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benzodiazepines and sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707143/clinical-sleep-wake-disorders-ii-focus-on-insomnia-and-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#1
Kai Spiegelhalder, Christoph Nissen, Dieter Riemann
Insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders affect large proportions of the population and have pronounced effects on quality of life and daytime performance. While the neurobiology of insomnia is not yet fully understood, circadian rhythm sleep disorders are assumed to be caused by a mismatch between the individual circadian phase position and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulators improve sleep onset and maintenance in the short-term treatment of insomnia...
July 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683344/age-related-sleep-nocturnal-tonic-and-tonic-clonic-seizure-clusters-are-underdiagnosed-in-patients-with-dravet-syndrome
#2
Emma Losito, Matthieu Kuchenbuch, Nicole Chemaly, Jacques Laschet, Catherine Chiron, Anna Kaminska, Rima Nabbout
OBJECTIVES: To describe the semiology and EEG characteristics of the age-related pattern of sleep/nocturnal (S/N) seizures in patients with Dravet Syndrome (DS). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical and EEG data of DS patients followed at our reference centre for Rare Epilepsies. We included patients aged two years and older who fulfilled clinical and EEG criteria of DS (ILAE 1989). Genetic testing for SCN1A was done in all, followed by PCDH19 if this was negative...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671376/insomnia-pharmacologic-therapy
#3
Eric Matheson, Barry L Hainer
Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. Controlled-release melatonin and doxepin are recommended as first-line agents in older adults; the so-called z-drugs (zolpidem, eszopiclone, and zaleplon) should be reserved for use if the first-line agents are ineffective. For the general population with difficulty falling asleep, controlled-release melatonin and the z-drugs can be considered...
July 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581025/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-among-patients-diagnosed-with-cluster-headache-in-u-s-healthcare-claims-data
#4
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Shivang G Joshi, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora, James M Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of patients with cluster headache (CH). BACKGROUND: CH is an uncommon trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with limited evidence-based treatment options. Patients suffer from extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms with episodic and chronic cycles. DESIGN/METHODS: This retrospective analysis used insurance claims from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®) research databases from 2009 to 2014...
June 5, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487010/benzodiazepine-prescribing-in-the-elderly-in%C3%A2-germany-and-korea-a-comparison-of-two%C3%A2-observational-studies%C3%A2
#5
Barry G Woodcock, Karel Kostev, Ju-Young Shin
OBJECTIVES: To identify differences and similarities in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing patterns in elderly patients reported in two separate and independent investigations, one from Germany for the year 2014 and the other from Korea for the year 2013. METHODS: Data on patients over 65 years, who were prescribed at least one BZD, were obtained from population databases. The design and characteristics of the two studies were similar. RESULTS: The use of BZDs in the elderly in Korea was several-fold higher than in Germany depending on the age stratification...
June 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460563/a-review-of-sleep-disorders-and-melatonin
#6
Zizhen Xie, Fei Chen, William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Changhong Li, Xiaomei Meng, Yan Feng, Wei Liu, Fengchun Yu
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis and cause significant impairments in social and occupational functions. Although currently approved medications are efficacious, they are far from satisfactory. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antihistamines and anxiolytics have the potential for dependence and addiction. Moreover, some of these medications can gradually impair cognition. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland and released exclusively at night...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459898/high-prevalence-of-inappropriate-benzodiazepine-and-sedative-hypnotic-prescriptions-among-hospitalized-older-adults
#7
Elisabeth Anna Pek, Andrew Remfry, Ciara Pendrith, Chris Fan-Lun, R Sacha Bhatia, Christine Soong
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines and sedative hypnotics are commonly used to treat insomnia and agitation in older adults despite significant risk. A clear understanding of the extent of the problem and its contributors is required to implement effective interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of hospitalized older adults who are inappropriately prescribed benzodiazepines or sedative hypnotics, and to identify patient and prescriber factors associated with increased prescriptions...
May 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456823/a-systematic-review-of-interventions-to-deprescribe-benzodiazepines-and-other-hypnotics-among-older-people
#8
REVIEW
Emily Reeve, Magdalene Ong, Angela Wu, Jesse Jansen, Mirko Petrovic, Danijela Gnjidic
PURPOSE: Benzodiazepines are effective medicines for insomnia and anxiety but are commonly used beyond recommended treatment time frames, which may lead to adverse drug events. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the success of interventions used to reduce benzodiazepines and 'Z-drug' use, and the impact of these interventions on clinical outcomes in older adults. METHODS: A search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Informit, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Scopus, PsychINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and CINAHL...
August 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414682/a-left-main-coronary-artery-thrombus-presenting-as-a-non-st-elevation-mi
#9
U Ezema, D Daberkow, T Delord, L Guidry, N R Sells
INTRODUCTION: Left main coronary artery (LMCA); thrombus with an acute myocardial infarction identified with coronary angiography is a clinically rare condition with an extremely high mortality rate. We present a case of LMCA thrombus that presented as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI);. CASE: A 45-year-old woman with a history of tobacco use and hyperlipidemia presented with a complaint of 10/10 "hard pain" across her chest radiating to her left shoulder and breast which woke her from sleep...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406089/patterns-of-benzodiazepine-prescribing-by-neuropsychiatrists-and-general-practitioners-for-elderly-patients-in-germany-in-2014%C3%A2
#10
Thomas Mell, Louis Jacob, Ida Fuhr, Sandra Dick, Michael A Rapp, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: The patterns of benzodiazepine prescriptions in older adults are of general and scientific interest as they are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in elderly people in Germany to determine the share or proportion treated by general practitioners (GP) and neuropsychiatrists (NP). METHODS: This study included 31,268 and 6,603 patients between the ages of 65 and 100 with at least one benzodiazepine prescription in 2014 from GP and NP, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#11
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374978/patterns-and-correlates-of-benzodiazepine-use-in-nurses-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#12
Elaine Sang, Yuan-Mei Liao, Nae-Fang Miao, Kuei-Ru Chou, Min-Huey Chung
In the present study, we examined patterns of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in nurses, and compared the characteristics of frequent users with those of infrequent users. Data on all nurses enrolled in the study were derived from the reimbursement claim records in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2004-2008. The case group comprised 33 588 nurses with BZD use, and the control group was exactly matched to each case according to age and sex. The patterns of occasional, frequent, and daily BZD use demonstrated an increasing trend from 2004 to 2008...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364510/effectiveness-of-benzodiazepine-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-insomnia-an-examination-of-response-and-remission-rates
#13
Vivek Pillai, Thomas Roth, Timothy Roehrs, Kenneth Moss, Edward L Peterson, Christopher L Drake
Study objectives: To examine the real-world effectiveness of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs) by quantifying response and remission rates in a clinical sample receiving chronic BzRA treatment for insomnia. Methods: Participants were outpatients (N = 193; 72% female; 55.2 ± 11.1 year) who had an insomnia diagnosis per medical records, and who were taking a therapeutic dose of BzRA for their insomnia. Endpoints were nocturnal sleep disturbance and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scores...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363449/medication-induced-sleepwalking-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Helen M Stallman, Mark Kohler, Jason White
Medications that trigger sleepwalking may inadvertently put the patient at risk of injury to themselves and/or others, and contribute to poor treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify drugs that may increase the risk of sleepwalking. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted with the keywords 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism'. Of the original 83 sourced papers, 62 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review...
January 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349247/benzodiazepine-long-term-administration-is-associated-with-impaired-attention-working-memory-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-national-multicentre-face-sz-data-set
#15
Guillaume Fond, F Berna, L Boyer, O Godin, L Brunel, M Andrianarisoa, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, J M Danion, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, T Le Gloahec, P M Llorca, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, R Rey, R Richieri, C Passerieux, C Portalier, P Roux, A Vehier, H Yazbek, F Schürhoff, E Bulzacka
OBJECTIVE: The effect of benzodiazepine long-term administration (BLTA) in cognitive functioning of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) has been partially explored to date. The objective was to assess BLTA-associated cognitive impairment with a comprehensive cognitive battery in a non-selected multicentric/national community-dwelling sample of stabilized SZ subjects. METHOD: 407 community-dwelling stabilized SZ subjects were consecutively included in the FondaMental Academic Centers of Expertise for Schizophrenia Cohort (FACE-SZ)...
March 27, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319266/benzodiazepines-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Karla Carlos, Gilmar F Prado, Camila Dm Teixeira, Cristiane Conti, Marcio M de Oliveira, Lucila Bf Prado, Luciane Bc Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disease affecting about 5% to 15% of the population. Symptoms of RLS can be severe in a minority of and can have a major impact on sleep, mostly sleep initiation, and quality of life. Benzodiazepines are drugs that can induce and maintain sleep and, hence, intuitively are thought to be beneficial to people with RLS. Altough benzodiazepines, particularly clonazepam, are used to treat RLS symptoms, a systematic review done by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine stated that benzodiazepines should not be used as a first-line treatment, although could be used as a coadjuvant therapy...
March 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262178/zolpidem-s-use-for-insomnia
#17
REVIEW
Jaime M Monti, David Warren Spence, Kenneth Buttoo, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal
Zolpidem is a short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug that belongs to the imidazopyridine class. In addition to immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations, the new delivery forms including two sublingual tablets [standard dose (SD) and low dose (LD)], and an oral spray form have been recently developed which bypass the gastrointestinal tract. So far, Zolpidem has been studied in several clinical populations: cases poor sleepers, transient insomnia, elderly and non-elderly patients with chronic primary insomnia, and in comorbid insomnia...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252604/-epidemiology-of-sleep-disorders-in-the-republic-of-tatarstan
#18
E Z Yakupov, Y V Troshina, V V Fedorova, L R Hasanshina, L R Ahatova, D V Artemieva
AIM: To evaluate the variability and severity of sleep disorders in people of the Republic of Tatarstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A continuous survey using a questionnaire based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sleep apnea risk scale, restless leg syndrome scale was performed. The survey was conducted in a random sample of people (n=1156). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A high level of sleep disorders associated with anxiety disorders and comorbid pathologies was shown...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215267/a-community-based-study-of-risk-factors-for-probable-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#19
Jian-Fang Ma, Yuan Qiao, Xiang Gao, Liang Liang, Xiao-Li Liu, Dun-Hui Li, Hui-Dong Tang, Sheng-Di Chen
OBJECTIVES: To cross-sectionally explore the potential risk factors for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a community cohort in Shanghai. METHODS: Based on the validated RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ), we identified individuals with probable RBD (pRBD) in 3635 community-dwelling residents (≥50 years old) from an urban community of Shanghai. Potential risk factors of pRBD, including age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, obesity, consumption of tea (surrogate for caffeine intake) and alcohol, medications and chronic disease status, were assessed via questionnaire...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#20
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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