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Blair S Ashley, Paul Maxwell Courtney, Daniel J Gittings, Jenna A Bernstein, Gwo Chin Lee, Eric L Hume, Atul F Kamath
Background: The validated Arthroplasty Risk Score (ARS) predicts the need for postoperative triage to an intensive care setting. We hypothesized that the ARS may also predict hospital length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and episode-of-care cost (EOCC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 704 patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty over 17 months. Patient characteristics, 90-day EOCC, LOS, and readmission rates were compared before and after ARS implementation...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
S Mashlab, P Large, W Laing, O Ng, M D'Auria, D Thurston, S Thomson, A G Acheson, D J Humes, A Banerjea
Introduction Anaemia is associated with cancer. In 2014 a new form was introduced in our department requesting a haemoglobin (Hb) result on every two-week wait referral for suspected colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to review the impact of this intervention. In particular, the significance of any evidence of anaemia (without additional indices) was investigated. Methods A review was conducted of 1,500 consecutive suspected CRC referrals recorded prospectively over a 10-month period. Data on demographics, referral Hb, referral criteria and outcomes were analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Kelly R Hume, Skylar R Sylvester, Lucia Borlle, Cheryl E Balkman, Angela L McCleary-Wheeler, Mary Pulvino, Carla Casulo, Jiyong Zhao
Doxycycline has antiproliferative effects in human lymphoma cells and in murine xenografts. We hypothesized that doxycycline would decrease canine lymphoma cell viability and prospectively evaluated its clinical tolerability in client-owned dogs with spontaneous, nodal, multicentric, substage a, B-cell lymphoma, not previously treated with chemotherapy. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 8 weeks (median and mean, 3 weeks). Dogs were treated with either 10 ( n  = 6) or 7.5 ( n  = 7) mg/kg by mouth twice daily...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Doug King, Patria A Hume, Natalie Hardaker, Cloe Cummins, Conor Gissane, Trevor Clark
OBJECTIVES: To provide epidemiological data and related costs for sport-related injuries of five sporting codes (cricket, netball, rugby league, rugby union and football) in New Zealand for moderate-to-serious and serious injury claims. METHODS: A retrospective analytical review using detailed descriptive epidemiological data obtained from the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) for 2012-2016. RESULTS: Over the 5 years of study data, rugby union recorded the most moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claims (25 226) and costs (New Zealand dollars (NZD$)267 359 440 (£139 084 749)) resulting in the highest mean cost (NZD$10 484 (£5454)) per moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claim...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
J Kenneth Baillie, Andrew Bretherick, Christopher S Haley, Sara Clohisey, Alan Gray, Lucile P A Neyton, Jeffrey Barrett, Eli A Stahl, Albert Tenesa, Robin Andersson, J Ben Brown, Geoffrey J Faulkner, Marina Lizio, Ulf Schaefer, Carsten Daub, Masayoshi Itoh, Naoto Kondo, Timo Lassmann, Jun Kawai, Damian Mole, Vladimir B Bajic, Peter Heutink, Michael Rehli, Hideya Kawaji, Albin Sandelin, Harukazu Suzuki, Jack Satsangi, Christine A Wells, Nir Hacohen, Thomas C Freeman, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest, David A Hume
Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcriptional activity. Accordingly, shared transcriptional activity (coexpression) may help prioritise loci associated with a given trait, and help to identify underlying biological processes. Using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) profiles of promoter- and enhancer-derived RNAs across 1824 human samples, we have analysed coexpression of RNAs originating from trait-associated regulatory regions using a novel quantitative method (network density analysis; NDA)...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Catherine A Hawley, Rocio Rojo, Anna Raper, Kristin A Sauter, Zofia M Lisowski, Kathleen Grabert, Calum C Bain, Gemma M Davis, Pieter A Louwe, Michael C Ostrowski, David A Hume, Clare Pridans, Stephen J Jenkins
CSF1 is the primary growth factor controlling macrophage numbers, but whether expression of the CSF1 receptor differs between discrete populations of mononuclear phagocytes remains unclear. We have generated a Csf1r -mApple transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse that, in combination with lineage tracing, Alexa Fluor 647-labeled CSF1-Fc and CSF1, and a modified Δ Csf1- enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) transgene that lacks a 150 bp segment of the distal promoter, we have used to dissect the differentiation and CSF1 responsiveness of mononuclear phagocyte populations in situ...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Joseph Bernstein, James J Bernstein, Samir Mehta, Eric L Hume, Mara L Schenker, Jaimo Ahn
INTRODUCTION: The American College of Surgeons' Statements on Principles requires attending surgeons to be present for the "key parts" of surgical procedures, but the term is not defined. The research question addressed in this study is whether a functional definition of the critical or key steps of common orthopaedic surgical procedures can be reliably constructed. We used the examples of hip and knee arthroplasty because these procedures are highly structured and divisible into distinct subroutines...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
A Pitiot, J K Smith, D J Humes, J Garratt, S T Francis, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, L Marciani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. METHODS: Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Claudia Kohl, Mary Tachedjian, Shawn Todd, Paul Monaghan, Victoria Boyd, Glenn A Marsh, Gary Crameri, Hume Field, Andreas Kurth, Ina Smith, Lin-Fa Wang
In 2011, an unusually large number of independent Hendra virus outbreaks were recorded on horse properties in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Urine from bat colonies adjacent to the outbreak sites were sampled and screened for Hendra and other viruses. Several novel paramyxoviruses were also isolated at different locations. Here one of the novel viruses, named Hervey virus (HerPV), is fully characterized by genome sequencing, annotation, phylogeny and in vitro host range, and its serological cross-reactivity and neutralization patterns are examined...
2018: PloS One
Joonkyu Park, John Mangeri, Qingteng Zhang, M Humed Yusuf, Anastasios Pateras, Matthew Dawber, Martin V Holt, Olle G Heinonen, Serge Nakhmanson, Paul G Evans
The ferroelectric domain pattern within lithographically defined PbTiO3/SrTiO3 ferroelectric/dielectric heteroepitaxial superlattice nanostructures is strongly influenced by the edges of the structures. Synchrotron X-ray nanobeam diffraction reveals that the spontaneously formed 180° ferroelectric stripe domains exhibited by such superlattices adopt a configuration in rectangular nanostructures in which domain walls are aligned with long patterned edges. The angular distribution of X-ray diffuse scattering intensity from nanodomains indicates that domains are aligned within an angular range of approximately 20° with respect to the edges...
January 31, 2018: Nanoscale
Stephane Helleringer, Daniel Arhinful, Benjamin Abuaku, Michael Humes, Emily Wilson, Andrew Marsh, Adrienne Clermont, Robert E Black, Jennifer Bryce, Agbessi Amouzou
BACKGROUND: Reducing neonatal and child mortality is a key component of the health-related sustainable development goal (SDG), but most low and middle income countries lack data to monitor child mortality on an annual basis. We tested a mortality monitoring system based on the continuous recording of pregnancies, births and deaths by trained community-based volunteers (CBV). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This project was implemented in 96 clusters located in three districts of the Northern Region of Ghana...
2018: PloS One
Tim Regan, Andrew C Gill, Sara M Clohisey, Mark W Barnett, Carmine M Pariante, Neil A Harrison, David A Hume, Edward T Bullmore, Tom C Freeman
Several lines of evidence link macrophage activation and inflammation with (monoaminergic) nervous systems in the etiology of depression. IFN treatment is associated with depressive symptoms, whereas anti-TNFα therapies elicit positive mood. This study describes the actions of 2 monoaminergic antidepressants (escitalopram, nortriptyline) and 3 anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, prednisolone, and anti-TNFα antibody) on the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from 6 individuals to LPS or IFN-α...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Clare Pridans, Kristin A Sauter, Katharine M Irvine, Gemma M Davis, Lucas Lefevre, Anna Raper, Rocio Rojo, Ajit J Nirmal, Philippa Beard, Michael Cheeseman, David A Hume
Signaling via the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of macrophages. Mutations in CSF1, or CSF1R in mice and rats have pleiotropic effects on postnatal somatic growth. We tested the possible application of CSF1-Fc as a therapy for low birth weight (LBW) at term, using a model based upon maternal dexamethasone treatment in rats. Neonatal CSF1-Fc treatment did not alter somatic growth, and did not increase the blood monocyte count. Instead, there was a substantial increase in the size of liver in both control and LBW rats, and the treatment greatly exacerbated the lipid droplet accumulation seen in the dexamethasone LBW model...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
D J Humes, A Abdul-Sultan, A J Walker, J F Ludvigsson, J West
PURPOSE: Little is known regarding the magnitude and timing of the risk of VTE following inguinal hernia surgery. We aimed to determine the absolute and relative rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following planned inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: We analysed male adults with a first inguinal hernia repair with no prior record of VTE from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics (2001-2011). Crude rates and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of the first VTE were calculated using Cox regression analysis to compare specific time periods following the surgery compared to the general population...
January 15, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Xuefeng Zhang, Qin Hu, Ye Chen, Miao Li, Huming Yin, Chenchao Zhou, Gang Li, Jianquan Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study explored the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism of prostate stem cell antigen and prostate cancer in Chinese patients undergoing prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA from 416 patients undergoing prostate biopsy was typed for the prostate stem cell antigen rs1045531 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The frequency of the rs1045531 polymorphism in patients with prostate cancer and in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia was compared...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Michael Hume, Muhammad Umar Sohail
Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0...
January 10, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Alfred Amon, Alim Ormeci, Matej Bobnar, Lev G Akselrud, Maxim Avdeev, Roman Gumeniuk, Ulrich Burkhardt, Yurii Prots, Christoph Hennig, Andreas Leithe-Jasper, Yuri Grin
Materials with the crystal structure of γ-brass type (Cu5Zn8 type) are typical representatives of intermetallic compounds. From the electronic point of view, they are often interpreted using the valence electron concentration approach of Hume-Rothery, developed previously for transition metals. The γ-brass-type phases of the main-group elements are rather rare. The intermetallic compound Be21Pt5, a new member of this family, was synthesized, and its crystal structure, chemical bonding, and physical properties were characterized...
January 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Margaret M Band, Deepa Sumukadas, Allan D Struthers, Alison Avenell, Peter T Donnan, Paul R Kemp, Karen T Smith, Cheryl L Hume, Adrian Hapca, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and function) is a major contributor to loss of mobility, falls, loss of independence, morbidity and mortality in older people. Although resistance training is effective in preventing and reversing sarcopenia, many older people are sedentary and either cannot or do not want to exercise. This trial examines the efficacy of supplementation with the amino acid leucine and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition to potentially improve muscle mass and function in people with sarcopenia...
January 4, 2018: Trials
Z M Lisowski, R S Pirie, A T Blikslager, D Lefebvre, D A Hume, N P H Hudson
Postoperative ileus (POI) is a serious condition which any horse undergoing abdominal surgery is at risk of developing, leading to increased hospitalisation time and resulting costs. Advances in the understanding of the development of equine POI are mainly based on human and rodent literature, where manipulation-induced inflammation has been identified as a key trigger, with activation of resident muscularis externa macrophages playing a crucial role in the pathophysiology. Despite many pharmacological trials in all species, there is no single completely successful treatment for POI, highlighting that the condition is multifactorial in cause and requires a multimodal approach to minimise its incidence...
December 27, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
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