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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376980/an-experimental-study-of-implicit-racial-bias-in-recognition-of-child-abuse
#1
Mary Rojas, Ingrid Walker-Descartes, Danielle Laraque-Arena
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether implicit racial bias influences pediatricians' suspicion of child abuse. METHODS: Child abuse experts developed 9 injury vignettes. Pediatricians (N = 342) were randomly assigned one of 2 versions to rate for suspicion of abuse, with the child's race in each vignette varying between white and black. Data were collected online and anonymously. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in suspicion for an abuse-related injury based on the race of the child...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359768/on-the-science-of-consciousness-epistemological-reflections-and-clinical-implications
#2
Enrico Facco, Daniela Lucangeli, Patrizio Tressoldi
Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism...
February 24, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336221/the-use-of-contact-lens-telescopic-systems-in-low-vision-rehabilitation
#3
REVIEW
Stephen J Vincent
Refracting telescopes are afocal compound optical systems consisting of two lenses that produce an apparent magnification of the retinal image. They are routinely used in visual rehabilitation in the form of monocular or binocular hand held low vision aids, and head or spectacle-mounted devices to improve distance visual acuity, and with slight modifications, to enhance acuity for near and intermediate tasks. Since the advent of ground glass haptic lenses in the 1930's, contact lenses have been employed as a useful refracting element of telescopic systems; primarily as a mobile ocular lens (the eyepiece), that moves with the eye...
March 20, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205048/mild-orotic-aciduria-in-umps-heterozygotes-a-metabolic-finding-without-clinical-consequences
#4
Saskia B Wortmann, Margaret A Chen, Roberto Colombo, Alessandro Pontoglio, Bader Alhaddad, Lorenzo D Botto, Tatiana Yuzyuk, Curtis R Coughlin, Maria Descartes, Stephanie Grűnewald, Bruno Maranda, Philippa B Mills, James Pitt, Catherine Potente, Richard Rodenburg, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Srirangan Sampath, Emil F Pai, Ron A Wevers, George E Tiller
BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid is associated with treatable disorders of the urea cycle and pyrimidine metabolism. Establishing the correct and timely diagnosis in a patient with orotic aciduria is key to effective treatment. Uridine monophosphate synthase is involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency (or hereditary orotic aciduria), due to biallelic mutations in UMPS, is a rare condition presenting with megaloblastic anemia in the first months of life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198956/evaluating-pharmaceutical-waste-disposal-in-pediatric-units
#5
Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida, Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson, Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini
OBJECTIVE: To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD: A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS: 356 drugs disposals were identified (35...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194930/representation-archaeology-and-genealogy-three-spatial-metaphors-for-inquiring-into-nursing-phenomena-with%C3%A2-foucauldian-discourse-analysis
#6
Michael E Clinton, Rusla Anne Springer
Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse...
February 14, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186535/long-term-risks-of-kidney-living-donation-review-and-position-paper-by-the-era-edta-descartes-working-group
#7
Umberto Maggiore, Klemens Budde, Uwe Heemann, Luuk Hilbrands, Rainer Oberbauer, Gabriel C Oniscu, Julio Pascual, Soren Schwartz Sorensen, Ondrej Viklicky, Daniel Abramowicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134051/descartes-cardiac-heat-and-alchemy
#8
Dorothea Heitsch
René Descartes (1596-1650) insisted on a heat and light theory to explain cardiac movement, and used concepts such as distillation of the vital spirits, fermentation in the digestive process, and fermentation in the circulation of the blood. I argue that his theory of the body as a heat-exchange system was based on alchemical and natural philosophical notions of fire and light expounded by precursors and contemporaries who included Jean D'Espagnet, Jean Fernel, Jan Baptist van Helmont, and Andreas Libavius...
November 2016: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938723/from-secondary-causes-to-artificial-instruments-pierre-sylvain-r%C3%A3-gis-s-rethinking-of-scholastic-accounts-of-causation
#9
Andrea Sangiacomo
Although several of Descartes's disciples established occasionalism as the natural outcome of Cartesianism, Pierre-Sylvain Régis forcefully resisted this conclusion by developing an account of secondary causes in which God does not immediately intervene in the natural world. In order to understand this view, it has been argued that Régis melds Aquinas's concurrentism with the new, mechanist natural philosophy defended in Cartesian physics. In this paper, I contend that such a reading of Régis's position is misleading for our understanding of both his account of secondary causality and the relationship between medieval debates and seventeenth century natural philosophy...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909386/crouch-gait-in-dravet-syndrome
#10
COMMENT
Laura Black, Deborah Gaebler-Spira
Investigators from Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Sorbonne Paris Cite University, Raymond Poincare University, and Paris Descartes University studied motor neuron function in children with Dravet syndrome (DS).
November 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728786/the-habenula
#11
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632688/clinical-relevance-of-small-copy-number-variants-in-chromosomal-microarray-clinical-testing
#12
Dana Hollenbeck, Crescenda L Williams, Kathryn Drazba, Maria Descartes, Bruce R Korf, S Lane Rutledge, Edward J Lose, Nathaniel H Robin, Andrew J Carroll, Fady M Mikhail
PURPOSE: The 2010 consensus statement on diagnostic chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing recommended an array resolution ≥400 kb throughout the genome as a balance of analytical and clinical sensitivity. In spite of the clear evidence for pathogenicity of large copy-number variants (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders and/or congenital anomalies, the significance of small, nonrecurrent CNVs (<500 kb) has not been well established in a clinical setting. METHODS: We investigated the clinical significance of all nonpolymorphic small, nonrecurrent CNVs (<500 kb) in patients referred for CMA clinical testing over a period of 6 years, from 2009 to 2014 (a total of 4,417 patients)...
September 15, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619750/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-safety-and-glycaemic-effects-of-evolocumab-amg-145-in-hypercholesterolaemic-patients-stratified-by-glycaemic-status-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Dirk J Blom, Michael J Koren, Eli Roth, Maria Laura Monsalvo, C Stephen Djedjos, Patric Nelson, Mary Elliott, Scott M Wasserman, Christie M Ballantyne, Rury R Holman
AIM: To examine the lipid and glycaemic effects of 52 weeks of treatment with evolocumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Durable Effect of PCSK9 Antibody Compared with Placebo Study (DESCARTES) was a 52-week placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab that randomized 905 patients from 88 study centres in 9 countries, with 901 receiving at least one dose of study drug. For this post-hoc analysis, DESCARTES patients were categorized by baseline glycaemic status: type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), metabolic syndrome (MetS) or none of these...
January 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511287/aligning-spinoza-with-descartes-an-informed-cartesian-account-of-the-truth-bias
#14
Chris N H Street, Alan Kingstone
There is a bias towards believing information is true rather than false. The Spinozan account claims there is an early, automatic bias towards believing. Only afterwards can people engage in an effortful re-evaluation and disbelieve the information. Supporting this account, there is a greater bias towards believing information is true when under cognitive load. However, developing on the Adaptive Lie Detector (ALIED) theory, the informed Cartesian can equally explain this data. The account claims the bias under load is not evidence of automatic belief; rather, people are undecided, but if forced to guess they can rely on context information to make an informed judgement...
August 11, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475003/-innovations-in-medical-undergraduate-pathology-education-the-paris-descartes-medicine-faculty-experience
#15
Pierre-Alexandre Just, Virginie Verkarre, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Marion Rabant, Cristina Daniliuc, Brigitte Radenen, Marion Harent, Lucien Cassanelli, Éric Cherel, Hubert Javaux, Antoine Tesniere, Benoît Terris, Cécile Badoual
At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success...
August 2016: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472096/criteria-for-and-appropriateness-of-renal-transplantation-in-elderly-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-literature-review-and-position-statement-on-behalf-of-the-european-renal-association-european-dialysis-and-transplant-association-descartes-working
#16
Liviu Segall, Ionuţ Nistor, Julio Pascual, Istvan Mucsi, Lluis Guirado, Robert Higgins, Steven Van Laecke, Rainer Oberbauer, Wim Van Biesen, Daniel Abramowicz, Cristina Gavrilovici, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
During the last 20 years, waiting lists for renal transplantation (RT) have grown significantly older. However, elderly patients (ie ≥65 years of age) are still more rarely referred or accepted to waiting lists and, if enlisted, have less chances of actually receiving a kidney allograft, than younger counterparts. In this review, we looked at evidence for the benefits and risks of RT in the elderly trying to answer the following questions: Should RT be advocated for elderly patients? What should be the criteria to accept elderly patients on the waiting list for RT? What strategies might be used to increase the rate of RT in waitlisted elderly candidates? For selected elderly patients, RT was shown to be superior to dialysis in terms of patient survival...
October 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356337/beautiful-surfaces-style-and-substance-in-florentius-schuyl-s-illustrations-for-descartes-treatise-on-man
#17
Eleanor Chan
The assumption that the Cartesian bête-machine is the invention of René Descartes (1596-1650) is rarely contested. Close examination of Descartes' texts proves that this is a concept founded not on the basis of his own writings, but a subsequent critical interpretation, which developed and began to dominate his work after his death. Descartes' Treatise on Man, published posthumously in two rival editions, Florentius Schuyl's Latin translation De Homine (1662), and Claude Clerselier's Traité de l'homme, has proved particularly problematic...
2016: Nuncius
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281932/-penicher-an-manuscript-addendum-to-his-pharmacopoeia-of-1695-on-the-copy-of-pharmacy-college-library
#18
Bruno Bonnemain
Penicher's pharmacopeia (1695) was part of the Library of the "College de Pharmacie". The inventory of this Library was done in 1780 and is kept by the Library of the BIU Santé, Paris-Descartes University in Paris that digitized it recently. This copy contains handwritten texts that complete the original edition. The first main addition, at the beginning of the document, is three recipes of drugs, in Latin, one of them being well known at the early 18th century, the vulnerary balm of Leonardo Fioraventi (1517-1588), that is also known as Fioraventi's alcoholate...
March 2016: Revue D'histoire de la Pharmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279024/immunosuppression-in-the-elderly-renal-allograft-recipient-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Nuria Montero, María José Pérez-Sáez, Julio Pascual, Daniel Abramowicz, Klemens Budde, Chris Dudley, Mark Hazzan, Marian Klinger, Umberto Maggiore, Rainer Oberbauer, Julio Pascual, Soren S Sorensen, Ondrej Viklicky
BACKGROUND: The Elderly are the fastest growing part of kidney transplant recipients. The best immunosuppressive strategy is unknown. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of randomized controlled trials and observational studies focused on safety and efficacy of different immunosuppression strategies in elderly kidney recipients. Data extraction and risk of bias evaluation were systematically performed. RESULTS: Ten studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials and 8 observational...
July 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194369/a-serious-game-for-massive-training-and-assessment-of-french-soldiers-involved-in-forward-combat-casualty-care-3d-sc1-development-and-deployment
#20
Pierre Pasquier, Stéphane Mérat, Brice Malgras, Ludovic Petit, Xavier Queran, Christian Bay, Mathieu Boutonnet, Patrick Jault, Sylvain Ausset, Yves Auroy, Jean Paul Perez, Antoine Tesnière, François Pons, Alexandre Mignon
BACKGROUND: The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
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