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Andrea Sangiacomo
Although several of Descartes's disciples established occasionalism as the natural outcome of Cartesianism, Pierre-Sylvain Régis forcefully resisted this conclusion by developing an account of secondary causes in which God does not immediately intervene in the natural world. In order to understand this view, it has been argued that Régis melds Aquinas's concurrentism with the new, mechanist natural philosophy defended in Cartesian physics. In this paper, I contend that such a reading of Régis's position is misleading for our understanding of both his account of secondary causality and the relationship between medieval debates and seventeenth century natural philosophy...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Laura Black, Deborah Gaebler-Spira
Investigators from Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Sorbonne Paris Cite University, Raymond Poincare University, and Paris Descartes University studied motor neuron function in children with Dravet syndrome (DS).
November 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Dana Hollenbeck, Crescenda L Williams, Kathryn Drazba, Maria Descartes, Bruce R Korf, S Lane Rutledge, Edward J Lose, Nathaniel H Robin, Andrew J Carroll, Fady M Mikhail
PURPOSE: The 2010 consensus statement on diagnostic chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing recommended an array resolution ≥400 kb throughout the genome as a balance of analytical and clinical sensitivity. In spite of the clear evidence for pathogenicity of large copy-number variants (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders and/or congenital anomalies, the significance of small, nonrecurrent CNVs (<500 kb) has not been well established in a clinical setting. METHODS: We investigated the clinical significance of all nonpolymorphic small, nonrecurrent CNVs (<500 kb) in patients referred for CMA clinical testing over a period of 6 years, from 2009 to 2014 (a total of 4,417 patients)...
September 15, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Dirk J Blom, Michael J Koren, Eli Roth, Maria Laura Monsalvo, C Stephen Djedjos, Patric Nelson, Mary Elliott, Scott M Wasserman, Christie M Ballantyne, Rury R Holman
AIM: To examine the lipid and glycaemic effects of 52 weeks of treatment with evolocumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Durable Effect of PCSK9 Antibody Compared with Placebo Study (DESCARTES) was a 52-week placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab that randomized 905 patients from 88 study centres in 9 countries, with 901 receiving at least one dose of study drug. For this post-hoc analysis, DESCARTES patients were categorized by baseline glycaemic status: type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), metabolic syndrome (MetS) or none of these...
January 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Chris N H Street, Alan Kingstone
There is a bias towards believing information is true rather than false. The Spinozan account claims there is an early, automatic bias towards believing. Only afterwards can people engage in an effortful re-evaluation and disbelieve the information. Supporting this account, there is a greater bias towards believing information is true when under cognitive load. However, developing on the Adaptive Lie Detector (ALIED) theory, the informed Cartesian can equally explain this data. The account claims the bias under load is not evidence of automatic belief; rather, people are undecided, but if forced to guess they can rely on context information to make an informed judgement...
August 11, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Pierre-Alexandre Just, Virginie Verkarre, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Marion Rabant, Cristina Daniliuc, Brigitte Radenen, Marion Harent, Lucien Cassanelli, Éric Cherel, Hubert Javaux, Antoine Tesniere, Benoît Terris, Cécile Badoual
At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success...
August 2016: Annales de Pathologie
Liviu Segall, Ionuţ Nistor, Julio Pascual, Istvan Mucsi, Lluis Guirado, Robert Higgins, Steven Van Laecke, Rainer Oberbauer, Wim Van Biesen, Daniel Abramowicz, Cristina Gavrilovici, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
During the last 20 years, waiting lists for renal transplantation (RT) have grown significantly older. However, elderly patients (ie ≥65 years of age) are still more rarely referred or accepted to waiting lists and, if enlisted, have less chances of actually receiving a kidney allograft, than younger counterparts. In this review, we looked at evidence for the benefits and risks of RT in the elderly trying to answer the following questions: Should RT be advocated for elderly patients? What should be the criteria to accept elderly patients on the waiting list for RT? What strategies might be used to increase the rate of RT in waitlisted elderly candidates? For selected elderly patients, RT was shown to be superior to dialysis in terms of patient survival...
October 2016: Transplantation
Eleanor Chan
The assumption that the Cartesian bête-machine is the invention of René Descartes (1596-1650) is rarely contested. Close examination of Descartes' texts proves that this is a concept founded not on the basis of his own writings, but a subsequent critical interpretation, which developed and began to dominate his work after his death. Descartes' Treatise on Man, published posthumously in two rival editions, Florentius Schuyl's Latin translation De Homine (1662), and Claude Clerselier's Traité de l'homme, has proved particularly problematic...
2016: Nuncius
Bruno Bonnemain
Penicher's pharmacopeia (1695) was part of the Library of the "College de Pharmacie". The inventory of this Library was done in 1780 and is kept by the Library of the BIU Santé, Paris-Descartes University in Paris that digitized it recently. This copy contains handwritten texts that complete the original edition. The first main addition, at the beginning of the document, is three recipes of drugs, in Latin, one of them being well known at the early 18th century, the vulnerary balm of Leonardo Fioraventi (1517-1588), that is also known as Fioraventi's alcoholate...
March 2016: Revue D'histoire de la Pharmacie
Nuria Montero, María José Pérez-Sáez, Julio Pascual, Daniel Abramowicz, Klemens Budde, Chris Dudley, Mark Hazzan, Marian Klinger, Umberto Maggiore, Rainer Oberbauer, Julio Pascual, Soren S Sorensen, Ondrej Viklicky
BACKGROUND: The Elderly are the fastest growing part of kidney transplant recipients. The best immunosuppressive strategy is unknown. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of randomized controlled trials and observational studies focused on safety and efficacy of different immunosuppression strategies in elderly kidney recipients. Data extraction and risk of bias evaluation were systematically performed. RESULTS: Ten studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials and 8 observational...
July 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Pierre Pasquier, Stéphane Mérat, Brice Malgras, Ludovic Petit, Xavier Queran, Christian Bay, Mathieu Boutonnet, Patrick Jault, Sylvain Ausset, Yves Auroy, Jean Paul Perez, Antoine Tesnière, François Pons, Alexandre Mignon
BACKGROUND: The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
André Luis de Oliveira Mendonça, Kenneth Rochel de Camargo
The "received view" of Descartes has shaped the image of a dualist thinker who radically separated mind and body and thus laid the foundations for a "divided modernity". Numerous epithets have been applied to Cartesian thinking, all of which now sound depreciative: mechanicism, determinism, and reductionism, among others. This article contends that Descartes was not the type of dualist that is normally assumed. Based on a rereading of two essential works (Discourse on Method and Metaphysical Meditations) and a dialogue with the new literature on the theme, we contend that overcoming the "received view" of Descartes can shed new light on discussions in (and of) the collective health field and highlight the so-called expanded health paradigm (including aspects beyond the biological or physiological, such as the psychological, social, economic, cultural, and political)...
2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
D Roux, G Meyer, F Cymbalista, J-D Bouaziz, G Falgarone, A Tesniere, J Gervais, A Cariou, R Peffault de Latour, M Marat, E Moenaert, T Guebli, O Rodriguez, A Lefort, D Dreyfuss, D Hajage, J-D Ricard
BACKGROUND: The year 2016 will be pivotal for the evaluation of French medical students with the introduction of the first computerized National Ranking Test (ECNi). The SIDES, online electronic system for medical student evaluation, was created for this purpose. All the universities have already organized faculty exams but few a joint computerized ranking test at several universities simultaneously. We report our experience on the organization of a mock ECNi by universities Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot and Paris 13...
March 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Annick Massart, Annaïck Pallier, Julio Pascual, Ondrej Viklicky, Klemens Budde, Goce Spasovski, Marian Klinger, Mehmet Sukru Sever, Søren Schwartz Sørensen, Karine Hadaya, Rainer Oberbauer, Christopher Dudley, Johan W De Fijter, Alexander Yussim, Marc Hazzan, Thomas Wekerle, David Berglund, Consuelo De Biase, María José Pérez-Sáez, Anja Mühlfeld, Giuseppe Orlando, Katia Clemente, Quirino Lai, Francesco Pisani, Aljosa Kandus, Marije Baas, Frederike Bemelman, Jadranka Buturovic Ponikvar, Hakim Mazouz, Piero Stratta, Jean-François Subra, Florence Villemain, Andries Hoitsma, Laura Braun, Maria Carmen Cantarell, Hulya Colak, Aisling Courtney, Giovanni Maria Frasca, Matthew Howse, Maarten Naesens, Tomas Reischig, Daniel Serón, Nurhan Seyahi, Cem Tugmen, Angel Alonso Hernandez, Luboslav Beňa, Luigi Biancone, Vania Cuna, Carmen Díaz-Corte, Alexandre Dufay, André Gaasbeek, Arnaud Garnier, Philippe Gatault, Miguel Angel Gentil Govantes, François Glowacki, Oliver Gross, Bruno Hurault de Ligny, Uyen Huynh-Do, Bénédicte Janbon, Luis Antonio Jiménez Del Cerro, Frieder Keller, Gaetano La Manna, Ricardo Lauzurica, Hervé Le Monies De Sagazan, Friedrich Thaiss, Christophe Legendre, Séverine Martin, Marie-Christine Moal, Christian Noël, Evangeline Pillebout, Gian Benedetto Piredda, Ana Ramírez Puga, Wladyslaw Sulowicz, Serhan Tuglular, Michaela Prokopova, Mélanie Chesneau, Alain Le Moine, Pierrick Guérif, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Marc Abramowicz, Magali Giral, Judith Racapé, Umberto Maggiore, Sophie Brouard, Daniel Abramowicz
BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients maintaining a prolonged allograft survival in the absence of immunosuppressive drugs and without evidence of rejection are supposed to be exceptional. The ERA-EDTA-DESCARTES working group together with Nantes University launched a European-wide survey to identify new patients, describe them and estimate their frequency for the first time. METHODS: Seventeen coordinators distributed a questionnaire in 256 transplant centres and 28 countries in order to report as many 'operationally tolerant' patients (TOL; defined as having a serum creatinine <1...
June 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
John D Greenwood
In this paper I chart the history of the development of theories of psychological continuity in the modern period, beginning with the contrasting positions of René Descartes and Julian Offrey de la Mettrie during the period of the scientific revolution in Europe. In providing the logical geography of competing positions, I distinguish between two forms of strong psychological continuity and discontinuity, between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes and between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between human and animal psychology and behavior...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Vincent Navarro, Christelle Dagron, Caroline Elie, Lionel Lamhaut, Sophie Demeret, Saïk Urien, Kim An, Francis Bolgert, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Michel Baulac, Pierre Carli
BACKGROUND: Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) should be treated quickly. Benzodiazepines are the only drug treatment available so far that is effective before admission to hospital. We assessed whether addition of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam to the benzodiazepine clonazepam would improve prehospital treatment of GCSE. METHODS: We did a prehospital, randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled, superiority trial to determine the efficacy of adding intravenous levetiracetam (2...
January 2016: Lancet Neurology
Beverly J B Whelton
This philosophical enquiry considers the impact of a global world view and technology on the meaning of being human. The global vision increases our awareness of the common bond between all humans, while technology tends to separate us from an understanding of ourselves as human persons. We review some advances in connecting as community within our world, and many examples of technological changes. This review is not exhaustive. The focus is to understand enough changes to think through the possibility of healthcare professionals becoming cyborgs, human-machine units that are subsequently neither human and nor machine...
January 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Emily Thomas
This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics...
December 2015: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Andrea Sangiacomo
This paper argues that Spinoza's notions of "conatus" and "power of acting" are derived by means of generalization from the notions of "force of motion" and "force of determination" that Spinoza discussed in his Principles of Cartesian Philosophy to account for interactions among bodies (impacts) on the basis of their degrees of contrariety. I argue that in the Ethics, Spinoza's ontology entails that interactions must always be accounted for in terms of degrees of "agreement or disagreement in nature" among interacting things...
December 2015: Science in Context
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