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benzodiazepines and sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319266/benzodiazepines-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Karla Carlos, Gilmar F Prado, Camila Dm Teixeira, Cristiane Conti, Marcio M de Oliveira, Lucila Bf Prado, Luciane Bc Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disease affecting about 5% to 15% of the population. Symptoms of RLS can be severe in a minority of and can have a major impact on sleep, mostly sleep initiation, and quality of life. Benzodiazepines are drugs that can induce and maintain sleep and, hence, intuitively are thought to be beneficial to people with RLS. Altough benzodiazepines, particularly clonazepam, are used to treat RLS symptoms, a systematic review done by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine stated that benzodiazepines should not be used as a first-line treatment, although could be used as a coadjuvant therapy...
March 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262178/zolpidem-s-use-for-insomnia
#2
REVIEW
Jaime M Monti, David Warren Spence, Kenneth Buttoo, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal
Zolpidem is a short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug that belongs to the imidazopyridine class. In addition to immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations, the new delivery forms including two sublingual tablets [standard dose (SD) and low dose (LD)], and an oral spray form have been recently developed which bypass the gastrointestinal tract. So far, Zolpidem has been studied in several clinical populations: cases poor sleepers, transient insomnia, elderly and non-elderly patients with chronic primary insomnia, and in comorbid insomnia...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252604/-epidemiology-of-sleep-disorders-in-the-republic-of-tatarstan
#3
E Z Yakupov, Y V Troshina, V V Fedorova, L R Hasanshina, L R Ahatova, D V Artemieva
AIM: To evaluate the variability and severity of sleep disorders in people of the Republic of Tatarstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A continuous survey using a questionnaire based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sleep apnea risk scale, restless leg syndrome scale was performed. The survey was conducted in a random sample of people (n=1156). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A high level of sleep disorders associated with anxiety disorders and comorbid pathologies was shown...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215267/a-community-based-study-of-risk-factors-for-probable-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#4
Jian-Fang Ma, Yuan Qiao, Xiang Gao, Liang Liang, Xiao-Li Liu, Dun-Hui Li, Hui-Dong Tang, Sheng-Di Chen
OBJECTIVES: To cross-sectionally explore the potential risk factors for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a community cohort in Shanghai. METHODS: Based on the validated RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ), we identified individuals with probable RBD (pRBD) in 3635 community-dwelling residents (≥50 years old) from an urban community of Shanghai. Potential risk factors of pRBD, including age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, obesity, consumption of tea (surrogate for caffeine intake) and alcohol, medications and chronic disease status, were assessed via questionnaire...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#5
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190430/delirium-in-critically-ill-patients
#6
A J C Slooter, R R Van De Leur, I J Zaal
Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160425/anxiolytic-like-effect-of-2-4-1-phenyl-1h-pyrazol-4-yl-methyl-piperazin-1-yl-ethan-1-ol-is-mediated-through-the-benzodiazepine-and-nicotinic-pathways
#7
Adriane F Brito, James O Fajemiroye, Hiasmin F S Neri, Dayane M Silva, Daiany P B Silva, Germán Sanz, Boniek G Vaz, Flávio S de Carvalho, Paulo C Ghedini, Luciano M Lião, Ricardo Menegatti, Elson A Costa
In this study we proposed the design, synthesis of a new compound 2-(4-((1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethan-1-ol (LQFM032), and pharmacological evaluation of its anxiolytic-like effect. This new compound was subjected to pharmacological screening refered to as Irwin test, prior to sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep, open field and wire tests. The anxiolytic-like effect of this compound was evaluated using elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests. In addition, the mnemonic activity was evaluated through step-down test...
February 3, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135836/no-role-for-benzodiazepines-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-surplus-of-certainty-despite-scarce-evidence
#8
Vladan Starcevic
OBJECTIVE: This article addresses some of the controversies about the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepines have been admonished in treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder, but this is based on very little solid evidence. Although benzodiazepines do not seem to be effective in the treatment of the core posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, their careful use as adjunctive agents for the symptoms such as anxiety and sleep disturbance may be useful...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118873/adverse-effects-of-psychotropic-medications-on-sleep
#9
REVIEW
Karl Doghramji, William C Jangro
Psychotropic medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, and benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Most of these medications are thought to exert their effects through modulation of various monoamines as well as interactions with receptors such as histamine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Through these interactions, psychotropics can also have a significant impact on sleep physiology, resulting in both beneficial and adverse effects on sleep.
December 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111292/disruption-of-brain-mek-erk-sequential-phosphorylation-and-activation-during-midazolam-induced-hypnosis-in-mice-roles-of-gabaa-receptor-mek1-inactivation-and-phosphatase-mkp-3
#10
María Álvaro-Bartolomé, Glòria Salort, Jesús A García-Sevilla
Midazolam is a positive allosteric modulator at GABAA receptor that induces a short hypnosis and neuroplasticity, in which the sequential phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 was shown to play a role. This study investigated the parallel activation of p-MEK and p-ERK and regulatory mechanisms induced by midazolam through the stimulation of GABAA receptors in the mouse brain. During the time course of midazolam (60mg/kg)-induced sleep in mice (lasting for about 2h) p-Ser217/221 MEK1/2 was increased (+146% to +258%) whereas, unexpectedly, p-Tyr204/Thr202 ERK1/2 was found decreased (-16% to -38%), revealing uncoupling of MEK to ERK signals in various brain regions...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106623/symptom-presentation-and-prescription-of-sleep-medications-for-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Mark A Greenbaum, Thomas C Neylan, Craig S Rosen
This study tested whether sleep medications prescribed to veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being targeted to patients who report more severe insomnia or nightmares. Secondary analysis of survey and pharmacy data was conducted in samples of veterans from two periods: from 2006 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2013. Logistic regression tested associations between self-reported insomnia and nightmare severity, and being prescribed trazodone, prazosin, zolpidem, and benzodiazepines, controlling for PTSD severity and other covariates...
February 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075519/an-update-of-management-of-insomnia-in-patients-with-chronic-orofacial-pain
#12
REVIEW
Galit Almoznino, Yaron Haviv, Yair Sharav, Rafael Benoliel
In this review we discuss the management of chronic orofacial pain (COFP) patients with insomnia. Diagnostic work-up and follow-up routines of COFP patients should include assessment of sleep problems. Management is based on a multidisciplinary approach, addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as insomnia and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Parallel to treatment, patients should receive therapy for co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders, and possible substance abuse that may be that may trigger or worsen the COFP and/or their insomnia...
January 11, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036099/can-drugs-induce-or-aggravate-sleep-apneas-a-case-non-case-study-in-vigibase-%C3%A2-the-who-pharmacovigilance-database
#13
Mélanie Linselle, Agnès Sommet, Emmanuelle Bondon-Guitton, Florence Moulis, Geneviève Durrieu, Justine Benevent, Vanessa Rousseau, Leila Chebane, Haleh Bagheri, François Montastruc, Jean-Louis Montastruc
The potential favorising role of drugs in Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) is unknown. The present study investigates drugs associated with SAS in a pharmacovigilance database. SAS recorded as Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in Vigibase(®) , the WHO pharmacovigilance database (more than 11 million reports), from 1978 to 2015 were selected. The risk of SAS reports was estimated using the case non-case method, with cases being SAS and non-cases all other recorded ADRs. During this 37-year period, 3,325 ADRs including the word SAS were registered (0...
December 30, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019122/sedative-hypnotic-use-among-older-adults-participating-in-anxiety-research
#14
Elizabeth C Conti, Melinda A Stanley, Amber B Amspoker, Mark E Kunik
Older adults are prescribed sedative-hypnotic medications at higher rates than younger adults. These are not recommended for older adults due to risk of sedation, cognitive impairment, and falls. Severe generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a possibly appropriate use of these medications in older people, but little is available on use of sedative-hypnotic medications among older adults with GAD. This study examined the frequency and predictors of sedative-hypnotic medication use among older adults screening positive for anxiety...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984526/incident-and-long-term-opioid-therapy-among-patients-with-psychiatric-conditions-and-medications-a-national-study-of-commercial-health-care-claims
#15
Patrick D Quinn, Kwan Hur, Zheng Chang, Erin E Krebs, Matthew J Bair, Eric L Scott, Martin E Rickert, Robert D Gibbons, Kurt Kroenke, Brian M DʼOnofrio
There is growing evidence that opioid prescribing in the United States follows a pattern in which patients who are at the highest risk of adverse outcomes from opioids are more likely to receive long-term opioid therapy. These patients include, in particular, those with substance use disorders (SUDs) and other psychiatric conditions. This study examined health insurance claims among 10,311,961 patients who filled prescriptions for opioids. Specifically, we evaluated how opioid receipt differed among patients with and without a wide range of preexisting psychiatric and behavioral conditions (ie, opioid and nonopioid SUDs, suicide attempts or other self-injury, motor vehicle crashes, and depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders) and psychoactive medications (ie, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and medications used for SUD, tobacco cessation, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder)...
January 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979371/melatonin-premedication-improves-quality-of-recovery-following-bariatric-surgery-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-prospective-study
#16
Michal Ivry, Goitein David, Welly Wiam, Berkenstadt Haim
BACKGROUND: Melatonin has hypnotic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and is a widely used sleep agent. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of melatonin premedication on postoperative recovery in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. SETTING: University Hospital, Israel. METHODS: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery were randomized to receive either 5 mg melatonin (M group) or placebo (P group) once on the night before surgery and again 2 hours before surgery...
November 3, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974999/eszopiclone-induced-parasomnia-with-suicide-attempt-a-case-report
#17
J Gibson Pennington, Jeffrey Guina
Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone's efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants...
September 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957622/sleep-disturbances-in-advanced-cancer-patients-admitted-to-a-supportive-palliative-care-unit
#18
Sebastiano Mercadante, Claudio Adile, Patrizia Ferrera, Francesco Masedu, Marco Valenti, Federica Aielli
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances and possible correlations with associated factors in a sample of patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.A consecutive sample of patients with advanced cancer was prospectively assessed for a period of 6 months. Epidemiological and clinical data, treatments received in the last month, Karnofsky status, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and concomitant medical treatment were also recorded. Patients were administered the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and depression scale (HADS)...
December 13, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922255/risk-factors-for-nocturnal-hypoxemia-in-severe-osa-patients
#19
Eric Deflandre, Damien Kempeneers, Stephanie Degey, Robert Poirrier, Pascal Legros, Jean F Brichant, Jean Joris
BACKGROUND: Severe obstructive sleep apnea (sOSA) and oxygen desaturations are both risk factors for postoperative complications. In some but not all patients, sOSA is associated with frequent oxygen desaturation episodes during sleep. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the risk factors for exhibiting oxygen desaturation in patients with sOSA. METHODS: Records of 786 patients, mainly obese (Body Mass Index [mean + SD] = 30.2 + 6.0 kg/m2), were analyzed...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893291/association-between-use-of-short-acting-benzodiazepines-and-migraine-occurrence-a-nationwide-population-based-case-control-study
#20
Tomor Harnod, Yu-Chiao Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chun-Hung Tseng
AIM: To evaluate the association between using benzodiazepines (BZDs) with short- or long-acting durations and migraine occurrence. METHODS: The migraine group comprised 9616 subjects older than 20 years and newly diagnosed with migraine between 2005 and 2011, and the comparison group comprised 38,464 subjects without migraine. The BZDs used in the subjects were dichotomously defined as short-acting (half-life ≤24 h) and long-acting substances. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of migraine associated with BZD exposure and other diseases...
January 4, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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