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Neuroendocrine tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643736/the-pitfalls-in-cytology-diagnosis-of-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-lung-and-their-treatment-response
#1
Debarshi Saha, Ankit Kumar, Sourjya Banerjee, M Nirupama, H B Sridevi, Priya Garg, Flora D Lobo
CONTEXT: Lung is the most common site of small cell carcinoma (SCLC) - a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC). SCLC comprises 15-20% of the invasive cancers of the lung. AIM: This study was conducted to appraise the accuracy and pitfalls of the diagnosis of PDNEC on cytology along with treatment responses if available. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study for 2 years yielded 21 cases on cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Slides of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes, the tumor, bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were used...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643173/immunotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-there-is-hope
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan M Lehman, Mary E Gwin, Pierre P Massion
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. It accounts for ~15% of lung cancer mortality and has had no improvement in standard treatment options for nearly 30 years. However, there is now hope for change with new therapies and modalities of therapy. Immunotherapies and checkpoint inhibitors are entering clinical practice, selected targeted therapies show promise, and "smart bomb"-based drug/radioconjugates have led to good response in early clinical trials...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642484/mir-100-5p-inhibition-induces-apoptosis-in-dormant-prostate-cancer-cells-and-prevents-the-emergence-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
Noushin Nabavi, Nur Ridzwan Nur Saidy, Erik Venalainen, Anne Haegert, Abhijit Parolia, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Rebecca Wu, Xin Dong, Colin Collins, Francesco Crea, Yuzhuo Wang
Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common cancer in men. Treatment of aggressive prostate cancer involves a regiment of radical prostectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Despite significant improvements in the last decade, the treatment of prostate cancer remains unsatisfactory, because a significant fraction of prostate cancers develop resistance to multiple treatments and become incurable. This prompts an urgent need to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of therapy-induced resistance of prostate cancer either in the form of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) or transdifferentiated neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642335/carcinoid-syndrome-and-costs-of-care-during-the-first-year-after-diagnosis-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-among-elderly-patients
#4
Chan Shen, Yiyi Chu, Daniel M Halperin, Arvind Dasari, Shouhao Zhou, Ying Xu, James C Yao, Ya-Chen Tina Shih
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can secrete hormonal peptides that lead to additional symptom burdens. However, it is largely unknown whether and to what extent the additional symptom burdens translate into higher costs of care. This study aimed to examine the cost pattern of elderly NET patients during the first year of diagnosis, taking into account of the carcinoid syndrome status. METHODS: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare data to identify elderly NET patients diagnosed between January 2003 and December 2011...
June 22, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639924/cushing-syndrome-diagnostic-workup-and-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-pathologic-correlation
#5
Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Ali Baiomy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Shalini V Mukhi, Ajaykumar C Morani, Brinda R Korivi, Steven G Waguespack, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639083/tumor-vascularization-and-clinicopathologic-parameters-as-prognostic-factors-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#6
A Bob, F Nielen, J Krediet, J Schmitter, D Freundt, D Terhorst, J Röwert-Huber, J Kanitakis, E Stockfleth, Ch Ulrich, M Weichenthal, F Egberts, B Lange-Asschenfeldt
PURPOSE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with an increasing incidence. The clinical course is variable and reliable prognostic factors are scarce. Tumor angiogenesis has been shown to have prognostic impact in different types of cancer. The aim of our study was to determine potential prognostic factors, including tumor vascularization, for clinical outcome of MCC. METHODS: The medical records of 46 patients with MCC diagnosed between 1997 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638801/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-grade-1-patients-followed-up-without-surgery-case-series
#7
Mitsuru Sugimoto, Tadayuki Takagi, Rei Suzuki, Naoki Konno, Hiroyuki Asama, Ko Watanabe, Jun Nakamura, Hitomi Kikuchi, Yuichi Waragai, Mika Takasumi, Satoshi Kawana, Yuko Hashimoto, Takuto Hikichi, Hiromasa Ohira
Among the three grades of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), the prognosis for Grade 1 (G1) with surgery is very good. Therefore, we evaluated the prognoses of pancreatic NET (PNET) G1 patients without surgery. A total of 8 patients who were diagnosed with NET G1, with an observation period of more than 6 mo until surgery or without surgery, were recruited. The patients who underwent surgery were ultimately diagnosed using specimens obtained during the surgery, whereas the patients who did not undergo surgery were diagnosed using specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration...
June 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638725/administration-of-a-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-antagonist-enhances-the-autologous-anti-leukemia-t-cell-response-in-murine-models-of-acute-leukemia
#8
Christopher T Petersen, Jian-Ming Li, Edmund K Waller
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuroendocrine peptide hormone that has potent anti-inflammatory activities. VIP signaling through its receptor VPAC1 on T cells leads to reduced proliferation and a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. We report here that inhibition of the VIP pathway with a peptide antagonist significantly enhances a T-cell-dependent, autologous anti-leukemia response in murine models of acute myeloid leukemia and T lymphoblastic leukemia. Subcutaneous administration of the VIP antagonist, VIPhyb, resulted in reduced tumor burden and significantly enhanced survival (30-50% survival) over vehicle-treated controls (0-20% survival)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638669/external-beam-radiation-and-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer-is-it-a-possible-trigger-of-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder
#9
Ali Zakaria, Bayan Al Share, Sri Kollepara, Cynthia Vakhariya
Neuroendocrine tumors commonly involve the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Primary genitourinary neuroendocrine tumors are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Four histopathologic subtypes have been described. Among those, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is the least common, is more aggressive, and generally presents in an advanced stage with poor prognosis compared to transitional cell bladder carcinoma. There is no standardized treatment regimen because of the rarity of the disease...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637502/clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-a-multicenter-study-in-south-china
#10
Cheng Fang, Wei Wang, Yu Zhang, Xingyu Feng, Jian Sun, Yujie Zeng, Ye Chen, Yong Li, Minhu Chen, Zhiwei Zhou, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors. Many issues in terms of epidemiologic features, pathogenesis, and treatment of GEP-NENs are still under discussion. Our study aimed to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of Chinese patients with GEP-NENs. METHODS: Complete clinicopathologic data and survival information of 1183 patients with GEP-NENs treated between 2005 and 2015 were collected from five medical centers in Guangdong Province, China...
June 21, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635990/neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-the-head-and-neck-and-olfactory-neuroblastoma-diagnosis-and-classification
#11
S Uccella, G Ottini, C Facco, R Maragliano, S Asioli, F Sessa, S La Rosa
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the head and neck are a rare group of heterogeneous epithelial neoplastic proliferations arising in virtually all of the different organs of this region, particularly in the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, the larynx, the salivary glands, and the middle ear. They encompass a wide spectrum of entities ranging from very indolent neuroendocrine tumors to highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinomas. They may represent a challenge for radiologists, oncologists, and pathologists and a correct diagnosis is crucial for the management of patients...
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634872/predictive-markers-of-response-to-everolimus-and-sunitinib-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#12
Diana Martins, Francesca Spada, Ioana Lambrescu, Manila Rubino, Chiara Cella, Bianca Gibelli, Chiara Grana, Dario Ribero, Emilio Bertani, Davide Ravizza, Guido Bonomo, Luigi Funicelli, Eleonora Pisa, Dario Zerini, Nicola Fazio
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a large and heterogeneous group of malignancies with various biological and clinical characteristics, depending on the site of origin and the grade of tumor proliferation. In NETs, as in other cancer types, molecularly targeted therapies have radically changed the therapeutic landscape. Recently two targeted agents, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, have both demonstrated significantly prolonged progression free survival in patients with advanced pancreatic NETs...
June 21, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634593/carcinoid-heart-disease-starting-from-heart-failure
#13
Nicole Bertin, Serena Favretto, Francesco Pelizzo, Lucio Mos, Franco Pertoldi, Olga Vriz
Carcinoid syndrome is the constellation of symptoms mediated by humoral factors produced by some carcinoid tumors. It consists primarily of vasomotor symptoms, gastrointestinal hypermotility, hypotension, and bronchospasm, due to the production and release of vasoactive substances. Carcinoid heart disease occurs in more than 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome; in some cases, it represents the initial manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor admitted to the emergency room for fatigue and heart failure...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634180/a-mutyh-germline-mutation-is-associated-with-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors
#14
Jan P Dumanski, Chiara Rasi, Peyman Björklund, Hanna Davies, Abir Salwa Ali, Malin Grönberg, Staffan Welin, Halfdan Sorbye, Henning Grønbæk, Janet Cunningham, Lars A Forsberg, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Peter Stalberg, Per Hellman, Eva Tiensuu Janson
The genetics behind predisposition to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is largely unknown, but there is growing awareness of a familial form of the disease. We aimed to identify germline mutations involved in the carcinogenesis of SI-NETs. The strategy included next-generation sequencing of exome- and/or whole-genome of blood DNA, and in selected cases tumor DNA, from 24 patients from 15 families with the history of SI-NETs. We identified seven candidate mutations in six genes that were further studied using 215 sporadic SI-NET patients...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633725/well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumor-a-low-b-grade-tumor-s-aggressive-course-and-dismal-outcome-a-case-report
#15
Dinesh Atwal, Krishna Prasad Joshi, Susanne Jeffus, James Ntambi, Fade Mahmoud
INTRODUCTION: Incidence of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the colon and rectum is increasing and is now approximately 1 per 100,000 in the US. NETs are either well-differentiated (indolent) or poorly differentiated (aggressive). The majority of these tumors are found incidentally during screening colonoscopies and rarely are associated with symptoms of hormonal syndrome, even during the advanced stage. Metastatic well-differentiated NETs of the colon and rectum are incurable, hard to treat, and associated with a poor prognosis and survival rates similar to colorectal adenocarcinoma survival...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632813/cutaneous-metastasis-of-a-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumor
#16
Leyre Falto-Aizpurua, Sarah Seyfer, Bhuvaneswari Krishnan, Ida Orengo
Carcinoid tumors are uncommon neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin that generally arise in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tracts and typically are characterized by an indolent clinical course. Metastases from these primary neoplasms more commonly affect the viscera, with rare reports of cutaneous metastases to the skin. We report the case of a patient with a cutaneous carcinoid metastasis that was incidentally brought to our attention because of the exquisite tenderness of the lesion. A brief review of the literature also is provided...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631533/u-can-a-prospective-longitudinal-collection-of-biomaterials-and-clinical-information-from-adult-cancer-patients-in-sweden
#17
Bengt Glimelius, Beatrice Melin, Gunilla Enblad, Irina Alafuzoff, Anna Beskow, Håkan Ahlström, Anna Bill-Axelson, Helgi Birgisson, Ove Björ, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Tony Hansson, Thomas Helleday, Per Hellman, Kerstin Henriksson, Göran Hesselager, Magnus Hultdin, Michael Häggman, Martin Höglund, Håkan Jonsson, Chatarina Larsson, Henrik Lindman, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Stephanie Mindus, Peter Nygren, Fredrik Pontén, Katrine Riklund, Richard Rosenquist, Fredrik Sandin, Jochen M Schwenk, Roger Stenling, Karin Stålberg, Peter Stålberg, Christer Sundström, Camilla Thellenberg Karlsson, Bengt Westermark, Anders Bergh, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Richard Palmqvist, Tobias Sjöblom
BACKGROUND: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umeå Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population...
June 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630023/epigenetics-of-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#18
REVIEW
Peyman Björklund, Samuel Backman
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors arising in the medullae of the adrenal glands or in paraganglia. The knowledge of the tumor biology of these lesions has increased dramatically during the past two decades and more than a dozen recurrently mutated genes have been identified. Different clusters have been described that share epigenetic signatures. Mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit genes play a pivotal role in reprogramming the epigenetic state of these tumors by inhibiting epigenetic regulators such as TET enzymes and histone demethylases...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626594/a-case-report-gastric-mixed-neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine-neoplasm-with-aggressive-neuroendocrine-component
#19
Quang Duy Pham, Ichiro Mori, Robert Y Osamura
Mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is defined as mixed epithelial neoplasms composed of both neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine components with variable proportions for each component. Neuroendocrine component can show morphological features including well- or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and nonneuroendocrine component can present different tumor types depending on the site of origin. Recently, studies of tumors have shown that MiNENs are not as rare as our traditional belief, due to the wide application for immunohistochemistry...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626400/long-term-efficacy-of-s-1-chemotherapy-plus-administration-of-octreotide-for-a-patient-with-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-gastrinoma
#20
Sakura Hiraide, Sadahide Ono, Satoshi Kato
Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (gastrinomas) have a poor prognosis. Octreotide can reduce gastrin levels and alleviate hormonal symptoms, and possibly slow tumor growth as well. No drugs were available except streptozocin for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) in 2008. We report a case of PNET in a 53-year-old woman with multiple liver tumors treated with S-1 plus octreotide. After 6 months from the initiation of the treatment, the pancreatic tumor and liver metastases regressed, and the patient achieved partial response without the development of any serious adverse event...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
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