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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#1
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503999/quantitative-assessment-of-brain-glucose-metabolic-rates-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Ming Lu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Gheorghe Mateescu, Wei Chen
Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMRglc) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ((2)H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMRglc and VTCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved (2)H resonances...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503156/effects-of-antipsychotic-administration-on-brain-glutamate-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-1-h-mrs-studies
#3
REVIEW
Alice Egerton, Akarmi Bhachu, Kate Merritt, Grant McQueen, Agata Szulc, Philip McGuire
Schizophrenia is associated with brain glutamate dysfunction, but it is currently unclear whether antipsychotic administration can reduce the extent of glutamatergic abnormality. We conducted a systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies examining the effects of antipsychotic treatment on brain glutamate levels in schizophrenia. The Medline database was searched to identify relevant articles published until December 2016. Inclusion required that studies examined longitudinal changes in brain glutamate metabolites in patients with schizophrenia before and after initiation of first antipsychotic treatment or a switch in antipsychotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497464/in-vivo-proton-observed-carbon-edited-poce-13-c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-rat-brain-using-a-volumetric-transmitter-and-receive-only-surface-coil-on-the-proton-channel
#4
Chathura Kumaragamage, Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Henk De Feyter, M Natasha Rajah, Jamie Near
PURPOSE: In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. METHODS: A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494346/glutamatergic-and-neural-dysfunction-in-postpartum-depression-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#5
Carlos E Rosa, Jair C Soares, Felipe P Figueiredo, Ricardo C Cavalli, Marco A Barbieri, Maristela S Schaufelberger, Carlos E G Salmon, Cristina M Del-Ben, Antonio C Santos
Although postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent subtype of major depressive disorder, neuroimaging studies on PPD are rare, particularly those identifying neurochemical abnormalities obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). The dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) are part of the neural pathways involved in executive functions and emotional processing, and both structures have been implicated in the neurobiology of depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459799/mapping-an-extended-neurochemical-profile-at-3-and-7-t-using-accelerated-high-resolution-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging
#6
Stephan Gruber, Eva Heckova, Bernhard Strasser, Michal Považan, Gilbert J Hangel, Lenka Minarikova, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare high-resolution free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (FID-MRSI) at 3 T and 7 T in the brain of healthy subjects and to showcase the clinical potential of accelerated FID-MRSI at 7 T in 2 brain tumor cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men/2 women; age: 31 ± 6 years) were measured at 3 T and 7 T (Trio and 7T-Magnetom; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) and 2 patients (a 38-year-old man and a 37-year-old man), 1 with an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (grade III) and 1 with a low-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma), were measured at 7 T...
April 28, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386718/globus-pallidus-mr-signal-abnormalities-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-or-porto-systemic-shunting
#7
Sylviane Hanquinet, Claire Morice, Delphine S Courvoisier, Vladimir Cousin, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Laura Merlini, Valérie A McLin
OBJECTIVES: Detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in children is difficult. We aimed to assess the changes in imaging of the central nervous system in children with chronic liver disease using MR imaging, diffusion, and (1)H -spectroscopy. METHODS: Forty three children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting (111.4±56.9 months) and 24 controls (72.0±51.8 months) underwent brain MRI/spectroscopy on a 1.5T to examine T1, T2, ADC, Cho/Cr, ml/Cr, Glx/Cr ratio spectroscopy in the globus pallidus...
April 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363111/3t-hippocampal-glutamate-glutamine-complex-reflects-verbal-memory-decline-in-aging
#8
Simona Nikolova, Shauna M Stark, Craig E L Stark
The hippocampus is a critical site for alterations that are responsible for age-related changes in memory. Here, we present a relatively novel approach of examining the relationship between memory performance and glutamate-glutamine levels using short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between Glx (a composite of glutamate and glutamine) levels in the hippocampus, performance on a word-recall task, and resting-state functional connectivity. While there was no overall difference in Glx intensity between young and aging adults, we identified a positive correlation between delayed word-list recall and Glx, bilaterally in older adults, but not in young adults...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273723/effects-of-a-72-hours-fasting-on-brain-metabolism-in-healthy-women-studied-in%C3%A2-vivo-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging
#9
Xiao-Qi Ding, Andrew A Maudsley, Ulrich Schweiger, Birte Schmitz, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Stefan Bleich, Heinrich Lanfermann, Kai G Kahl
Adaptive response of human brain to stress plays a key role in maintaining health. Knowledge about how stress affects neurometabolism may help to understand adaptive stress responses, and distinguish maladaptation in neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, neurometabolic responses to fasting stress in healthy women were investigated. Fifteen healthy females were examined for mood and cognition and using whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging before and immediately after a 72-h fasting. Results were compared to 15 age-matched healthy females who did not taken part in fasting (non-fasting)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246475/cerebral-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-quiescent-crohn-s-disease-patients-with-fatigue
#10
Sanne van Erp, Ece Ercan, Perla Breedveld, Lianne Brakenhoff, Eidrees Ghariq, Sophie Schmid, Matthias van Osch, Mark van Buchem, Bart Emmer, Jeroen van der Grond, Ron Wolterbeek, Daniel Hommes, Herma Fidder, Nic van der Wee, Tom Huizinga, Désirée van der Heijde, Huub Middelkoop, Itamar Ronen, Andrea van der Meulen-de Jong
AIM: To evaluate brain involvement in quiescent Crohn's disease (CD) patients with fatigue using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Multiple MRI techniques were used to assess cerebral changes in 20 quiescent CD patients with fatigue (defined with at least 6 points out of an 11-point numeric rating scale compared with 17 healthy age and gender matched controls without fatigue. Furthermore, mental status was assessed by cognitive functioning, based on the neuropsychological inventory including the different domains global cognitive functioning, memory and executive functioning and in addition mood and quality of life scores...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225553/correlations-between-mercury-concentration-and-stable-isotope-ratios-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-of-amino-acids-in-scalp-hair-from-whale-meat-eaters-and-heavy-fish-eaters
#11
Tetsuya Endo, Hideki Ogasawara, Moriaki Hayasaka, Yohei Hotta, Osamu Kimura, Klaus J Petzke
RATIONALE: As mercury (Hg) accumulation in marine animals generally increases with increased trophic level (δ(15) N values) through the food web, predators accumulate higher levels of Hg. The main source of human Hg intake is the consumption of fish and other marine animals, and Hg concentration in scalp hair is the preferred marker for evaluating consumption of marine animals. Difference in δ(15) N values between trophic and source amino acids of human consumers could enable us to estimate the trophic level of the consumer without knowing the bulk δ(15) N value of their prey...
May 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203104/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment-of-metabolite-status-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-chronic-pain-patients-and-healthy-controls
#12
Takahiro Ito, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Narihito Iwashita, Ikuo Tooyama, Akihiko Shiino, Katsuyuki Miura, Sei Fukui
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197103/increases-in-brain-1-h-mr-glutamine-and-glutamate-signals-following-acute-exhaustive-endurance-exercise-in-the-rat
#13
Maciej Świątkiewicz, Michał Fiedorowicz, Jarosław Orzeł, Marlena Wełniak-Kamińska, Piotr Bogorodzki, Józef Langfort, Paweł Grieb
Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191860/hypothalamic-damage-in-multiple-sclerosis-correlates-with-disease-activity-disability-depression-and-fatigue
#14
E Kantorová, H Poláček, M Bittšanský, E Baranovičová, P Hnilicová, D Čierny, Š Sivák, V Nosáľ, K Zeleňák, E Kurča
OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis are supposed to modulate activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesised that the extent of HYP damage may determine severity of MS and may be associated with the disease evolution. We suggested fatigue and depression may depend on the degree of damage of the area. METHOD: 33 MS patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive disease, and 24 age and sex-related healthy individuals (CON) underwent 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the hypothalamus...
April 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047652/su-f-sps-07-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-findings-in-early-phase-psychosis
#15
A Wright, R Ma, T Hummer, M Francis, N Mehdiyoun, U Dydak, A Breier
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by disordered thoughts, abnormal social behaviors, flat affect, and auditory or visual hallucinations. The current study aims to investigate alterations in brain metabolism in patients near the onset of psychosis (early-phase psychosis, EPP), to characterize abnormalities during the early stages of schizophrenia. To this end, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to measure metabolite levels and subsequently monitor the effect of treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044021/individual-differences-in-visual-motion-perception-and-neurotransmitter-concentrations-in-the-human-brain
#16
Tatsuto Takeuchi, Sanae Yoshimoto, Yasuhiro Shimada, Takanori Kochiyama, Hirohito M Kondo
Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044020/auditory-multistability-and-neurotransmitter-concentrations-in-the-human-brain
#17
Hirohito M Kondo, Dávid Farkas, Susan L Denham, Tomohisa Asai, István Winkler
Multistability in perception is a powerful tool for investigating sensory-perceptual transformations, because it produces dissociations between sensory inputs and subjective experience. Spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects occurs during prolonged listening to a sound sequence of tone triplets or repeated words (termed auditory streaming and verbal transformations, respectively). We used these examples of auditory multistability to examine to what extent neurochemical and cognitive factors influence the observed idiosyncratic patterns of switching between perceptual objects...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027769/brain-metabolite-alterations-in-eisenmenger-syndrome-evaluation-with-mr-proton-spectroscopy
#18
Dilek Şen Dokumacı, Ferit Doğan, Ali Yıldırım, Fatıma Nurefşan Boyacı, Erol Bozdoğan, Bülent Koca
OBJECTIVE: Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a life-threatening disease characterized by pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis in patients with congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the brain metabolite changes in Eisenmenger syndrome compared with a control group using MR proton spectroscopy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 10 children (3 male, 7 female) with congenital heart diseases and a diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteer children...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007998/pathological-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#19
Ahmad Seif Kanaan, Sarah Gerasch, Isabel García-García, Leonie Lampe, André Pampel, Alfred Anwander, Jamie Near, Harald E Möller, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, neuropsychiatric movement disorder with reported abnormalities in the neurotransmission of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Spatially focalized alterations in excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurochemical ratios within specific functional subdivisions of the basal ganglia, may lead to the expression of diverse motor and non-motor features as manifested in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Current treatment strategies are often unsatisfactory thus provoking the need for further elucidation of the underlying pathophysiology...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003912/reduced-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate-glutamine-levels-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-but-not-in-those-at-ultrahigh-risk
#20
Junjie Wang, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Huiru Cui, Lihua Xu, Botao Zeng, Yu Li, Gaiying Li, Chunbo Li, Hui Liu, Zheng Lu, Jianye Zhang, Jijun Wang
Altered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) levels, and an imbalance between GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions have been involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how these abnormalities impact the onset and course of psychosis. In the present study, 21 drug-naïve subjects at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR), 16 drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and 23 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. In vivo GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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