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heart failure review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334522/themes-in-literature-related-to-incidence-risk-and-prevention-of-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-on-immunosuppressive-therapy
#1
Stefanie L Rashti
BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplants provide a second chance to thousands of critically ill patients with end-organ failure each year. Immunosuppressants are administered to patients to prevent graft rejection of a transplanted organ, such as a heart, kidney, or liver, while placing the recipient at greater risk for infection and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The literature provides evidence of various cancers that have been found to develop in patients' posttransplantation...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334508/practical-valvular-issues-in-patients-requiring-ventricular-assist-devices
#2
Mitesh Badiwala, Terrence Yau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy in patients with advanced heart failure continues to grow, experience with concomitant valvular diseases present either before or after VAD implantation continues to accrue. In this review, we discuss recent data and current practice as it pertains to the subject of concomitant valvular disease in patients requiring VADs. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent aortic valve closure has been identified as a potential contributor to aortic valve 'disuse atrophy' resulting in valve degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333691/the-innate-immune-system-in-chronic-cardiomyopathy-a-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-scientific-statement-from-the-working-group-on-myocardial-function-of-the-esc
#3
REVIEW
Stefan Frantz, Ines Falcao-Pires, Jean-Luc Balligand, Johann Bauersachs, Dirk Brutsaert, Michele Ciccarelli, Dana Dawson, Leon J de Windt, Mauro Giacca, Nazha Hamdani, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Emilio Hirsch, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Manuel Mayr, Thomas Thum, Carlo G Tocchetti, Jolanda van der Velden, Gilda Varricchi, Stephane Heymans
Activation of the immune system in heart failure (HF) has been recognized for over 20 years. Initially, experimental studies demonstrated a maladaptive role of the immune system. However, several phase III trials failed to show beneficial effects in HF with therapies directed against an immune activation. Preclinical studies today describe positive and negative effects of immune activation in HF. These different effects depend on timing and aetiology of HF. Therefore, herein we give a detailed review on immune mechanisms and their importance for the development of HF with a special focus on commonalities and differences between different forms of cardiomyopathies...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333506/murine-models-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-fishing-expedition
#4
Maria Valero-Muñoz, Warren Backman, Flora Sam
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by signs and symptoms of HF in the presence of a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Despite accounting for up to 50% of all clinical presentations of HF, the mechanisms implicated in HFpEF are poorly understood, thus precluding effective therapy. The pathophysiological heterogeneity in the HFpEF phenotype also contributes to this disease and likely to the absence of evidence-based therapies. Limited access to human samples and imperfect animal models that completely recapitulate the human HFpEF phenotype have impeded our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings that exist in this disease...
December 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332923/heart-failure-as-an-aging-related-phenotype
#5
Hiroyuki Morita, Issei Komuro
The molecular pathophysiology of heart failure, which is one of the leading causes of mortality, is not yet fully understood. Heart failure can be regarded as a systemic syndrome of aging-related phenotypes. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway, both of which are key regulators of aging, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Circulating C1q was identified as a novel activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, promoting systemic aging-related phenotypes including sarcopenia and heart failure...
January 15, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/the-potential-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-a-narrative-review
#6
Abeer Rababa H, Ashley Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
January 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332567/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-nop-receptor-modulators-an-update-in-structure-activity-relationships
#7
Carlo Mustazza, Stefano Pieretti, Francesca Marzoli
Nociceptin /Orphanin FQ Peptide" receptor (NOPr) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) as endogenous agonist. It is expressed in the nervous system as well as in some non-neural tissues. Its activation has pronociceptive effect at the supraspinal level, whereas at the spinal level it produces nociceptive effects at low doses and antinociceptive effects at higher doses. NOPr is also involved in mood and blood pressure regulation, immunoregulation, airway constriction, feeding, urination, bowel motility, learning and memory...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332241/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-sudden-cardiac-death-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Pattara Rattanawong, Sikarin Upala, Tanawan Riangwiwat, Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Anawin Sanguankeo, Wasawat Vutthikraivit, Eugene H Chung
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality including sudden cardiac death (SCD). According to the Cardiovascular Heath Study cohort, the incident rate of SCD was higher in the AF population (2.9 per 1000 per year) compared with non-AF controls (1.3 per 1000 per year). In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the association between AF and SCD. METHODS: We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to January 2017...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331272/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-and-new-onset-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-67-063-patients-with-4-165-incident-heart-failure-events
#9
Jonathan D W Evans, Stephen J H Dobbin, Stephen J Pettit, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Peter Willeit
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically collate and appraise the available evidence regarding the association between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) and incident heart failure (HF) and the added value of hs-cTn in HF prediction. BACKGROUND: Identification of subjects at high risk for HF and early risk factor modification with medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may delay the onset of HF. Hs-cTn has been suggested as a prognostic marker for the incidence of first-ever HF in asymptomatic subjects...
January 3, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#10
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330646/potential-impact-of-sglt2-inhibitors-on-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Hidekazu Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related cardiac dysfunction is thought to be multifactorial, and possibly a key factor for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in patients with DM and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HFpEF, which is presented as LV diastolic dysfunction. Furthermore, it is well known that, in addition to DM, hypertension and overweight/obesity are also important factors associated with HFpEF...
January 12, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330420/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-cognitive-function-a-systematic-review
#12
C Restrepo, S K Patel, V Rethnam, E Werden, J Ramchand, L Churilov, L M Burrell, A Brodtmann
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is recognised as a marker of hypertension-related organ damage and is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke. There is evidence that LVH is independently associated with cognitive impairment, even after adjustment for the presence of hypertension. We conducted a systematic review that examined cognitive impairment in adults with LVH. Independent searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid psycInfo and PubMed with the terms left ventricular hypertrophy and cognition...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329440/executive-function-and-internalizing-symptoms-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease-the-role-of-coping
#13
Jamie L Jackson, Gina M Gerardo, Jennifer D Monti, Kyle A Schofield, Kathryn Vannatta
Executive functioning deficits have been documented among congenital heart disease (CHD) survivors and may contribute to emotional distress. Little research has investigated the role of coping in this association. This study examined the role of coping in accounting for the association between self-reported executive function problems and internalizing symptoms among adolescents and emerging adults (AEAs), as well as young adults (YAs) with CHD. Participants included 74 AEA ( M age  = 19.32  ±  3.47 years, range 15-25 years) and 98 YA CHD survivors ( M age  = 32...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327638/hybrid-and-surgical-procedures-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-and-longstanding-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Jose M Sanchez, Ghannam Al-Dosari, Sherman Chu, Ramin Beygui, Tobias Deuse, Nitish Badhwar, Randall J Lee
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The incidence of AF increases with age and is associated with increased stroke, heart failure and mortality. Persistent and long standing persistent AF is difficult to treat and often refractory to medical therapy and catheter ablation. Areas covered: This article reviews the historical development of the surgical Cox-MAZE procedure and current hybrid and minimally invasive surgical approaches for the treatment of persistent and long standing persistent AF...
January 12, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327140/children-s-experiences-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#15
REVIEW
Lauren S H Chong, Dominic A Fitzgerald, Jonathan C Craig, Karine E Manera, Camilla S Hanson, David Celermajer, Julian Ayer, Nadine A Kasparian, Allison Tong
We aimed to describe the experiences of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic databases were searched until August 2016. Qualitative studies of children's perspectives on CHD were included. Data was extracted using thematic synthesis. From 44 studies from 12 countries involving 995 children, we identified 6 themes: disrupting normality (denying the diagnosis, oscillating between sickness and health, destabilizing the family dynamic), powerlessness in deteriorating health (preoccupation with impending mortality, vulnerability to catastrophic complications, exhaustion from medical testing), enduring medical ordeals (traumatized by invasive procedures, disappointed by treatment failure, displaced by transition, valuing empathy and continuity in care, overcoming uncertainty with information), warring with the body (losing stamina, distressing inability to participate in sport, distorted body image, testing the limits), hampering potential and goals (feeling disabled, unfair judgment and exclusion, difficulties with academic achievement, limiting attainment and maintenance of life milestones), and establishing one's own pace (demarcating disease from life, determination to survive, taking limitations in their stride, embracing the positives, finding personal enrichment, relying on social or spiritual support)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326776/aorto-right-ventricular-fistula-following-percutaneous-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Monoj K Konda, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Jerry W Pratt, David Martin, Vishal Gupta
An 88-year-old woman with a prior history of aortic stenosis and history of valvuloplasty presented with worsening symptoms of heart failure and dizziness. She underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) without complications. Follow-up echocardiograms revealed a small fistula connecting aorta to the right ventricle. The patient was initially asymptomatic but 3 months later developed overload of the right ventricle and heart failure and chose to continue medical therapy. She died of progressive heart failure at 9 months from onset of fistula...
October 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326534/is-exercise-training-appropriate-for-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure-receiving-continuous-inotropic-infusion-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Eisuke Amiya, Masanobu Taya
Exercise-based rehabilitation programs have been reported to have beneficial effects for patients with heart failure. However, there is little evidence about whether this is the case in patients with more severe heart failure. In particular, there is a question in the clinical setting whether patients with advanced heart failure and continuous inotropic infusion should be prescribed exercise training. In contrast, many studies conclude that prolonged immobility associated with heart failure profoundly impairs physical function and promotes muscle wasting that could further hasten the course of heart failure...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326279/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Takeshi Kitai, W H Wilson Tang
Accumulating evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the gut microbiota and host diseases. In addition to alterations in the gut microbial composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent technological developments of molecular and biochemical analyses enable us to detect and characterize the gut microbiota via assessment and classification of its genomes and corresponding metabolites. These advances have provided emerging data supporting the role of gut microbiota in various physiological activities including host metabolism, neurological development, energy homeostasis, and immune regulation...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325978/management-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-in-the-presence-of-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#19
Valay Parikh, Andrew Sauer, Paul Friedman, Seth H Sheldon
Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are increasingly utilized in the management of patients with advanced heart failure. Many of these patients have or will be considered for cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy device. Frequent interplay is often encountered due to complexity of these devices and the underlying disease states. Proactive management strategies and an awareness of interactions may help reduce adverse events...
January 8, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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