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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434189/changes-in-rumen-protozoal-community-by-condensed-tannin-fractions-of-different-molecular-weights-from-a-leucaena-leucocephala-hybrid-in-vitro
#1
Saminathan Mookiah, Han Ming Gan, Norhani Abdullah, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Suriya Kumari Ramiah, Hui Yin Tan, Chin Chin Sieo, Yin Wan Ho
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of condensed tannins (CTs) fractions of differing molecular weights (MWs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang (LLR) on the rumen protozoal community in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of unfractionated CTs (F0) and CT fractions of different MWs (F1 > F2 > F3 > F4 > F5) on protozoal population and community were evaluated in vitro using rumen microbes and ground guinea grass as the substrate. Higher-MW CT fractions F1 and F2 significantly (P < 0...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434085/exploring-the-oral-microflora-of-preschool-children
#2
Wen Ren, Qun Zhang, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Lili Ma, Feng Chen, Tao Xu, Baohua Xu
The oral cavity is one of the most important and complicated habitats in our body and supports diverse microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to determine the bacterial diversity and composition of various oral micro-niches. Samples were collected from supragingival plaque, saliva, and tongue coating from 10 preschool children (30 samples total). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing dataset generated 314,639 clean reads with an average of 10,488 ± 2,787 reads per sample. The phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were predominant, accounting for more than 90% of the total sequences...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433932/the-unseen-rhizosphere-root-soil-microbe-interactions-for-crop-production
#3
REVIEW
Ruifu Zhang, Jorge M Vivanco, Qirong Shen
The underground root-soil-microbe interactions are extremely complex, but vitally important for aboveground plant growth, health and fitness. The pressure to reduce our reliance on agrochemicals, and sustainable efforts to develop agriculture makes rhizosphere interactions' research a hotspot. Recent advances provide new insights about the signals, pathways, functions and mechanisms of these interactions. In this review, we provide an overview about recent progress in rhizosphere interaction networks in crops...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433924/the-metabolic-fate-of-isotopically-labeled-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-in-humans
#4
Siraphat Taesuwan, Clara E Cho, Olga V Malysheva, Erica Bender, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Anna E Thalacker-Mercer, Marie A Caudill
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with chronic disease risk. However, little is known about the metabolic fate of dietary TMAO. This study sought to quantitatively elucidate the metabolic fate of orally consumed TMAO in humans. As part of a crossover feeding study, healthy young men (n=40) consumed 50-mg deuterium-labeled methyl d9-TMAO (d9-TMAO), and enrichments of TMAO and its derivatives were measured in blood for 6 h, urine and stool, as well as skeletal muscle in a subset of men (n=6). Plasma d9-TMAO was detected as early as 15 min, increased until 1 h and remained elevated through the 6-h period...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#5
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432224/a-bacterial-cause-of-cancer-an-historical-essay
#6
Marshall A Lichtman
This article reviews the history of the discovery of microbes that increase the risk of cancer of some tissues with a special emphasis on the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the role played by two Australian physicians, neither schooled in research, who had open minds about the shibboleth that mycobacteria (acid-fast organisms) can survive the acid environment of the stomach, but that other pathogenic bacteria cannot. They discovered one of the most important human pathogens, Helicobacter pylori, and showed it capable of inducing severe gastric inflammatory disease...
April 21, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432131/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-if-so-is-there-potential-for-efficacious-microbiota-based-vaccines
#7
Dan R Littman
The gut-resident constituents of the microbiota protect the mucosa from invasive pathogens through engagement of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. They are also likely to provide systemic protection from pathogens, by enhancing host robustness and tolerance to the invasive microbes and by inducing immune responses that prevent their growth. These properties of commensal microbiota, particularly the capacity of some bacteria to induce diverse types of antigen-specific immune responses, raises the prospect that they could be deployed as vaccine vectors to generate effective local and systemic immunity to viral and bacterial pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432130/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-engaging-our-endogenous-adjuvants
#8
Nicholas Collins, Yasmine Belkaid
The reliance of the immune system on constitutive microbial stimulation support the idea that both responsiveness to vaccines and vaccine design need to be considered in the context of host-microbiota interactions. Manipulation of microbe function or composition via diet alteration or microbiota engraftment may soon become a viable approach to control immunity and, as such, vaccine responses. Learning from our endogenous original adjuvants could be critical in overcoming the enormous hurdle of vaccine design against the numerous pathogens that cause chronic infection...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432108/-microbes-in-sport-the-potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-athlete-health-and-performance
#9
EDITORIAL
Alan Rankin, Ciara O'Donavon, Sharon M Madigan, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#10
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431399/muc2-mucin-deficiency-alters-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-in-the-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#11
Selamawit Tadesse, Georgia Corner, Elena Dhima, Michele Houston, Chandan Guha, Leonard Augenlicht, Anna Velcich
The mucus layer in the intestine affects several aspects of intestinal biology, encompassing physical, chemical protection, immunomodulation and growth, thus contributing to homeostasis. Mice with genetic inactivation of the Muc2 gene, encoding the MUC2 mucin, the major protein component of mucus, exhibit altered intestinal homeostasis, which is strictly dependent on the habitat, likely due to differing complements of intestinal microbes. Our previous work established that Muc2 deficiency was linked to low chronic inflammation resulting in tumor development in the small, large intestine including the rectum...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431251/tunable-expression-tools-enable-single-cell-strain-distinction-in-the-gut-microbiome
#12
Weston R Whitaker, Elizabeth Stanley Shepherd, Justin L Sonnenburg
Applying synthetic biology to engineer gut-resident microbes provides new avenues to investigate microbe-host interactions, perform diagnostics, and deliver therapeutics. Here, we describe a platform for engineering Bacteroides, the most abundant genus in the Western microbiota, which includes a process for high-throughput strain modification. We have identified a novel phage promoter and translational tuning strategy and achieved an unprecedented level of expression that enables imaging of fluorescent-protein-expressing Bacteroides stably colonizing the mouse gut...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#13
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431082/compositional-differences-among-female-associated-and-embryo-associated-microbiota-of-the-viviparous-pacific-beetle-cockroach-diploptera-punctata
#14
Paul A Ayayee, George Keeney, Zakee L Sabree, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
All cockroach species, except one, harbor the endosymbiont Blattabacterium, transmitted from females to embryos. Adult cockroaches acquire non-Blattabacterium bacteria as part of their gut microbiota over time, but our knowledge of the possible transmission of these non-Blattabacterium bacteria from females to embryos is rudimentary. We characterized the gut microbiota of gravid viviparous Diploptera punctata females and the non-Blattabacterium microbiota of associated developing embryos, as well as the gut microbiota of non-gravid females, and the microbiota of orphan embryos (females not included), following high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to assess bacterial transference...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430946/forgotten-fungi-the-gut-mycobiome-in-human-health-and-disease
#15
Chloe E Huseyin, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter, Pauline D Scanlan
The human body is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that plays a central role in host health. This includes a diversity of fungal species that is collectively referred to as our 'mycobiome'. Although research into the mycobiome is still in its infancy, its potential role in human disease is increasingly recognised. Here we review the existing literature available on the human mycobiota with an emphasis on the gut mycobiome, including how fungi interact with the human host and other microbes...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430880/cerebral-abscess-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteremias-hypoxemia-and-iron-loading-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-right-to-left-shunting-through-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#16
E J Boother, S Brownlow, H C Tighe, K B Bamford, J E Jackson, C L Shovlin
Background: Cerebral abscess is a recognised complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with CT-scan confirmed PAVMs (including 403 (90.5%) with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430187/poorly-known-microbial-taxa-dominate-the-microbiome-of-permafrost-thaw-ponds
#17
Christian Wurzbacher, R Henrik Nilsson, Milla Rautio, Sari Peura
In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430077/host-pathogen-interactions-modulated-by-small-rnas
#18
Waqar Islam, Zujian Wu, Saif Ul Islam
Biological processes such as defense mechanisms and microbial offence strategies are regulated through RNA induced interference in eukaryotes. Genetic mutations are modulated through biogenesis of small RNAs which directly impacts upon host development. Plant defense mechanisms are regulated and supported by a diversified group of small RNAs which are involved in streamlining several RNA interference pathways leading towards the initiation of pathogen gene silencing mechanisms. In the similar context, pathogens also utilize the support of small RNAs to launch their offensive attacks...
April 21, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429534/role-of-microbes-in-maternal-and-child-health-friends-or-foes
#19
Ganesh Acharya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429531/sugar-enrichment-provides-evidence-for-a-role-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-coral-bleaching
#20
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra, Christian Wild
The disruption of the coral-algae symbiosis (coral bleaching) due to rising sea surface temperatures has become an unprecedented global threat to coral reefs. Despite decades of research, our ability to manage mass bleaching events remains hampered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we induced a coral bleaching phenotype in the absence of heat and light stress by adding sugars. The sugar addition resulted in coral symbiotic breakdown accompanied by a fourfold increase of coral-associated microbial nitrogen fixation...
April 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
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