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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633003/assessment-of-selected-overdose-poisoning-indicators-in-health-care-administrative-data-in-4-states-2012
#1
Beth Hume, Barbara Gabella, Jeanne Hathaway, Scott Proescholdbell, Cristy Sneddon, Elizabeth Brutsch, Riley Hedin, Christopher J Drucker
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, a consensus document was developed on drug overdose poisoning definitions. We took the opportunity to apply these new definitions to health care administrative data in 4 states. Our objective was to calculate and compare drug (particularly opioid) poisoning rates in these 4 states for 4 selected Injury Surveillance Workgroup 7 (ISW7) drug poisoning indicators, using 2 ISW7 surveillance definitions, Option A and Option B. We also identified factors related to the health care administrative data used by each state that might contribute to poisoning rate variations...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628125/enhanced-insulin-sensitivity-in-successful-long-term-weight-loss-maintainers-compared-with-matched-controls-with-no-weight-loss-history
#2
L D Clamp, D J Hume, E V Lambert, J Kroff
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is associated with deterioration in metabolic health, whereas weight loss improves insulin sensitivity. This study assesses the impact of long-term, successfully maintained weight loss and weight-loss relapse on measures of insulin sensitivity and identifies factors that explain variability in insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Women (20-45 years) were recruited into four groups: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n=15); body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (stable low-weight, n=19), BMI⩽27 kg m(-2); relapsed-overweight/obese subjects (REL, n=11); and BMI-matched controls (obese stable weight, n=11), BMI⩾27 kg m(-2)...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615302/ccr2-dependent-monocyte-derived-macrophages-resolve-inflammation-and-restore-gut-motility-in-postoperative-ileus
#3
Giovanna Farro, Michelle Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Evelien Labeeuw, Gera Goverse, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Nathalie Stakenborg, Elisa Meroni, Francesca D'Errico, Yvon Elkrim, Damya Laoui, Zofia M Lisowski, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Gianluca Matteoli
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is assumed to result from myeloid cells infiltrating the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In the current study, we investigated the role of infiltrating monocytes in a murine model of intestinal manipulation (IM)-induced POI in order to clarify whether monocytes mediate tissue damage and intestinal dysfunction or they are rather involved in the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. DESIGN: IM was performed in mice with defective monocyte migration to tissues (C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, Ccr2(-/ (-)) mice) and wild-type (WT) mice to study the role of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) during onset and resolution of ME inflammation...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614195/assessment-of-knee-kinematics-in-older-adults-using-high-speed-stereo-radiography
#4
Vasiliki Kefala, Adam J Cyr, Michael D Harris, Donald R Hume, Bradley S Davidson, Raymond H Kim, Kevin B Shelburne
PURPOSE: Quantification of knee motion is essential for assessment of pathologic joint function, such as tracking osteoarthritis progression and evaluating outcomes following conservative or surgical treatment, including total knee arthroplasty. Our purpose was to establish a useful baseline for the kinematic envelope of knee motion in healthy older adults performing movements of daily living. METHODS: A high-speed stereo radiography system was used to measure the three-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics of eight healthy people over 55 years of age (4F/4M, age=61...
June 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610557/integration-of-quantitated-expression-estimates-from-polya-selected-and-rrna-depleted-rna-seq-libraries
#5
Stephen J Bush, Mary E B McCulloch, Kim M Summers, David A Hume, Emily L Clark
BACKGROUND: The availability of fast alignment-free algorithms has greatly reduced the computational burden of RNA-seq processing, especially for relatively poorly assembled genomes. Using these approaches, previous RNA-seq datasets could potentially be processed and integrated with newly sequenced libraries. Confounding factors in such integration include sequencing depth and methods of RNA extraction and selection. Different selection methods (typically, either polyA-selection or rRNA-depletion) omit different RNAs, resulting in different fractions of the transcriptome being sequenced...
June 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610056/a-new-asterocherid-genus-copepoda-siphonostomatoida-associated-with-i-callyspongia-i-duchassaing-amp-michelotti-and-reassessment-of-six-species-of-i-asterocheres-i-boeck
#6
Roberta Canário, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna DA Rocha, Elizabeth Neves, Rodrigo Johnsson
The family Asterocheridae Giesbrecht has several genera associated with sponges including Asterocheres Boeck, 1859. The type genus is commonly found in sponges but it is also recorded in echinoderms, bryozoans, and corals. A revision of the diagnosis of Asterocheres conducted in 2010 was the beginning of a reorganization process, culminating in the present status of 63 valid species. This study describes a new species and genus of the Asterocheridae. Neoasterocheres gen. nov. shares many characteristics with Asterocheres sensu stricto, except for the antennule segmentation which shows ancestral segments IX-XII fused to segment XIII...
March 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601736/upper-extremity-non-contrast-magnetic-resonance-venography-mrv-compared-to-contrast-enhanced-mrv-and-ultrasound
#7
Ruth P Lim, Emma Hornsey, Dinesh Ranatunga, Huming Hao, Julie Smith, Tim Spelman, Jason Chuen, Mark Goodwin
PURPOSE: To assess feasibility, image quality and measured venous caliber of non-contrast MRV (NC-MRV) of central and upper extremity veins, compared to contrast-enhanced MRV (CE-MRV) and ultrasound (US) in healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 subjects underwent NC-MRV and CE-MRV at 1.5 T, with comparison to US. Two radiologists evaluated MRI for image quality (IQ) and venous caliber. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: NC-MRV is feasible, with inferior IQ but comparable venous caliber measurements CE-MRV (mean 7...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596023/prebiotic-reduces-body-fat-and-alters-intestinal-microbiota-in-children-with-overweight-or-obesity
#8
Alissa C Nicolucci, Megan P Hume, Inés Martínez, Shyamchand Mayengbam, Jens Walter, Raylene A Reimer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity...
June 3, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567546/examining-the-efficacy-of-peer-network-interventions-on-the-social-interactions-of-high-school-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Melissa A Sreckovic, Kara Hume, Harriet Able
Developing positive peer relationships is important. Unfortunately, due to challenges in social communication and increased complexity of peer groups during adolescence, many secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in limited positive social interactions with peers. This study examined the effects of a peer network intervention implemented with three high school students with ASD. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the intervention on initiations and responses to and from students with ASD...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559319/myosin-va-s-adaptor-protein-melanophilin-enforces-track-selection-on-the-microtubule-and-actin-networks-in-vitro
#10
Angela Oberhofer, Peter Spieler, Yuliya Rosenfeld, Willi L Stepp, Augustine Cleetus, Alistair N Hume, Felix Mueller-Planitz, Zeynep Ökten
Pigment organelles, or melanosomes, are transported by kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors. As such, melanosome transport is an excellent model system to study the functional relationship between the microtubule- and actin-based transport systems. In mammalian melanocytes, it is well known that the Rab27a/melanophilin/myosin Va complex mediates actin-based transport in vivo. However, pathways that regulate the overall directionality of melanosomes on the actin/microtubule networks have not yet been delineated...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557747/supplemental-iodide-for-preterm-infants-and-developmental-outcomes-at-2-years-an-rct
#11
Fiona L R Williams, Simon Ogston, Robert Hume, Jennifer Watson, Kayleigh Stanbury, Peter Willatts, Anita Boelen, Edmund Juszczak, Peter Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: The recommendation for enteral iodide intake for preterm infants is 30 to 40 μg/kg per day and 1 μg/kg per day for parenteral intake. Preterm infants are vulnerable to iodide insufficiency and thyroid dysfunction. The hypothesis tested whether, compared with placebo, iodide supplementation of preterm infants improves neurodevelopment. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of iodide supplementation versus placebo in infants <31 weeks' gestation...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544052/unexpected-direct-synthesis-of-n-vinyl-amides-through-vinyl-azide-enolate-3-2-cycloaddition
#12
Hans Choi, Harry J Shirley, Paul A Hume, Margaret A Brimble, Daniel P Furkert
The unexpected synthesis of industrially important N-vinyl amides directly from aldehydes and α,β-unsaturated N-vinyl amides from esters is reported. This reaction probably proceeds through an initial [3+2] azide-enolate cycloaddition involving a vinyl azide generated in situ. A survey of the reaction scope and preliminary mechanistic findings supported by quantum computational analysis are reported, with implications for the future development of atom-efficient amide synthesis. Intriguingly, this study suggests that (cautious) reevaluation of azidoethene as a synthetic reagent may be warranted...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524754/arf-gtpase-interplay-with-rho-gtpases-in-regulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#13
Vikash Singh, Anthony C Davidson, Peter J Hume, Daniel Humphreys, Vassilis Koronakis
The Arf and Rho subfamilies of small GTPases are nucleotide-dependent molecular switches that act as master regulators of vesicular trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton organization. Small GTPases control cell processes with high fidelity by acting through distinct repertoires of binding partners called effectors. While we understand a great deal about how these GTPases act individually, relatively little is known about how they cooperate, especially in the control of effectors. This review highlights how Arf GTPases collaborate with Rac1 to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics at the membrane via recruiting and activating the Wave Regulatory Complex (WRC), a Rho effector that underpins lamellipodia formation and macropinocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521766/the-histone-h3-variant-h3-3-regulates-gene-body-dna-methylation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Heike Wollmann, Hume Stroud, Ramesh Yelagandula, Yoshiaki Tarutani, Danhua Jiang, Li Jing, Bhagyshree Jamge, Hidenori Takeuchi, Sarah Holec, Xin Nie, Tetsuji Kakutani, Steven E Jacobsen, Frédéric Berger
BACKGROUND: Gene bodies of vertebrates and flowering plants are occupied by the histone variant H3.3 and DNA methylation. The origin and significance of these profiles remain largely unknown. DNA methylation and H3.3 enrichment profiles over gene bodies are correlated and both have a similar dependence on gene transcription levels. This suggests a mechanistic link between H3.3 and gene body methylation. RESULTS: We engineered an H3.3 knockdown in Arabidopsis thaliana and observed transcription reduction that predominantly affects genes responsive to environmental cues...
May 18, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516725/the-need-for-better-preventative-strategies-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-at-risk-of-herpes-zoster-virus
#15
William Bye, Miles Sparrow, Susie Connor, Jane Andrews, Katie Ellard, Watson Ng, Georgia Hume, Sally Antoniades, Alissa Walsh
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed IBD patients have an increased risk of HZV infection. The existing live-attenuated HZV vaccine is contraindicated in some of these patients and can only be used with caution in others. AIMS: To describe characteristics of IBD patients suffering HZV to enable implementation of risk mitigation strategies for those at highest risk. METHODS: Gastroenterologists completed a proforma for IBD patients who experienced HZV infection: IBD phenotype, details of HZV infection, immunosuppression and any change to treatment upon diagnosis of HZV...
May 17, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515330/post-fire-recovery-of-torpor-and-activity-patterns-of-a-small-mammal
#16
Clare Stawski, Taylor Hume, Gerhard Körtner, Shannon E Currie, Julia Nowack, Fritz Geiser
To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We simultaneously quantified torpor and activity patterns for female antechinus from three adjacent areas: (i) the area of a management burn 1 year post-fire, (ii) an area that was burned 2 years prior, and (iii) a control area...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507222/meeting-the-goal-of-concurrent-adolescent-and-adult-licensure-of-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#17
Michelle Hume, Linda L Lewis, Robert M Nelson
The ability of adolescents to access safe and effective new products for HIV prevention and treatment is optimised by adolescent licensure at the same time these products are approved and marketed for adults. Many adolescent product development programmes for HIV prevention or treatment products may proceed simultaneously with adult phase III development programmes. Appropriately implemented, this strategy is not expected to delay licensure as information regarding product efficacy can often be extrapolated from adults to adolescents, and pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in adolescents are expected to be similar to those in adults...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506113/the-occurrence-of-ryegrass-staggers-and-heat-stress-in-sheep-grazing-ryegrass-endophyte-associations-with-diverse-alkaloid-profiles
#18
L R Fletcher, S C Finch, B L Sutherland, G deNicolo, W J Mace, C van Koten, D E Hume
AIMS: To compare ryegrass pastures infected with endophytes producing diverse alkaloids for their ability to cause ryegrass staggers in grazing lambs; to compare respiration rates and rectal temperatures of these lambs after exposure to heat stress, and to compare liveweight gains during the study period. METHODS: Ryegrass pastures of cultivar Trojan infected with NEA endophytes, branded NEA2 (T-NEA2), endophyte-free Trojan (T-NIL), Samson infected with standard endophyte (S-STD), Samson infected with AR37 endophyte (S-AR37) and endophyte-free Samson (S-NIL), were grazed by lambs (n=30 per cultivar) for up to 48 days in February and March of 2012 and 2013...
May 25, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492258/preparation-and-coherent-manipulation-of-pure-quantum-states-of-a-single-molecular-ion
#19
Chin-Wen Chou, Christoph Kurz, David B Hume, Philipp N Plessow, David R Leibrandt, Dietrich Leibfried
Laser cooling and trapping of atoms and atomic ions has led to advances including the observation of exotic phases of matter, the development of precision sensors and state-of-the-art atomic clocks. The same level of control in molecules could also lead to important developments such as controlled chemical reactions and sensitive probes of fundamental theories, but the vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom in molecules pose a challenge for controlling their quantum mechanical states. Here we use quantum-logic spectroscopy, which maps quantum information between two ion species, to prepare and non-destructively detect quantum mechanical states in molecular ions...
May 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490438/deficiency-in-kinesin-1-recruitment-to-melanosomes-precludes-it-from-facilitating-their-centrifugal-transport
#20
Christopher L Robinson, Richard D Evans, Deborah A Briggs, Jose S Ramalho, Alistair N Hume
Microtubules and F-actin, and associated motor proteins, are considered to play complementary roles in long- and short-range organelle transport. However, there is growing appreciation that myosin/F-actin networks can drive long-range transport. In melanocytes myosin-Va and kinesin-1 have both been proposed as long-range centrifugal melanosome transporters. Here we investigated the role of kinesin-1 heavy chain (Kif5b) and its suggested targeting factor Rab1a in transport. Using confocal microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation we did not detect Kif5b or Rab1a on melanosomes...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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