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heart failure review

David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Cosmo Godino, Antonio Colombo, Alberto Margonato
Heart rate is an established prognostic marker for longevity and is an important contributor in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Most ischemic episodes are triggered by an increase in heart rate, which causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption. In addition, increased heart rate is a modifiable risk factor for chronic heart failure. Ivabradine, an inhibitor of If ion channels, is an approved second-line anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Parham Parto, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Samantha Bond, Dejana Popovic, Hector O Ventura
The prevalence of obesity among adults and children worldwide has reached epic proportions and has become a major independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF), in addition to a contributor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The implications of obesity in the development of HF involve adverse effects on cardiac structure and function. Despite all of this, in the setting of chronic HF, excess body mass is associated with improved clinical outcomes, demonstrating the presence of an obesity paradox...
October 20, 2016: Future Cardiology
Michele Malagù, Alessandra Ferri, Ottavia Mancuso, Filippo Trevisan, Marianna Nardozza, Matteo Bertini
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. In 35 years of technologic improvement and clinical trials, there has been a continuous increase in implantation rate. Purpose of this review is to point out and discuss every aspect related to actual ICD management, investigating implantation procedure and predischarge care, office and remote monitoring follow-up, diagnostic evaluations, management of patients with suspected therapies or malfunctions, heart failure, surgery, radiotherapy and endoscopic procedures...
October 20, 2016: Future Cardiology
O P Sanjay
The use of mechanical circulatory support for patients with severe heart failure is on the rist. The poeoperative, intraoperative and postoperative challenges the anaesthesiologists skills. These are discussed in this review.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Masakazu Saitoh, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Stephan von Haehling
Muscle wasting and malnutrition are common complications in patients with advanced heart failure (HF); however, both remain underdiagnosed and undertreated although they both play relevant roles in the progression of HF. The risk of muscle wasting in patients with HF increases in those patients with malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition. Muscle wasting and malnutrition are thought to be positively influenced by adequate therapeutic interventions such as physical activity and nutritional support. Consequently, early detection of malnutrition in patients with HF is recommended...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Taisuke Ishikawa, Yukiomi Tsuji, Naomasa Makita
Bradyarrhythmia is a common heart rhythm abnormality comprising number of diseases and is associated with decreased heart rate due to the failure of action potential generation and propagation at the sinus node. Permanent pacemaker implantation is often used therapeutically to compensate for decreased heart rate and cardiac output. The vast majority of bradyarrhythmia cases are attributable either to aging or to structural abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system, caused by underlying structural heart disease...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
Francislaine Aparecida Lívero, Jacqueline Vergutz Menetrier, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
Heart failure, hypertension, cirrhosis and nephritic syndrome are among conditions that alter volume and composition of body fluids and are modulated by diuretics. Natural products are important source of diuretics and have been considered remarkable alternative with greater effectiveness and fewer side effects. However, many of these plants used in traditional medicine must be scientifically assessed about their efficacy and toxicity. Despite the large number of published articles claiming that plants or plant-derived components may act as diuretic agents, few studies have addressed the mechanism of action of medicinal plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Catarina Francisco, João Sérgio Neves, Inês Falcão-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira
Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and antidiabetic properties. Unlike other adipokines, it inversely correlates with body weight and obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. Diastolic dysfunction is the main mechanism responsible for approximately half of all heart failure cases, the so-called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but therapeutic strategies specifically directed towards these patients are still lacking. In the last years, a link between adiponectin and diastolic dysfunction has been suggested...
October 18, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
M Namdari, A Eatemadi, B Negahdari
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as a B-type natriuretic peptide, is one of the important biomarkers with a proven role in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Researchers from the different clinical field have researched into the performance features of BNP testing in the acute care set-up to assist and improve in diagnosing CHF and in predicting future morbidity and mortality rates. The potency of BNP has also been researched into in cases like myocardial ischemia and infarction, cor pulmonale, and acute pulmonary embolism (PE)...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Agathe Gerwina Elena Pollmann, Marianne Frederiksen, Eva Prescott
PURPOSE: Evidence of the effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after heart valve surgery is scarce, but nevertheless CR is recommended for this group of patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of CR on exercise capacity, cardiovascular risk factors, and long-term mortality and morbidity, as well as predictors for enrolment in or failing to complete CR. METHODS: A review of medical records identified 250 patients who underwent heart valve surgery between January 2009 and August 2013...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Nicola Maurea, Paolo Spallarossa, Christian Cadeddu, Rosalinda Madonna, Donato Mele, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Pasquale Pagliaro, Alessia Pepe, Carlo G Tocchetti, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro
The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Concetta Zito, Luca Longobardo, Christian Cadeddu, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Sonia Dell'Oglio, Alessia Pepe, Rosalinda Madonna, Carlo G Tocchetti, Donato Mele
The evaluation by cardiovascular imaging of chemotherapy patients became a central topic in the last several years. The use of drugs for the treatment of cancers increased, and new molecules and protocols were developed to improve outcomes in these patients. Although, these novel approaches also produced a progressive increase in side effects, particularly myocardial dysfunction. Imaging of the heart was highly accurate in the early diagnosis of cancer therapeutics related-cardiac dysfunction. Echocardiography is the first-line method to assess ventricular function alterations, and it is required to satisfy the need for an early, easy and accurate diagnosis to stratify the risk of heart failure and manage treatments...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Nicola Maurea, Carmela Coppola, Giovanna Piscopo, Francesca Galletta, Gennaro Riccio, Emanuela Esposito, Claudia De Lorenzo, Michelino De Laurentiis, Paolo Spallarossa, Giuseppe Mercuro
The progress in cancer therapy and the increase in number of long-term survivors reveal the issue of cardiovascular side-effects of anticancer drugs. Cardiotoxicity has become a significant problem, and the risks of adverse cardiac events induced by systemic drugs need to be seriously considered. Potential cardiovascular toxicities linked to anticancer agents include arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. It has been shown that several anticancer drugs seriously affect the cardiovascular system, such as ErbB2 inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, multitargeted kinase inhibitors, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and others...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Clelia Madeddu, Martino Deidda, Alessandra Piras, Christian Cadeddu, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Giovanna Piscopo, Mario Scartozzi, Giuseppe Mercuro
The risk and mechanism of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CTX) vary depending on the type and intensity of the anticancer regimen. Myriad chemotherapeutic drugs produce adverse cardiovascular effects such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and thromboembolic events. Among the numerous classes of these drugs, anthracyclines have been studied most extensively because of their overt cardiovascular effects and the high associated incidence of heart failure. However, CTX might also be caused by other types of chemotherapeutic agents, including alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide), platinum agents, antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine), antibiotics (mitoxantrone, mitomycin, bleomycin), and antimicrotubule agents (taxanes)...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Sven Reek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator has been available for over a decade. In recent years, the device has been prescribed increasingly for a wide range of indications. The purpose of this review is to describe the technical and clinical aspects of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator. The available literature on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness is reviewed, and indications for use will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator has been used successfully in more than 100 000 patients for a variety of indications...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Joo Hoon Lee, Jae Suk Baek, Jeong Jin Yu, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko, Young Seo Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac parameters on echocardiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: Echocardiography was checked at 6 months ∼ 1 year interval in children with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis, which was more frequently done in patients with hypertension or any heart problems. We reviewed blood pressure (BP) and echocardiographic findings of those children (since February 2005). Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (median, minimum ∼ maximum)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Guido Grassi
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in the USA, allocated 9361 hypertensive patients (mean age 68 years) to two systolic blood pressure treatment targets (either < 120mmHg or < 140mmHg). Although SPRINT intended to enrol hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, it specifically excluded patients with diabetes mellitus or prior stroke. SPRINT was stopped earlier than planned, after a mean follow-up of 3.26 years, on the recommendation of its data and safety monitoring board, and data were published on 9 November 2015...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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