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African American males and marijuana

Merrian J Brooks, Michael P Marshal, Heather L McCauley, Antoine Douaihy, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Hopefulness has been associated with increased treatment retention and reduced substance abuse among adults, and may be a promising modifiable factor to leverage in substance abuse treatment settings. Few studies have assessed the relationship between hopefulness and substance use in adolescents, particularly those with high-risk backgrounds. OBJECTIVE: We explored whether high hope is associated with less likelihood for engaging in a variety of substance use behaviors in a sample of marginalized adolescents...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Lidush Goldschmidt, Gale A Richardson, Cynthia Larkby, Nancy L Day
We investigated the associations among gestational factors including prenatal marijuana exposure (PME), child behavior at age 3, early age of onset of marijuana use (EAOM, <15years), and adult roles at 22years. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD) Project, a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure in offspring who have been studied for over 22years since the prenatal phase. Data from the prenatal, birth, 3-, and 22-year phases (N=608) were used in the present study...
June 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Sean Patrick Nordt, Ilene Claudius, Cyrus Rangan, Erick Armijo, Peter Milano, Sheryl Yanger, Christian Tomaszsewski
OBJECTIVES: There is concern of energy drink use by adolescents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy drink consumption use, frequency, age of first use, reasons for use, influences of choice of brand, and adverse events recorded in a predominant Latino adolescent population. METHODS: Subjects between the ages of 13 and 19 years utilizing emergency department services for any reason at a large county hospital answered a questionnaire about energy drink usage...
February 10, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Richard Dembo, Jennifer Wareham, Julie Krupa, Ken C Winters
Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
Leah J Welty, Anna J Harrison, Karen M Abram, Nichole D Olson, David A Aaby, Kathleen P McCoy, Jason J Washburn, Linda A Teplin
OBJECTIVES: To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)--alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug--in youths during the 12 years after detention. METHODS: We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011...
May 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kavelin Rumalla, Adithi Y Reddy, Manoj K Mittal
BACKGROUND: Recreational marijuana use is considered to have few adverse effects. However, recent evidence has suggested that it precipitates cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Here, we investigated the relationship between marijuana use and hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) using data from the largest inpatient database in the United States. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from 2004 to 2011 for all patients (age 15-54) with a primary diagnosis of AIS...
May 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Rebecca A Vidourek, Keith A King, LaTrice Montgomery
This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18...
December 7, 2015: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Sarah J Koopman Gonzalez, Leslie E Cofie, Erika S Trapl
Little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) use has received increased attention, but research on their modification is limited. Qualitative interviews with 17 young adult African American male LCC users investigated tobacco use behaviors and patterns, including LCC modification. The modification of LCCs for use as blunts emerged as a very prominent aspect of LCC users' tobacco use. Four subthemes regarding marijuana and blunt use are explored in this article, including participants' explanations of how blunts are made and used, concurrent use of marijuana and tobacco, perceptions and reasons for smoking marijuana and blunts, and perceptions of the risks of blunt use...
December 7, 2015: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Danielle Hill, Sylvie Mrug
BACKGROUND: School-level characteristics are related to students' substance use, but little research systematically examined multiple school characteristics in relation to different types of substance use across grade levels. OBJECTIVES: This study examines multiple school-level characteristics as correlates of students' tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and combined substance use across three grade levels. METHODS: Students (N = 23,615) from 42 urban and suburban middle schools and 24 high schools in the U...
2015: Substance Use & Misuse
Crystal Gibson, Lauren Perley, Jonathan Bailey, Russell Barbour, Trace Kershaw
Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces...
September 2015: Health & Place
Kymberle L Sterling, Craig S Fryer, Pebbles Fagan
INTRODUCTION: Flavored little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking prevalence rate is increasing among young adults; little is known about their comprehension of its risks. To inform tobacco control regulatory policy and prevention methods, we explored young adult smokers' risk perceptions of flavored LCC products and its use. METHODS: Purposive samples (n = 90) of African American, Hispanic, and white young adults who self-identified as dual (smoked ā‰„ 1 LCC and cigarette in past 30 days) and cigarette-only (ā‰„1 cigarette in past 30 days) smokers participated in 12 audiotaped focus groups and a semi-structured interview conducted in the Southeastern United States...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Ritesh Mistry, Justin E Heinze, David Cordova, Hsing-Fang Heish, Jason E Goldstick, Sophie M Ayer, Marc A Zimmerman
Substance use behaviors do not occur in isolation of one another and are not static over time. As adolescents age into early adulthood, there may be dynamic changes in their substance use behaviors, and these changes may be influenced by family and school factors. The current study uses Latent Transition Analysis to examine these changes by measuring transitions among different substance use profiles based on past 30-day alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, and by estimating associations with demographic, family and school factors...
October 2015: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Francesca M Filbey, Thomas A Loughran, Laurie Chassin, Alex R Piquero
Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N = 1,056; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1-7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males' patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over 7 years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors...
September 2015: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Emily A Wang, Kathleen A McGinnis, Joseph Goulet, Kendall Bryant, Cynthia Gibert, David A Leaf, Kristin Mattocks, Lynn E Fiellin, Nicholas Vogenthaler, Amy C Justice, David A Fiellin
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity may be a modifiable and independent risk factor for worse control of medical conditions, but it has not been explored among veterans. We determined the prevalence of, and factors independently associated with, food insecurity among veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). METHODS: Using data from VACS from 2002-2008, we determined the prevalence of food insecurity among veterans who have accessed health care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) as defined by "concern about having enough food for you or your family in the past month...
May 2015: Public Health Reports
Kathryn M Leifheit, Jenita Parekh, Pamela A Matson, Lawrence H Moulton, Jonathan M Ellen, Jacky M Jennings
To inform policy debates surrounding marijuana decriminalization and add to our understanding of social and structural influences on youth drug use, we sought to determine whether there was an independent association between neighborhood drug prevalence and individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a household survey of 563 youth aged 15-24 in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population was 88 % African-American. Using gender-stratified, weighted, multilevel logistic regression, we tested whether neighborhood drug prevalence was associated with individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms...
August 2015: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Ryan C Shorey, Paula J Fite, HyeJeong Choi, Joseph R Cohen, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (Nā€‰=ā€‰882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior...
August 2015: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Katherine S Elkington, Linda A Teplin, Karen M Abram, Jessica A Jakubowski, Mina K Dulcan, Leah J Welty
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. METHOD: The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, aged 13-25 years) interviewed up to 4 times between 3 and 5 years after detention...
April 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Christine Elizabeth Kaestle
PURPOSE: To determine (1) how reports of the ages of first cigarette smoked and daily smoking onset change from adolescence through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood and (2) what predicts reporting inconsistencies and recanting for both smoking milestones. METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression models compared relative risks of the following: (1) consistent reporting of milestone age (reference group); (2) recanting at either subsequent wave; or (3) inconsistent reporting of age in at least one subsequent wave, using data from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
April 2015: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Judith S Brook, Jung Yeon Lee, Stephen J Finch, David W Brook
AIMS: This study examines the conjoint trajectories of depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior from adolescence (age 14) into young adulthood (age 24) as predictors of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood (age 32). METHODS: Of the 816 participants, 52% were African Americans, and 48% were Puerto Ricans. After we obtained the conjoint trajectory groups using Mplus, we performed logistic regression analyses using SAS to compare the Bayesian Posterior Probability (BPP) of each of the conjoint trajectory groups with the BPP of the reference conjoint trajectory group to predict SUDs...
March 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Beth A Reboussin, Kerry M Green, Adam J Milam, C Debra M Furr-Holden, Nicholas S Ialongo
African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city...
December 2014: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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