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Motor Control exercise

Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Pia-Maria Wippert, Anne-Katrin Puschmann, Ann-Christin Pfeifer, Marcus Schiltenwolf, Winfried Banzer, Frank Mayer
BACKGROUND: Arising from the relevance of sensorimotor training in the therapy of nonspecific low back pain patients and from the value of individualized therapy, the present trial aims to test the feasibility and efficacy of individualized sensorimotor training interventions in patients suffering from nonspecific low back pain. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multicentre, single-blind two-armed randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a 12-week (3 weeks supervised centre-based and 9 weeks home-based) individualized sensorimotor exercise program is performed...
October 20, 2016: Trials
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Maria-Arántzazu Ruescas-Nicolau, José-Antonio Pérez-Miralles, Elena Marqués-Sulé, Gemma-Victoria Espí-López
BACKGROUND: In chronic stroke, feasible physical therapy (PT) programs are needed to promote function throughout life. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated the feasibility and effect of a PT program composed of strengthening exercises with elastic bands and bimanual functional training, with clearly defined doses based on the rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale), to counteract inactivity in chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifteen subjects > 6 month post-stroke were randomized to three-month of UE function training (UE group), or to lower extremity function training (LE group)...
October 19, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
L Angius, B Pageaux, J Hopker, S M Marcora, A R Mauger
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can increase cortical excitability of a targeted brain area, which may affect endurance exercise performance. However, optimal electrode placement for tDCS remains unclear. We tested the effect of two different tDCS electrode montages for improving exercise performance. Nine subjects underwent a control (CON), placebo (SHAM) and two different tDCS montage sessions in a randomised design. In one tDCS session, the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and the cathodal on contralateral forehead (HEAD), while for the other montage the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and cathodal electrode above the shoulder (SHOULDER)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Sebastian Frese, Jens A Petersen, Maria Ligon-Auer, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Violeta Mihaylova, Saskia M Gehrig, Veronika Kana, Elisabeth J Rushing, Evelyn Unterburger, Georg Kägi, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung
Huntington disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms across a wide range of neurological domains, including cognitive and motor dysfunction. There is still no causative treatment for HD but environmental factors such as passive lifestyle may modulate disease onset and progression. In humans, multidisciplinary rehabilitation has a positive impact on cognitive functions. However, a specific role for exercise as a component of an environmental enrichment effect has been difficult to demonstrate...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Eun Young Han, Sang Hee Im, Bo Ryun Kim, Min Ji Seo, Myeong Ok Kim
OBJECTIVE: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. METHOD: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mingming Zhao, Caiyou Hu, Zhixin Wu, Yu Chen, Zhengming Li, Mingsheng Zhang
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a new exercise training regimen, i.e. coordination and manipulation therapy (CMT), on motor, balance, and cardiac functions in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided 36 PD patients into the CMT (n = 22) and control (n = 14) groups. The patients in the CMT group performed dry-land swimming (imitation of the breaststroke) and paraspinal muscle stretching for 30 min/workday for 1 year. The control subjects did not exercise regularly...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
G Wang, P-P Wang, P-P Meng, C Han, S-W Yue
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is the major pathophysiological process in stroke and can cause severe and lasting sequel. However, an intensive exercise training can potentially effect a quick and efficient recovery. We used swimming training on rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) and explore the underlying neuroprotective mechanism(s), including the effects of intensive training on the expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and its receptor Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established by inserting a thread into the middle cerebral artery of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and randomly dividing into the control group and training groups for different training intensities...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Lianghua Chen, Junqi Chen, Qiyuan Peng, Jingjie Chen, Yucong Zou, Gang Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of sling exercise training (SET) on balance in patients with stroke. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid LWW, CBM, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of the effect of SET on balance in patients with stroke. The study design and participants were subjected to metrological analysis. Berg balance Scale (BBS), Barthel index score (BI), and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) were used as independent parameters for evaluating balance function, activities of daily living(ADL) and motor function after stroke respectively, and were subjected to meta-analysis by RevMan5...
2016: PloS One
Åsa Svedmark, Mats Djupsjöbacka, Charlotte Häger, Gwendolen Jull, Martin Björklund
BACKGROUND: The evidence for the effect of treatments of neck pain is modest. In the absence of causal treatments, a possibility is to tailor the treatment to the individuals' functional limitations and symptoms. The aim was to evaluate treatment effects of a tailored treatment versus a non-tailored treatment. Our hypothesis was that tailored treatment (TT) would have better effect on pain intensity and disability than either non-tailored treatment (NTT) (same treatment components but applied quasi-randomly) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (no treatment from the study, no restrictions)...
September 30, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Jennifer M Ryan, Nicola Theis, Cherry Kilbride, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Charlie Waugh, Adam Shortland, Grace Lavelle, Marika Noorkoiv, Wendy Levin, Thomas Korff
INTRODUCTION: Gait is inefficient in children with cerebral palsy, particularly as they transition to adolescence. Gait inefficiency may be associated with declines in gross motor function and participation among adolescents with cerebral palsy. Resistance training may improve gait efficiency through a number of biomechanical and neural mechanisms. The aim of the Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR) trial is to evaluate the effect of resistance training on gait efficiency, activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Open
Edwin Maas
Understanding of the behavioural, cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech production is of interest theoretically, and is important for understanding disorders of speech production and how to assess and treat such disorders in the clinic. This paper addresses two claims about the neuromotor control of speech production: (1) speech is subserved by a distinct, specialised motor control system and (2) speech is holistic and cannot be decomposed into smaller primitives. Both claims have gained traction in recent literature, and are central to a task-dependent model of speech motor control...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Anne Deisenroth, Regine Söntgerath, Anne Judith Schuster, Christine von Busch, Gerhard Huber, Katharina Eckert, Andreas E Kulozik, Joachim Wiskemann
Cancer- and treatment-related side effects in patients with childhood cancer may cause limitations in motor performance affecting activities of daily living (ADLs). Data focusing on long-term effects are available, but little is known with regard to the short-term perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess muscle strength performance and quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents with cancer at the beginning of primary treatment. Forty children and adolescents aged 5-18 years (mean: 11...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Dale R Wagner, Skyler Saunders, Brady Robertson, John E Davis
: Wagner, Dale R., Skyler Saunders, Brady Robertson, and John E. Davis. Normobaric hypoxia effects on balance measured by computerized dynamic posturography. High Alt Med Biol. 17:222-227, 2016.-Background/Aim: Equilibrium was measured by computerized dynamic posturography at varying levels of normobaric hypoxia before and after exercise. METHODS: Following a familiarization trial, 12 males (27.3 ± 7.1 years) completed three sessions in random order on a NeuroCom SMART Balance Master: a sham trial at the ambient altitude of 1500 m and simulated altitudes of 3000 and 5000 m created by a hypoxic generator...
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Morteza Taghipour, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Mohammad Ali Mohseni-Bandpei, Abbas Ali Keshtkar
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common condition in adults and can impose a heavy burden on both the individual and society. It is defined as displacement of disc components beyond the intervertebral disc space. Various conservative treatments have been recommended for the treatment of LDH and physical therapy plays a major role in the management of patients. Therapeutic exercise is effective for relieving pain and improving function in individuals with symptomatic LDH...
September 27, 2016: BMJ Open
Étienne Ojardias, Oscar Azeo, Diana Rimaud, Pascal Giraux
OBJECTIVE: Transcortical direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging technique in the rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients after stroke, and has been mainly evaluated for the upper limb. The feasibility and tolerance of the use of repeated stimulations on the lower limb motor cortex require a clinical evaluation. OBSERVATIONS: A 72-year-old patient, who suffered from a first ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery area, on July 2015, was admitted, 6 months post-stroke, to the PRM outpatient clinic of the university hospital of Saint-Étienne, for a motor training program combined with iterative tDCS stimulations...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Alain Yelnik, Cedric Andriantsifanetra, Peggy Reinert, Mathilde Evrard, Hélène Marneff, Marie Wanepain, Margaux Barbie, Johann Beaudreuil, Jean Pascal Devailly, Eric Vicaut
OBJECTIVE: Active and intensive physical therapy (PT) facilitates motor recovery when provided at a subacute stage after stroke. The efficiency of very early intensive PT (within the 2 first weeks) has been much less investigated. Early intensive rehabilitation might be beneficial for neural plasticity but also detrimental by worsening the cerebral ischemia. The AVERT study (Bernhardt 2015) showed negative effect of high dose of very early mobilisation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients have been recruited in this multicentre randomized controlled trial (9 stroke units with PRM teams) to compare "soft" (20 min/day apart from respiratory needs) versus "intensive" PT (idem+45 minutes of intensive exercises/day), initiated within the 72 first hours after a first hemispheric stroke...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Timo Hinrichs, Bettina Bücker, Renate Klaaßen-Mielke, Michael Brach, Stefan Wilm, Petra Platen, Anna Mai
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects a home-based exercise program delivered to ill and mobility-limited elderly individuals on physical function, physical activity, quality of life, fall-related self-efficacy, and exercise self-efficacy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN Registry, Reg.-No. ISRCTN17727272). SETTING: Fifteen general practitioner (GP) practices and participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Chronically ill and mobility-limited individuals aged 70 and older (N = 209)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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