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Poornapriya Ramamurthy, Joshua B White, Joong Yull Park, Richard I Hume, Fumi Ebisu, Flor Mendez, Shuichi Takayama, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining Spiral Ganglion Neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived "neurons" could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Briar J Naysmith, Paul A Hume, Jonathan Sperry, Margaret A Brimble
Covering: 2008 to 2015. A review on the isolation, biological activity and synthesis of pyranonaphthoquinone natural products from 2008-2015 is providedThis review discusses the isolation, biological activity and synthesis of pyranonaphthoquinone natural products, covering the years 2008-2015. The pyranonaphthoquinones are a group of metabolites sharing a common naphtho[2,3-c]pyran-5,10-dione ring system that have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms, plants and insects. In addition to their synthetically challenging molecular structures, pyranonaphthoquinones exhibit a wide array of biological activity, including anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer properties...
October 19, 2016: Natural Product Reports
Maxine de la Cruz, Akhila Reddy, Vishidha Balankari, Margeaux Epner, Susan Frisbee-Hume, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Sriram Yennurajalingam, Hilda Cantu, Janet Williams, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Improper use, storage, and disposal of prescribed opioids can lead to diversion or accidental poisoning. Our previous study showed a large proportion of cancer patients have unsafe opioid practices. Our objective was to determine whether an improvement occurred in the patterns of use, storage, and disposal of opioids among cancer outpatients after the implementation of a patient educational program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our palliative care (PC) clinic provides every patient with educational material (EM) on safe opioid use, storage, and disposal every time they receive an opioid prescription...
October 14, 2016: Oncologist
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, David Mayer, Alice Broos, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae), colloquially known as flying foxes, are recognized as the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for mortality in horses and humans. Some previous studies have suggested that physiologic and ecologic factors promote Hendra virus infection in flying foxes, and by extension, spillover to horses and humans. However, the impact of Hendra virus infection on relevant physiologic biomarkers in flying foxes has not been measured. Over 12 mo in eastern Australia, we captured and sampled 446 individual black flying foxes ( Pteropus alecto ), a putative primary reservoir host species, and measured a suite of hematologic, plasma biochemistry, and urinary biomarkers...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Huming Chang, Ming-Chi Huang, Lian-Yu Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Sasikarn Chamchod, Clifton D Fuller, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Aaron Grossberg, Jay A Messer, Jolien Heukelom, G Brandon Gunn, Micheal E Kantor, Hillary Eichelberger, Adam S Garden, David I Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Androniki Psifidi, Georgios Banos, Oswald Matika, Takele T Desta, Judy Bettridge, David A Hume, Tadelle Dessie, Rob Christley, Paul Wigley, Olivier Hanotte, Pete Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The majority of chickens in sub-Saharan Africa are indigenous ecotypes, well adapted to the local environment and raised in scavenging production systems. Although they are generally resilient to disease challenge, routine vaccination and biosecurity measures are rarely applied and infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality and reduced productivity. Management and genetic improvement programmes are hampered by lack of routine data recording. Selective breeding based on genomic technologies may provide the means to enhance sustainability...
September 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Hayley Clatterbuck
Charles Darwin and C. Lloyd Morgan forward two influential principles of cognitive ethological inference that yield conflicting results about the extent of continuity in the cognitive traits of humans and other animals. While these principles have been interpreted as reflecting commitments to different senses of parsimony, in fact, both principles result from the same vera causa inferential strategy, according to which "We ought to admit no more causes of natural things, than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances"...
September 16, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Robin C Anderson, Michael E Hume, Jonatan Corrales-Millan, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Agustin Corral-Luna, Jose Luis Guevara-Valdez, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Carlos Rodriguez-Muela, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez
The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Olena Pylypenko, Tobias Welz, Janine Tittel, Martin Kollmar, Florian Chardon, Gilles Malherbe, Sabine Weiss, Carina Ida Luise Michel, Annette Samol-Wolf, Andreas Till Grasskamp, Alistair Hume, Bruno Goud, Bruno Baron, Patrick England, Margaret A Titus, Petra Schwille, Thomas Weidemann, Anne Houdusse, Eugen Kerkhoff
There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form...
2016: ELife
Shamila Khan, Nerida Cole, Emma B H Hume, Linda L Garthwaite, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Bradley J Walsh, Mark D P Willcox
Staphylococcus is a leading cause of microbial keratitis, characterized by destruction of the cornea by bacterial exoproteins and host-associated factors. The aim of this study was to compare extracellular and cell-associated proteins produced by two different isolates of S. aureus, a virulent clinical isolate (Staph 38) and a laboratory strain (Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4) of weaker virulence in the mouse keratitis model. Proteins were analyzed using 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent mass spectrometry...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Patria A Hume, Alice Theadom, Gwyn N Lewis, Kenneth L Quarrie, Scott R Brown, Rosamund Hill, Stephen W Marshall
AIM: This study investigated differences in cognitive function between former rugby and non-contact-sport players, and assessed the association between concussion history and cognitive function. METHODS: Overall, 366 former players (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 43.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited from October 2012 to April 2014. Engagement in sport, general health, sports injuries and concussion history, and demographic information were obtained from an online self-report questionnaire...
August 24, 2016: Sports Medicine
Kylie Anne Alexander, Liza-Jane Raggatt, Susan Millard, Lena Batoon, AndyChiu-Ku Wu, Ming-Kang Chang, David Arthur Hume, Allison Robyn Pettit
Better understanding of bone growth and regeneration mechanisms within periosteal tissues will improve understanding of bone physiology and pathology. Macrophage contributions to bone biology and repair have been established but specific investigation of periosteal macrophages has not been undertaken. We used an immunohistochemistry approach to characterise macrophages in growing murine bone and within activated periosteum induced in a mouse model of bone injury. Osteal tissue macrophages (osteomacs) and resident macrophages were distributed throughout resting periosteum...
August 24, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Catherine Hume, Barbara Jachs, John Menzies
OBJECTIVE: Energy intake is regulated by overlapping homeostatic and hedonic systems. Consumption of palatable foods has been implicated in weight gain, but this assumes that homeostatic control systems do not accurately detect this hedonically driven energy intake. This study tested this assumption, hypothesizing that satiated rats would reduce their voluntary food intake and maintain a stable body weight after consuming a palatable food. METHODS: Lean rats or rats previously exposed to an obesogenic diet were schedule-fed with fixed or varying amounts of palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) daily, and their voluntary energy intake and body weight were monitored...
October 2016: Obesity
Kjetil Søreide, Marja A Boermeester, David J Humes, George C Velmahos
INTRODUCTION: Conservative, non-antibiotic and non-surgical management of acute diverticulitis is currently being investigated. To better inform clinical decisions, better understanding of disease mechanisms, disease burden and severity is needed. METHODS: Literature search of risk factors, pathophysiology, epidemiology and disease burden/severity reported over the last decade. RESULTS: Acute diverticulitis is a common disease and has a high disease burden...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Simranpreet Kaur, Liza Jane Raggatt, Lena Batoon, David Arthur Hume, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Allison Robyn Pettit
Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages...
August 10, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Clare Pridans, Gemma M Davis, Kristin A Sauter, Zofia M Lisowski, Yolanda Corripio-Miyar, Anna Raper, Lucas Lefevre, Rachel Young, Mary E McCulloch, Simon Lillico, Elspeth Milne, Bruce Whitelaw, David A Hume
Expression of Csf1r in adults is restricted to cells of the macrophage lineage. Transgenic reporters based upon the Csf1r locus require inclusion of the highly conserved Fms-intronic regulatory element for expression. We have created Csf1r-EGFP transgenic sheep via lentiviral transgenesis of a construct containing elements of the mouse Fms-intronic regulatory element and Csf1r promoter. Committed bone marrow macrophage precursors and blood monocytes express EGFP in these animals. Sheep monocytes were divided into three populations, similar to classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes in humans, based upon CD14 and CD16 expression...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Camilla B Pimentel, Jerry H Gurwitz, Jennifer Tjia, Anne L Hume, Kate L Lapane
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of new initiation of long-acting opioids since introduction of national efforts to increase prescriber and public awareness on safe use of transdermal fentanyl patches. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: U.S. nursing homes (NHs). PARTICIPANTS: Medicare-enrolled long-stay NH residents (N = 22,253). MEASUREMENTS: Minimum Data Set 3.0 was linked with Medicare enrollment, hospital claims, and prescription drug transaction data (January-December 2011) and used to determine the prevalence of new initiation of a long-acting opioid prescribed to residents in NHs...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Adam J Bewick, Lexiang Ji, Chad E Niederhuth, Eva-Maria Willing, Brigitte T Hofmeister, Xiuling Shi, Li Wang, Zefu Lu, Nicholas A Rohr, Benjamin Hartwig, Christiane Kiefer, Roger B Deal, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Hume Stroud, Steven E Jacobsen, Korbinian Schneeberger, Xiaoyu Zhang, Robert J Schmitz
In plants, CG DNA methylation is prevalent in the transcribed regions of many constitutively expressed genes (gene body methylation; gbM), but the origin and function of gbM remain unknown. Here we report the discovery that Eutrema salsugineum has lost gbM from its genome, to our knowledge the first instance for an angiosperm. Of all known DNA methyltransferases, only CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 (CMT3) is missing from E. salsugineum Identification of an additional angiosperm, Conringia planisiliqua, which independently lost CMT3 and gbM, supports that CMT3 is required for the establishment of gbM...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C M Wagner, K E Kierczynski, J B Hume, T M Luhring
An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
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