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Sharon Lafferty Doty
While plant-microbe symbioses involving root nodules (Rhizobia and Frankia) or the root-soil interface (rhizosphere) have been well studied, the intimate interaction of microbial endophytes with the plant host is a relatively new field of research.[...].
March 22, 2018: Microorganisms
Tobias Engl, Martin Kaltenpoth
Covering: up to 2018Pheromones serve as chemical signals between individuals of the same species and play important roles for mate localization and mate choice as well as other social interactions in insects. A growing body of literature indicates that microbial symbionts can modulate their hosts' chemical profiles, mate choice decisions and social behavior. This modulation can occur by the direct biosynthesis of pheromone components or the provisioning of precursors, or through general changes in the metabolite pool of the host and its resource allocation into pheromone production...
March 22, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Yanghao Shen, Xinyan Zheng, Xiaoyu Wang, Tieshan Wang
Microorganisms play a significant role in uranium(VI) biogeochemistry and influence U(VI) transformation through biomineralization. In the present work, the process of uranium mineralization was investigated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The toxicity experiments showed that the viability of cell was not significantly affected by 100 mg L-1 U(VI) under 4 days of exposure time. The batch experiments showed that the phosphate concentration and pH value increased over time during U(VI) adsorption. Meanwhile, thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that the adsorption system was supersaturated with respect to UO2 HPO4 ...
March 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rafal Tokarz, Stephen Sameroff, Teresa Tagliafierro, Komal Jain, Simon H Williams, D Moses Cucura, Ilia Rochlin, Javier Monzon, Giovanna Carpi, Danielle Tufts, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Jory Brinkerhoff, W Ian Lipkin
Ticks carry a wide range of known human and animal pathogens and are postulated to carry others with the potential to cause disease. Here we report a discovery effort wherein unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 2,021 ticks, including Ixodes scapularis ( n = 1,138), Amblyomma americanum ( n = 720), and Dermacentor variabilis ( n = 163), collected in New York, Connecticut, and Virginia in 2015 and 2016. We identified 33 viruses, including 24 putative novel viral species...
March 2018: MSphere
Annelein Meisner, Samuel Jacquiod, Basten L Snoek, Freddy C Ten Hooven, Wim H van der Putten
It is increasingly acknowledged that climate change is influencing terrestrial ecosystems by increased drought and rainfall intensities. Soil microbes are key drivers of many processes in terrestrial systems and rely on water in soil pores to fulfill their life cycles and functions. However, little is known on how drought and rainfall fluctuations, which affect the composition and structure of microbial communities, persist once original moisture conditions have been restored. Here, we study how simulated short-term drying and re-wetting events shape the community composition of soil fungi and prokaryotes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
B Irene Tieleman
This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas, Javier Moreno-Morales, A James Mason, Jens Rolff
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous immune effectors of multicellular organisms. We previously reported, that in contrast to most of the classic antibiotics, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) do not increase mutation rates in E. coli Here, we provide new evidence showing that AMPs do not stimulate or enhance bacterial DNA recombination in the surviving fractions. Recombination accelerates evolution of antibiotic resistance. Our findings have implications for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defences, and shed new light on the dynamic of antimicrobial-resistance evolution...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson, Christopher A Klausmeier
Mutualisms are ubiquitous, but models predict they should be susceptible to cheating. Resolving this paradox has become relevant to synthetic ecology: cooperative cross-feeding, a nutrient-exchange mutualism, has been proposed to stabilize microbial consortia. Previous attempts to understand how cross-feeders remain robust to non-producing cheaters have relied on complex behaviour (e.g. cheater punishment) or group selection. Using a stochastic spatial model, we demonstrate two novel mechanisms that can allow cross-feeders to outcompete cheaters, rather than just escape from them...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Marit K Zinöcker, Inge A Lindseth
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Shigemi Seo, Akira Takahashi, Hirohiko Hirochika
Phenylpropanoids including diverse compounds, such as monolignols and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAAs), are essential for land plants to protect them against abiotic stresses, and create physical and chemical barriers to pathogen infection. However, the production control of these compounds against to pathogens has been poorly understood. Previously we showed that a MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern) -responsive MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade (MKK4-MPK3/MPK6) comprehensively induced the expression of cinnamate/monolignol synthesis genes in rice cells...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Beatrice Xuan Ho, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Boon-Seng Soh
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amelia R I Lindsey, Tamanash Bhattacharya, Irene L G Newton, Richard W Hardy
At the forefront of vector control efforts are strategies that leverage host-microbe associations to reduce vectorial capacity. The most promising of these efforts employs Wolbachia , a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium naturally found in 40% of insects. Wolbachia can spread through a population of insects while simultaneously inhibiting the replication of viruses within its host. Despite successes in using Wolbachia -transfected mosquitoes to limit dengue, Zika, and chikungunya transmission, the mechanisms behind pathogen-blocking have not been fully characterized...
March 21, 2018: Viruses
Makoto Ubukata
In this review article, I will outline my way of thinking about biologically active small molecules. The structure of liposidomycin B from Streptomyces species resulted in my initial sense that a structure tells its function. A biologically active small molecule may save directly or indirectly a number of people. Even if the molecule has not been used as a therapeutic agent, it can be used as a useful chemical probe for dissecting a living cell into different biochemical pieces. Such biologically active small molecules derived from microorganisms have been primarily found in cultivable microorganisms that make up only 1% of total microbes in nature...
March 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Hiroshi Mori, Takayuki Maruyama, Masahiro Yano, Takuji Yamada, Ken Kurokawa
BACKGROUND: The 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequencing analysis is widely used to determine the taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Once the taxonomic composition of each community is obtained, evolutionary relationships among taxa are inferred by a phylogenetic tree. Thus, the combined representation of taxonomic composition and phylogenetic relationships among taxa is a powerful method for understanding microbial community structure; however, applying phylogenetic tree-based representation with information on the abundance of thousands or more taxa in each community is a difficult task...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
XiaoLi Bing, Joseph Gerlach, Gregory Loeb, Nicolas Buchon
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Calvin K Lee, Jaime de Anda, Amy E Baker, Rachel R Bennett, Yun Luo, Ernest Y Lee, Joshua A Keefe, Joshua S Helali, Jie Ma, Kun Zhao, Ramin Golestanian, George A O'Toole, Gerard C L Wong
Using multigenerational, single-cell tracking we explore the earliest events of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa During initial stages of surface engagement (≤20 h), the surface cell population of this microbe comprises overwhelmingly cells that attach poorly (∼95% stay <30 s, well below the ∼1-h division time) with little increase in surface population. If we harvest cells previously exposed to a surface and direct them to a virgin surface, we find that these surface-exposed cells and their descendants attach strongly and then rapidly increase the surface cell population...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael Loesche, Kamyar Farahi, Kimberly Capone, Steven Fakharzadeh, Andrew Blauvelt, Kristina Callis Duffin, Samuel E DePrimo, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Carrie Brodmerkel, Bidisha Dasgupta, Marc Chevrier, Kevin Smith, Joseph Horwinski, Amanda Tyldsley, Elizabeth A Grice
BACKGROUND: Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. PURPOSE: We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a Phase 3b clinical trial...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Abhinav Saurabh, Sushmita Chakraborty, Prabin Kumar, Anant Mohan, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Narayan Rishi, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical, class Ib molecule, has been shown to mediate immunoregulatory functions by inducing apoptosis, inhibits cytotoxicity and differentiation by modulating cytokine secretion. Due to its immune-suppressive function, it facilitates tolerance in feto-maternal interface and transplantation. In contrary, it favours immune evasion of microbes and tumors by inhibiting immune and inflammatory responses. In Tuberculosis (TB), we previously reported differential expression of HLA-G and its receptor Ig-like transcript -2 (ILT-2) in disseminated vs...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
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