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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#1
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640119/relationships-between-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-metabolic-change-and-cognitive-impairment-in-first-episode-neuroleptic-naive-schizophrenia-patients
#2
Man-Li Huang, Thong-Teck Khoh, Shao-Jia Lu, Fen Pan, Jin-Kai Chen, Jian-Bo Hu, Shao-Hua Hu, Wei-Juan Xu, Wei-Hua Zhou, Ning Wei, Hong-Li Qi, De-Sheng Shang, Yi Xu
The present study aimed to explore the possible associations between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) metabolites and the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia (FES).This study included 58 patients with FES (29 males and 29 females; mean age, 22.66 ± 7.64 years) recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and 43 locally recruited healthy controls (16 males and 27 females; mean age, 23.07 ± 7.49 years). The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA); complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (Glx); choline-containing compounds; and myo-inositol in the DLPFC...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638200/brain-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-concentration-of-the-prefrontal-lobe-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-research-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yanle Bai, Zhen Wang, Haiyin Zhang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of neuroimaging studies found that the Cortico-Striato- Thalamo-Cortical circuit (CSTC), including the prefrontal lobe, a significant part of CSTC, has disturbance metabolically in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). AIM: Explore the correlation between the neuro-metabolic features and clinical characteristics of OCD patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. METHODS: 88 patients with OCD who were not received medication and outpatient treatment for 8 weeks and 76 health controls were enrolled, there was no significant difference in gender, age or education level between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596547/echo-planar-j-resolved-spectroscopic-imaging-using-dual-read-outs-implementation-and-quantitation-of-human-brain-metabolites
#4
Manoj K Sarma, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Zohaib Iqbal, Paul M Macey, M Albert Thomas
Attempts have been made to reduce the total scan time in multi-dimensional J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (JRESI) using an echo-planar (EP) readout gradient, but acquisition duration remains a limitation for routine clinical use in the brain. We present here a significant acceleration achieved with a 4D EP-JRESI sequence that collects dual phase encoded lines within a single repetition time (TR) using two bipolar read-out trains. The performance and reliability of this novel 4D sequence, called Multi-Echo based Echo-Planar J-resolved Spectroscopic Imaging (ME-EP-JRESI), was evaluated in 10 healthy controls and a brain phantom using a 3 T MRI/MRS scanner...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546056/glutamate-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-1-h-mrs-study
#5
Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Leonie Bais, Anita Sibeijn-Kuiper, Hendrika Maria Pijnenborg, Henderikus Knegtering, Edith Liemburg, André Aleman
PURPOSE: Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with psychosis. In this study, levels of glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the left lateral prefrontal lobe were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to calculate their association with AVH...
May 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533117/activation-induced-changes-in-gaba-functional-mrs-at-7t-with-mega-slaser
#6
Chen Chen, Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Dorothee P Auer, Peter G Morris, Paul S Morgan, Penny A Gowland, Stephen R Jackson
Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) has been used to assess the dynamic metabolic responses of the brain to a physiological stimulus non-invasively. However, only limited information on the dynamic functional response of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is available. We aimed to measure the activation-induced changes in GABA unambiguously using a spectral editing method, instead of the conventional direct detection techniques used in previous fMRS studies...
May 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#7
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503999/quantitative-assessment-of-brain-glucose-metabolic-rates-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Ming Lu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Gheorghe Mateescu, Wei Chen
Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMRglc) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ((2)H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMRglc and VTCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved (2)H resonances...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503156/effects-of-antipsychotic-administration-on-brain-glutamate-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-1-h-mrs-studies
#9
REVIEW
Alice Egerton, Akarmi Bhachu, Kate Merritt, Grant McQueen, Agata Szulc, Philip McGuire
Schizophrenia is associated with brain glutamate dysfunction, but it is currently unclear whether antipsychotic administration can reduce the extent of glutamatergic abnormality. We conducted a systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies examining the effects of antipsychotic treatment on brain glutamate levels in schizophrenia. The Medline database was searched to identify relevant articles published until December 2016. Inclusion required that studies examined longitudinal changes in brain glutamate metabolites in patients with schizophrenia before and after initiation of first antipsychotic treatment or a switch in antipsychotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497464/in-vivo-proton-observed-carbon-edited-poce-13-c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-rat-brain-using-a-volumetric-transmitter-and-receive-only-surface-coil-on-the-proton-channel
#10
Chathura Kumaragamage, Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Henk De Feyter, M Natasha Rajah, Jamie Near
PURPOSE: In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. METHODS: A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494346/glutamatergic-and-neural-dysfunction-in-postpartum-depression-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#11
Carlos E Rosa, Jair C Soares, Felipe P Figueiredo, Ricardo C Cavalli, Marco A Barbieri, Maristela S Schaufelberger, Carlos E G Salmon, Cristina M Del-Ben, Antonio C Santos
Although postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent subtype of major depressive disorder, neuroimaging studies on PPD are rare, particularly those identifying neurochemical abnormalities obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). The dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) are part of the neural pathways involved in executive functions and emotional processing, and both structures have been implicated in the neurobiology of depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459799/mapping-an-extended-neurochemical-profile-at-3-and-7-t-using-accelerated-high-resolution-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging
#12
Stephan Gruber, Eva Heckova, Bernhard Strasser, Michal Považan, Gilbert J Hangel, Lenka Minarikova, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare high-resolution free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (FID-MRSI) at 3 T and 7 T in the brain of healthy subjects and to showcase the clinical potential of accelerated FID-MRSI at 7 T in 2 brain tumor cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men/2 women; age: 31 ± 6 years) were measured at 3 T and 7 T (Trio and 7T-Magnetom; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) and 2 patients (a 38-year-old man and a 37-year-old man), 1 with an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (grade III) and 1 with a low-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma), were measured at 7 T...
April 28, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386718/globus-pallidus-mr-signal-abnormalities-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-or-porto-systemic-shunting
#13
Sylviane Hanquinet, Claire Morice, Delphine S Courvoisier, Vladimir Cousin, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Laura Merlini, Valérie A McLin
OBJECTIVES: Detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in children is difficult. We aimed to assess the changes in imaging of the central nervous system in children with chronic liver disease using MR imaging, diffusion, and (1)H -spectroscopy. METHODS: Forty three children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting (111.4±56.9 months) and 24 controls (72.0±51.8 months) underwent brain MRI/spectroscopy on a 1.5T to examine T1, T2, ADC, Cho/Cr, ml/Cr, Glx/Cr ratio spectroscopy in the globus pallidus...
April 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363111/3t-hippocampal-glutamate-glutamine-complex-reflects-verbal-memory-decline-in-aging
#14
Simona Nikolova, Shauna M Stark, Craig E L Stark
The hippocampus is a critical site for alterations that are responsible for age-related changes in memory. Here, we present a relatively novel approach of examining the relationship between memory performance and glutamate-glutamine levels using short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between Glx (a composite of glutamate and glutamine) levels in the hippocampus, performance on a word-recall task, and resting-state functional connectivity. While there was no overall difference in Glx intensity between young and aging adults, we identified a positive correlation between delayed word-list recall and Glx, bilaterally in older adults, but not in young adults...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273723/effects-of-a-72-hours-fasting-on-brain-metabolism-in-healthy-women-studied-in%C3%A2-vivo-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging
#15
Xiao-Qi Ding, Andrew A Maudsley, Ulrich Schweiger, Birte Schmitz, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Stefan Bleich, Heinrich Lanfermann, Kai G Kahl
Adaptive response of human brain to stress plays a key role in maintaining health. Knowledge about how stress affects neurometabolism may help to understand adaptive stress responses, and distinguish maladaptation in neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, neurometabolic responses to fasting stress in healthy women were investigated. Fifteen healthy females were examined for mood and cognition and using whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging before and immediately after a 72-h fasting. Results were compared to 15 age-matched healthy females who did not taken part in fasting (non-fasting)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246475/cerebral-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-quiescent-crohn-s-disease-patients-with-fatigue
#16
Sanne van Erp, Ece Ercan, Perla Breedveld, Lianne Brakenhoff, Eidrees Ghariq, Sophie Schmid, Matthias van Osch, Mark van Buchem, Bart Emmer, Jeroen van der Grond, Ron Wolterbeek, Daniel Hommes, Herma Fidder, Nic van der Wee, Tom Huizinga, Désirée van der Heijde, Huub Middelkoop, Itamar Ronen, Andrea van der Meulen-de Jong
AIM: To evaluate brain involvement in quiescent Crohn's disease (CD) patients with fatigue using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Multiple MRI techniques were used to assess cerebral changes in 20 quiescent CD patients with fatigue (defined with at least 6 points out of an 11-point numeric rating scale compared with 17 healthy age and gender matched controls without fatigue. Furthermore, mental status was assessed by cognitive functioning, based on the neuropsychological inventory including the different domains global cognitive functioning, memory and executive functioning and in addition mood and quality of life scores...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225553/correlations-between-mercury-concentration-and-stable-isotope-ratios-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-of-amino-acids-in-scalp-hair-from-whale-meat-eaters-and-heavy-fish-eaters
#17
Tetsuya Endo, Hideki Ogasawara, Moriaki Hayasaka, Yohei Hotta, Osamu Kimura, Klaus J Petzke
RATIONALE: As mercury (Hg) accumulation in marine animals generally increases with increased trophic level (δ(15) N values) through the food web, predators accumulate higher levels of Hg. The main source of human Hg intake is the consumption of fish and other marine animals, and Hg concentration in scalp hair is the preferred marker for evaluating consumption of marine animals. Difference in δ(15) N values between trophic and source amino acids of human consumers could enable us to estimate the trophic level of the consumer without knowing the bulk δ(15) N value of their prey...
May 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203104/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment-of-metabolite-status-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-chronic-pain-patients-and-healthy-controls
#18
Takahiro Ito, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Narihito Iwashita, Ikuo Tooyama, Akihiko Shiino, Katsuyuki Miura, Sei Fukui
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197103/increases-in-brain-1-h-mr-glutamine-and-glutamate-signals-following-acute-exhaustive-endurance-exercise-in-the-rat
#19
Maciej Świątkiewicz, Michał Fiedorowicz, Jarosław Orzeł, Marlena Wełniak-Kamińska, Piotr Bogorodzki, Józef Langfort, Paweł Grieb
Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191860/hypothalamic-damage-in-multiple-sclerosis-correlates-with-disease-activity-disability-depression-and-fatigue
#20
E Kantorová, H Poláček, M Bittšanský, E Baranovičová, P Hnilicová, D Čierny, Š Sivák, V Nosáľ, K Zeleňák, E Kurča
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis are supposed to modulate activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesised that the extent of HYP damage may determine severity of MS and may be associated with the disease evolution. We suggested fatigue and depression may depend on the degree of damage of the area. METHOD: 33 MS patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive disease, and 24 age and sex-related healthy individuals (CON) underwent 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the hypothalamus...
April 2017: Neurological Research
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