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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549371/theoretical-analysis-of-coupled-effects-of-microbe-and-root-architecture-on-methane-oxidation-in-vegetated-landfill-covers
#1
S Feng, A K Leung, C W W Ng, H W Liu
Reduction of soil moisture by plant root-water uptake could improve soil aeration for microbial aerobic methane oxidation (MAMO) in a landfill cover, but excessive soil moisture removal could suppress microbial activity due to water shortage. Existing models ignore the coupled microbe-vegetation interaction. It is thus not known whether the presence of plants is beneficial or adverse to MAMO. This study proposes a newly-improved theoretical model that couples the effects of root-water uptake and microbial activity for capturing water-gas flow and MAMO in unsaturated soils...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549299/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-effective-microorganisms-em-on-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-concentrations-in-pigs
#2
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
Effective microorganisms (EM) are used in numerous fields associated with agriculture. The beneficial effects of EM on the general health of pigs and on production parameters are also determined by the influence of these microbes on immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feed supplementation with EM on the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in a culture of PBMCs with and without ConA stimulation in pigs. ELISA kits were used to determine the cytokine levels in the porcine serum and the PBMC culture supernatants...
April 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549288/ecological-effects-of-soil-properties-and-metal-concentrations-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-microbial-communities-associated-with-land-use-patterns-in-an-electronic-waste-recycling-region
#3
Wencheng Wu, Changxun Dong, Jiahui Wu, Xiaowen Liu, Yingxin Wu, Xianbin Chen, Shixiao Yu
Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546193/taking-a-look-at-plant-microbe-relationships
#6
EDITORIAL
Caroline Ash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546156/ancestral-alliances-plant-mutualistic-symbioses-with-fungi-and-bacteria
#7
REVIEW
Francis M Martin, Stéphane Uroz, David G Barker
Within the plant microbiota, mutualistic fungal and bacterial symbionts are striking examples of microorganisms playing crucial roles in nutrient acquisition. They have coevolved with their hosts since initial plant adaptation to land. Despite the evolutionary distances that separate mycorrhizal and nitrogen-fixing symbioses, these associations share a number of highly conserved features, including specific plant symbiotic signaling pathways, root colonization strategies that circumvent plant immune responses, functional host-microbe interface formation, and the central role of phytohormones in symbiosis-associated root developmental pathways...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546018/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-three-tlr-genes-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responses-to-stimulation-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-tlr-ligands
#8
Kai-Lun Wang, Wei Ji, Gui-Rong Zhang, Kai-Jian Wei, Ze-Chao Shi, Xiao-Ting Zhang, Huan Zheng, Qi-Xue Fan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most extensively researched pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play an important role in the innate immune system. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 genes and complete cDNA sequence of the Pf_TLR21 gene were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORFs) of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes were 1956 bp, 2262 bp and 2949 bp in length, encoding 651, 753 and 982 amino acids, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545829/gut-microbiota-and-hepatitis-b-virus-induced-chronic-liver-disease-implications-for-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545444/site-specific-his-asp-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-prokaryotes-reveals-putative-targets-for-drug-resistance
#10
Shu-Jung Lai, I-Fan Tu, Wan-Ling Wu, Jhih-Tian Yang, Louis Y P Luk, Mei-Chin Lai, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of amino acid residues on proteins is an important and common post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Most research work has been focused on phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, whereas phosphorylation of other amino acids are significantly less clear due to the controversy on their stability under standard bioanalytical conditions. RESULTS: Here we applied a shotgun strategy to analyze the histidine and aspartate phosphorylations in different microbes...
May 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545359/microbial-enzymatic-degradation-of-biodegradable-plastics
#11
Roohi, Kulsoom Bano, Mohammed Kuddus, Mohd Rehan Zaheer, Qamar Zia, Mohd Farhan Khan, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Background The use of different types of plastics in the world either synthetic or biodegradable has become a part in all sectors of the economy. Infrastructure such as agriculture, building and construction, telecommunication, consumer goods, packaging, health and medical are all high growth areas that ensure a spiralling demand for plastics. Lack of degradability, environmental pollution and closing of landfill sites has led to concern more about plastic waste disposal. Appropriate biodegradation should occur for these water-immiscible polymers since they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated and also not despoiled with existing physical and chemical means of degradation...
May 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#12
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#14
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544731/taking-control-over-microbial-populations-current-approaches-for-exploiting-biological-noise-in-bioprocesses
#15
REVIEW
Frank Delvigne, Jonathan Baert, Hosni Sassi, Patrick Fickers, Alexander Grünberger, Christian Dusny
Phenotypic plasticity of microbial cells has attracted much attention and several research efforts have been dedicated to the description of methods aiming at characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity and its impact on microbial populations. However, different approaches have also been suggested in order to take benefit from noise in a bioprocess perspective, e.g. by increasing the robustness or productivity of a microbial population. This review is dedicated to outline these controlling methods. A common issue, that has still to be addressed, is the experimental identification and the mathematical expression of noise...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#16
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543918/gut-microbiota-of-the-pine-weevil-degrades-conifer-diterpenes-and-increases-insect-fitness
#17
Aileen Berasategui, Hassan Salem, Christian Paetz, Maricel Santoro, Jonathan Gershenzon, Martin Kaltenpoth, Axel Schmdit
The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), a major pest of conifer forests throughout Europe, feeds on the bark and cambium, tissues rich in terpenoid resins that are toxic to many insect herbivores. Here we report the ability of the pine weevil gut microbiota to degrade the diterpene acids of Norway spruce. The diterpene acid levels present in ingested bark were substantially reduced on passage through the pine weevil gut. This reduction was significantly less upon antibiotic treatment, and supplementing the diet with gut suspensions from untreated insects restored the ability to degrade diterpenes...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543308/exocytic-trafficking-pathways-in-plants-why-and-how-they-are-redirected
#18
REVIEW
Takehiko Kanazawa, Takashi Ueda
The membrane trafficking system is responsible for precise transportation and localization of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides among single membrane-bound organelles, the plasma membrane, and the extracellular space. While the exocytic trafficking pathway is considered to be a default transport pathway in many organisms, including land plants, research has shown that evolutionary processes led to an increase in the number of machinery components involved in the plant exocytic pathway. This study provides an overview of the diversification of exocytic trafficking pathways in plants, which mediate the formation and maintenance of cell polarity, interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic microbes, and cytokinesis...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542616/regulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-transcription-by-the-crbs-r-two-component-system-is-conserved-in-genetically-diverse-environmental-pathogens
#19
Kristin Jacob, Anna Rasmussen, Paul Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Mariame Sylla, Cecilia Prado, Elizabeth Daniele, Josh S Sharp, Alexandra E Purdy
The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA), an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#20
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
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