditions associated with 22q11...
October 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Wei-Lun Lin, Li-Wei Lo, Hau-Ruey Chen, Chun-Ting Lai, Shinya Yamada, Shin-Huei Liu, Yu-Hui Chou, Shih-Ann Chen, Yun-Ching Fu, Terry B J Kuo
BACKGROUND: Autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activities is observed in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to investigate sleep-related changed in autonomic regulation in left coronary artery (LCA) ligation rats. METHODS: Wireless transmission of polysomnographic recording was performed in sham and LCA ligation male rats during normal daytime sleep with and without atenolol treatment. Spectral analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) were evaluated to define active waking (AW), quiet and paradoxical sleeps (QS, PS)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Giulia Ottaviani
Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700-2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Gavin P Guy, Hua Z Ling, Mirian Machuca, Liona C Poon, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between maternal cardiovascular parameters and neonatal birthweight and examine the potential value of these parameters in improving the prediction of small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) neonates provided by maternal characteristics and medical history. METHODS: In 2,835 singleton pregnancies maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and maternal cardiovascular parameters were measured...
October 5, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rohan D'Souza, Candice K Silversides, Claire McLintock
The prothrombotic state of pregnancy increases the risk of thromboembolic complications and death in women with mechanical heart valves (MHVs). Although it is accepted that these women must be on therapeutic anticoagulation throughout pregnancy, competing maternal and fetal risks, as well as the lack of high-quality data from prospective studies, make the choice of the optimal method of anticoagulation challenging. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are associated with fewer maternal complications, but conversely also the lowest live birth rates as well as warfarin-related embryopathy and fetopathy...
October 5, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Swati Vishwanathan, Michael Lucke, Indu G Poornima
A woman aged 22 years with a history of lupus presented in the 18th week of pregnancy with hypertensive emergency and flash pulmonary oedema. Bedside echocardiogram revealed severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 25% and pericardial effusion. Laboratories revealed hypocomplementemia, proteinuria, elevated C reactive protein and anti-DS-DNA, raising concern for a lupus flare. Cardiac MRI showed an acute intramyocardial oedematous process, consistent with lupus carditis, and further worsening of LVEF to 13%...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Wei-Hsiu Chiu, Shy-Ming Lee, Tao-Hsin Tung, Xiao-Mei Tang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Ran-Chou Chen
Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is still low even though screening was first introduced over 25 years ago. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of a second-trimester prenatal ultrasonographic method of screening for CHD.From September 2012 to September 2013, the length and width of the fetal ductus venosus were measured sonographically in 1006 singleton fetuses, and the ratio of length to width was calculated. The accuracy of each fetal measurement and Doppler ultrasonography were determined...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qinghai Peng, Qichang Zhou, Ming Zang, Jiawei Zhou, Ran Xu, Tao Wang, Shi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To screen and detect cortex gyration in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) using Ultrasonography (US) during routine obstetric scans. METHODS: The depth of the Sylvian fissure (SF), parieto-occipital fissure (POF) and calcarine (CF) fissure were prospectively serially measured and compared in 45 fetuses with CHD and 45 normal fetuses. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters, including aortic valve diameter (AV), pulmonary valve diameter (PV), velocity time integral of the aortic valve (VTIav), and velocity time integral of the pulmonary valve (VTIpv), were recorded...
September 28, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
G M Tiralongo, I Pisani, B Vasapollo, A Khalil, D Vinayagam, B Thilaganathan, H Valensise
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) are known to be associated with a reduced expansion of maternal intravascular space and a lower cardiac output. Therapy with nitric oxide (NO) donors, in addition to plasma volume expansion (PVE) could improve maternal haemodynamic indices and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: To evaluate maternal cardiovascular effects of NO donors. We enrolled 52 women with the diagnosis of FGR. Patients were divided into those treated with transdermal patches of NO donors and PVE or a control group...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
J Tay, L Foo, C McEniery, I Wilkinson, C Lees
INTRODUCTION: This pilot study aims to compare cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR) with healthy normal third trimester of pregnancies. Most studies previously done on cardiac parameters in pregnancy focused mainly on pre-eclampsia (PE) and FGR with PE, but not in normotensive FGR women. METHODS: Eight pregnancies with FGR (AC < 10th percentile with raised umbilical PI) in the third trimester (27-35 weeks gestation) compared with 42 uncomplicated ongoing pregnancies within similar gestation bands...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
J Tay, L Foo, C McEniery, I Wilkinson, C Lees
INTRODUCTION: Studies in pre-eclampsia have demonstrated that central haemodynamic changes give more insight than peripheral measures into maternal cardiac and vascular physiology. This study aims to investigate augmentation index (AIX) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and compare them to healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness derived from the ascending aortic pressure waveform...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lin Foo, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson, Christoph Lees
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy has been postulated as a potential cause or consequence of early pregnancy loss. We sought to investigate pre- and early pregnancy cardiovascular function in women with a viable pregnancy beyond the first trimester, and those suffering a first trimester pregnancy loss. METHODS: We recruited healthy women trying for pregnancy without assisted reproductive technology into an observational pre-conception study, and recorded pregnancy loss as a clinical endpoint...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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