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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909856/metabolic-changes-in-the-bilateral-visual-cortex-of-the-monocular-blind-macaque-a-multi-voxel-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#2
Lingjie Wu, Zuohua Tang, Xiaoyuan Feng, Xinghuai Sun, Wen Qian, Jie Wang, Lixin Jin, Jingxuan Jiang, Yufeng Zhong
The metabolic changes accompanied with adaptive plasticity in the visual cortex after early monocular visual loss were unclear. In this study, we detected the metabolic changes in bilateral visual cortex of normal (group A) and monocular blind macaque (group B) for studying the adaptive plasticity using multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 32 months after right optic nerve transection. Then, we compared the N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins)/Cr, choline (Cho)/Cr and Glx (Glutamate + glutamine)/Cr ratios in the visual cortex between two groups, as well as between the left and right visual cortex of group A and B...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870506/differential-neurometabolite-alterations-in-brains-of-medication-free-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-and-those-with-unipolar-depression-a-two-dimensional-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#3
Hui Li, Haiyun Xu, Yinnan Zhang, Jitian Guan, Jie Zhang, Chongtao Xu, Zhiwei Shen, Bo Xiao, Chunlian Liang, Kaiyuan Chen, Jinling Zhang, Renhua Wu
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and depression. Many individuals with BD are initially misdiagnosed and treated for unipolar depression (UD). In this study, we report direct comparisons between medication-free individuals with BD and those with UD in terms of the neurometabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex (PC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of the brain...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869127/main-effects-of-diagnoses-brain-regions-and-their-interaction-effects-for-cerebral-metabolites-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depressive-disorders
#4
Hai-Zhu Tan, Hui Li, Chen-Feng Liu, Ji-Tian Guan, Xiao-Bo Guo, Can-Hong Wen, Shao-Min Ou, Yin-Nan Zhang, Jie Zhang, Chong-Tao Xu, Zhi-Wei Shen, Ren-Hua Wu, Xue-Qin Wang
Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20 UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847932/neurochemical-alterations-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-bipolar-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-1h-mrs
#5
Beata Galińska-Skok, Beata Konarzewska, Bożena Kubas, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Agata Szulc
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine neurochemical alterations in bipolar disorder using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: We investigated a group of 27 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (with manic and mixed episodes, depression and after remission of symptoms) and 10 healthy subjects. MR imaging and 1H-MRS were performed on a 1.5 T scanner. Voxels of 8 cm3 were positioned in the anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765961/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-functional-properties-of-protein-hydrolysates-from-golden-grey-mullet-prepared-by-commercial-microbial-and-visceral-proteases
#6
Intidhar Bkhairia, Rabeb Ben Slama Ben Salem, Rim Nasri, Mourad Jridi, Sofiane Ghorbel, Moncef Nasri
Bioactive Liza aurata protein hydrolysates (LAPHs) were prepared by treatment with Trypsine (PH-TR), Esperase (PH-ES), enzyme preparations from Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2 (PH-A2), Bacillus subtilis A26 (PH-A26) and Liza aurata (PH-LA). Their functional properties and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The hydrolysates had degree of hydrolysis (DH) values ranging from 8.15 % to 13.05 %. Reverse-phase HPLC analyses of the LAPHs showed considerable variation in peptide composition. All hydrolysates had high protein content (83...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717093/spatial-variability-and-reproducibility-of-gaba-edited-mega-laser-3d-mrsi-in-the-brain-at-3%C3%A2-t
#7
Petra Hnilicová, Michal Považan, Bernhard Strasser, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Martin Gajdošík, Ulrike Dydak, Jozef Ukropec, Dušan Dobrota, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
The reproducibility of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) quantification results, obtained with MRSI, was determined on a 3 T MR scanner in healthy adults. In this study, a spiral-encoded, GABA-edited, MEGA-LASER MRSI sequence with real-time motion-scanner-instability corrections was applied for robust 3D mapping of neurotransmitters in the brain. In particular, the GABA(+) (i.e. GABA plus macromolecule contamination) and Glx (i.e. glutamate plus glutamine contamination) signal was measured. This sequence enables 3D-MRSI with about 3 cm(3) nominal resolution in about 20 min...
October 7, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690094/amino-acid-composition-of-breast-milk-from-urban-chinese-mothers
#8
Clara L Garcia-Rodenas, Michael Affolter, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Carlos A De Castro, Leonidas G Karagounis, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang, Sagar K Thakkar
Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports...
September 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651067/targeted-transcranial-theta-burst-stimulation-alters-fronto-insular-network-and-prefrontal-gaba
#9
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649042/combined-glutamate-and-glutamine-levels-in-pain-processing-brain-regions-are-associated-with-individual-pain-sensitivity
#10
Matthias Zunhammer, Lauren M Schweizer, Vanessa Witte, Richard E Harris, Ulrike Bingel, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity...
October 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636543/brain-metabolite-changes-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-and-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-two-year-follow-up-study
#11
Dorothea Obert, Gunther Helms, Muriel B Sättler, Klaus Jung, Benedikt Kretzschmar, Mathias Bähr, Peter Dechent, Ricarda Diem, Katharina Hein
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the unique ability to monitor several disease-related pathological processes via their characteristic metabolic markers in vivo. In the present study metabolic compositions were assessed every six months over the period of two years in 36 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) including 21 relapsing-remitting (RR), 15 secondary progressive (SP) patients and 12 normal subjects. The concentrations of the main MRS-detectable metabolites N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (tCr), choline containing compounds (Cho), myo-Inositol (Ins), glutamine and glutamate (Glx) and their ratios were calculated in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and in selected non-enhancing white matter (WM) lesions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615793/effect-of-bilateral-prefrontal-rtms-on-left-prefrontal-naa-and-glx-levels-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-predominant-negative-symptoms-an-exploratory-study
#12
Jozarni J Dlabac-de Lange, Edith J Liemburg, Leonie Bais, Aida T van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Elly S M de Lange-de Klerk, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia treated with active bilateral prefrontal rTMS as compared to sham-rTMS, as measured with (1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
August 5, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596614/accelerated-echo-planer-j-resolved-spectroscopic-imaging-of-putamen-and-thalamus-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#13
Manoj K Sarma, Paul M Macey, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
UNLABELLED: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) leads to neurocognitive and autonomic deficits that are partially mediated by thalamic and putamen pathology. We examined the underlying neurochemistry of those structures using compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (JRESI), and quantified values with prior knowledge fitting. Bilaterally increased thalamic mI/Cr, putamen Glx/Cr, and Glu/Cr, and bilaterally decreased thalamic and putamen tCho/Cr and GABA/Cr occurred in OSAS vs healthy subjects (p < 0...
September 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580518/quantifying-global-brain-metabolite-level-changes-with-whole-head-proton-mr-spectroscopy-at-3t
#14
Matthew S Davitz, William E Wu, Brian J Soher, James S Babb, Ivan I Kirov, Jeffrey Huang, Girish Fatterpekar, Oded Gonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of non-localized, whole-head (1)H-MRS to an individual's serial changes in total-brain NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho concentrations - metabolite metrics often used as surrogate markers in neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, four back-to-back (single imaging session) and three serial (successive sessions) non-localizing, ~3min (1)H-MRS (TE/TR/TI=5/10(4)/940ms) scans were performed on 18 healthy young volunteers: 9 women, 9 men: 29...
January 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576166/whole-brain-patterns-of-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
L Su, A M Blamire, R Watson, J He, L Hayes, J T O'Brien
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated metabolite changes in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); however, their pattern and relationship to clinical symptoms is unclear. To determine whether the spatial patterns of brain-metabolite changes in AD and DLB are regional or diffused, and to examine whether the key metabolite levels are associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms, we acquired whole-brain spatially resolved 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data from subjects with AD (N=36), DLB (N=35) and similarly aged controls (N=35)...
August 30, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561792/a-spectroscopic-approach-toward-depression-diagnosis-local-metabolism-meets-functional-connectivity
#16
Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Adam Safron, B Biswal, Coraline Danielle Metzger, Shijia Li, Martin Walter
Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD...
August 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550776/glutamatergic-and-neuronal-dysfunction-in-gray-and-white-matter-a-spectroscopic-imaging-study-in-a-large-schizophrenia-sample
#17
Juan R Bustillo, Thomas Jones, Hongji Chen, Nicholas Lemke, Christopher Abbott, Clifford Qualls, Shannon Stromberg, Jose Canive, Charles Gasparovic
Glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), as well as N-acetylaspartate compounds (NAAc, N-acetylaspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate), a marker of neuronal viability, can be quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We used (1)H-MRS imaging to assess Glx and NAAc, as well as total-choline (glycerophospho-choline plus phospho-choline), myo-inositol and total-creatine (creatine plus phosphocreatine) from an axial supraventricular slab of gray matter (GM, medial-frontal and medial-parietal) and white matter (WM, bilateral-frontal and bilateral-parietal) voxels...
August 22, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550732/lisdexamfetamine-effects-on-executive-activation-and-neurochemistry-in-menopausal-women-with-executive-function-difficulties
#18
Sheila Shanmugan, James Loughead, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga, Mark Elliott, Hari Hariharan, Dina Appleby, Deborah Kim, Kosha Ruparel, Ravinder Reddy, Thomas E Brown, C Neill Epperson
Many women with no history of executive dysfunction report difficulties in this domain during the menopause transition. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) has been suggested to be a safe and effective treatment option for these women. However, the mechanism by which LDX improves executive functioning in these women is not known. Here we investigated the effects of LDX on brain activation and neurochemistry, hypothesizing that LDX would be associated with increased activation and decreased glutamate in executive regions...
September 14, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531975/on-the-effect-of-sex-on-prefrontal-and-cerebellar-neurometabolites-in-healthy-adults-an-mrs-study
#19
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Bernd Feige, Stephan Backenecker, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Thomas Lange, Irina Mader, Simon Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449360/adverse-childhood-experiences-associate-to-reduced-glutamate-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-patients-affected-by-mood-disorders
#20
Sara Poletti, Clara Locatelli, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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