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Petra Hnilicová, Michal Považan, Bernhard Strasser, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Martin Gajdošík, Ulrike Dydak, Jozef Ukropec, Dušan Dobrota, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
The reproducibility of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) quantification results, obtained with MRSI, was determined on a 3 T MR scanner in healthy adults. In this study, a spiral-encoded, GABA-edited, MEGA-LASER MRSI sequence with real-time motion-scanner-instability corrections was applied for robust 3D mapping of neurotransmitters in the brain. In particular, the GABA(+) (i.e. GABA plus macromolecule contamination) and Glx (i.e. glutamate plus glutamine contamination) signal was measured. This sequence enables 3D-MRSI with about 3 cm(3) nominal resolution in about 20 min...
October 7, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Clara L Garcia-Rodenas, Michael Affolter, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Carlos A De Castro, Leonidas G Karagounis, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang, Sagar K Thakkar
Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports...
2016: Nutrients
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Matthias Zunhammer, Lauren M Schweizer, Vanessa Witte, Richard E Harris, Ulrike Bingel, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity...
October 2016: Pain
Dorothea Obert, Gunther Helms, Muriel B Sättler, Klaus Jung, Benedikt Kretzschmar, Mathias Bähr, Peter Dechent, Ricarda Diem, Katharina Hein
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the unique ability to monitor several disease-related pathological processes via their characteristic metabolic markers in vivo. In the present study metabolic compositions were assessed every six months over the period of two years in 36 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) including 21 relapsing-remitting (RR), 15 secondary progressive (SP) patients and 12 normal subjects. The concentrations of the main MRS-detectable metabolites N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (tCr), choline containing compounds (Cho), myo-Inositol (Ins), glutamine and glutamate (Glx) and their ratios were calculated in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and in selected non-enhancing white matter (WM) lesions...
2016: PloS One
Jozarni J Dlabac-de Lange, Edith J Liemburg, Leonie Bais, Aida T van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Elly S M de Lange-de Klerk, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia treated with active bilateral prefrontal rTMS as compared to sham-rTMS, as measured with (1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
August 5, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Manoj K Sarma, Paul M Macey, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
UNLABELLED: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) leads to neurocognitive and autonomic deficits that are partially mediated by thalamic and putamen pathology. We examined the underlying neurochemistry of those structures using compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (JRESI), and quantified values with prior knowledge fitting. Bilaterally increased thalamic mI/Cr, putamen Glx/Cr, and Glu/Cr, and bilaterally decreased thalamic and putamen tCho/Cr and GABA/Cr occurred in OSAS vs healthy subjects (p < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew S Davitz, William E Wu, Brian J Soher, James S Babb, Ivan I Kirov, Jeffrey Huang, Girish Fatterpekar, Oded Gonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of non-localized, whole-head (1)H-MRS to an individual's serial changes in total-brain NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho concentrations - metabolite metrics often used as surrogate markers in neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, four back-to-back (single imaging session) and three serial (successive sessions) non-localizing, ~3min (1)H-MRS (TE/TR/TI=5/10(4)/940ms) scans were performed on 18 healthy young volunteers: 9 women, 9 men: 29...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
L Su, A M Blamire, R Watson, J He, L Hayes, J T O'Brien
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated metabolite changes in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); however, their pattern and relationship to clinical symptoms is unclear. To determine whether the spatial patterns of brain-metabolite changes in AD and DLB are regional or diffused, and to examine whether the key metabolite levels are associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms, we acquired whole-brain spatially resolved 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data from subjects with AD (N=36), DLB (N=35) and similarly aged controls (N=35)...
August 30, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Adam Safron, B Biswal, Coraline Danielle Metzger, Shijia Li, Martin Walter
Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD...
August 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Juan R Bustillo, Thomas Jones, Hongji Chen, Nicholas Lemke, Christopher Abbott, Clifford Qualls, Shannon Stromberg, Jose Canive, Charles Gasparovic
Glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), as well as N-acetylaspartate compounds (NAAc, N-acetylaspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate), a marker of neuronal viability, can be quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We used (1)H-MRS imaging to assess Glx and NAAc, as well as total-choline (glycerophospho-choline plus phospho-choline), myo-inositol and total-creatine (creatine plus phosphocreatine) from an axial supraventricular slab of gray matter (GM, medial-frontal and medial-parietal) and white matter (WM, bilateral-frontal and bilateral-parietal) voxels...
August 22, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sheila Shanmugan, James Loughead, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga, Mark Elliott, Hari Hariharan, Dina Appleby, Deborah Kim, Kosha Ruparel, Ravinder Reddy, Thomas E Brown, C Neill Epperson
Many women with no history of executive dysfunction report difficulties in this domain during the menopause transition. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) has been suggested to be a safe and effective treatment option for these women. However, the mechanisms by which LDX improves executive functioning in these women is not known. Here we investigated the effects of LDX on brain activation and neurochemistry, hypothesizing that LDX would be associated with increased activation and decreased glutamate in executive regions...
August 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Bernd Feige, Stephan Backenecker, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Thomas Lange, Irina Mader, Simon Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sara Poletti, Clara Locatelli, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Caterina Padulo, Stefano Delli Pizzi, Laura Bonanni, Richard A E Edden, Antonio Ferretti, Daniele Marzoli, Raffaella Franciotti, Valerio Manippa, Marco Onofrj, Gianna Sepede, Armando Tartaro, Luca Tommasi, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Alfredo Brancucci
Characterizing how the brain appraises the psychological dimensions of reward is one of the central topics of neuroscience. It has become clear that dopamine neurons are implicated in the transmission of both rewarding information and aversive and alerting events through two different neuronal populations involved in encoding the motivational value and the motivational salience of stimuli, respectively. Nonetheless, there is less agreement on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the related neurotransmitter release during the processing of biologically relevant stimuli...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
P E Menschikov, N A Semenova, M V Ublinskiy, T A Akhadov, R A Keshishyan, I S Lebedeva, M A Omelchenko, V G Kaleda, S D Varfolomeev
The MEGA-PRESS pulse sequence was used for determination of overlapping signals in the (1)H-MRS spectra of the human brain. For the first time, the balance of GABA glutamate/glutamine concentrations was estimated quantitatively in the human brain of patients with ultra-high risk of schizophrenia. It was found that GABA concentration and GABA/GLX ratios were significantly reduced in the left frontal lobe of UHR subjects.
May 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Devender Bairwa, Virendra Kumar, Surabhi Vyas, Bimal Kumar Das, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Ravinder M Pandey, Surendra K Sharma, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sanjeev Sinha
BACKGROUND: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies on brain in HIV infected patients have shown significant alteration in neuro-biochemicals. METHODS: In this study, we measured the neuro-biochemical metabolites from the left frontal white matter (FWM) and left basal ganglia (BG) caudate head nucleus in 71 subjects that include 30 healthy controls, 20 asymptomatic HIV and 21 HIV patients with CNS lesion. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 3 T MRI system and the concentration (institutional units) of tNAA (N-acetylaspartate, NAA + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, NAAG), tCr (Creatine, Cr + phosphocreatine, PCr), choline containing compounds (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and lipid and macromolecules at 0...
2016: BMC Neurology
Mohammed Z Goryawala, Sulaiman Sheriff, Andrew A Maudsley
Glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) play an important role in neuronal regulation and are of value as MRS-observable diagnostic biomarkers. In this study the relative concentrations of these metabolites have been measured in multiple regions in the normal brain using a short-TE whole-brain MRSI measurement at 3 T combined with a modified data analysis approach that used spatial averaging to obtain high-SNR spectra from atlas-registered anatomic regions or interest. By spectral fitting of high-SNR spectra this approach yielded reliable measurements across a wide volume of the brain...
August 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Simone K Ringer, Stefanie Ohlerth, Inés Carrera, Jacqueline Mauch, Nelly Spielmann, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Markus Weiss
BACKGROUND: Hypotension (HT) and/or hypocapnia (HC) are frequent complications occurring during pediatric anesthesia and may cause cerebral injury in the developing brain. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HT and/or HC on perfusion and metabolism in the developing brain. METHODS: Twenty-eight piglets were randomly allocated to four groups: control (C), HT, HC, and hypotension and hyocapnia (HTC). Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane...
September 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
A-L Lin, D Powell, A Caban-Holt, G Jicha, W Robertson, B T Gold, R Davis, E Abner, D M Wilcock, F A Schmitt, E Head
To determine if proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) detect differences in dementia status in adults with Down syndrome (DS), we used (1)H-MRS to measure neuronal and glial metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex in 22 adults with DS and in 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We evaluated associations between (1)H-MRS results and cognition among DS participants. Neuronal biomarkers, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate-glutamine complex (Glx), were significantly lower in DS patients with Alzheimer's should probably be changed to Alzheimer (without ' or s) through ms as per the new naming standard disease (DSAD) when compared to non-demented DS (DS) and healthy controls (CTL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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