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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938796/complex-interactions-of-circadian-rhythms-eating-behaviors-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-their-potential-impact-on-health
#1
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Sharon V Thompson, Hannah D Holscher
Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. The GI microbiome is essentially a microbial organ that provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions for the host. Habitual diet, changes in macronutrient composition, and consumption of nondigestible dietary fibers have all been shown to impact the human GI microbiome. Intriguingly, the impact of diet on the microbiome may be related not only to what humans eat but also to the timing of food consumption...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938518/antimicrobial-peptides-amps-the-quintessential-offense-and-defense-molecules-are-more-than-antimicrobials
#2
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Nadeem Akhtar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic amphiphilic molecules with α-helix or β-sheet linear motifs and linear or cyclic configurations. For their role in 'defense and offense', they are present in all living organisms. AMPs are named so, as they inhibit a wide array of microbes by membrane pore formation and subsequent perturbation of mitochondrial membrane ionic balance. However, their functional repertoire is expanding with validated roles in cytotoxicity, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and chemotaxis [1]...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938038/microbe-hunters-and-death-fighters-the-joys-of-a-career-in-clinical-infectious-diseases
#3
Steven K Schmitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938018/genome-wide-identification-of-bacterial-plant-colonization-genes
#4
Benjamin J Cole, Meghan E Feltcher, Robert J Waters, Kelly M Wetmore, Tatiana S Mucyn, Elizabeth M Ryan, Gaoyan Wang, Sabah Ul-Hasan, Meredith McDonald, Yasuo Yoshikuni, Rex R Malmstrom, Adam M Deutschbauer, Jeffery L Dangl, Axel Visel
Diverse soil-resident bacteria can contribute to plant growth and health, but the molecular mechanisms enabling them to effectively colonize their plant hosts remain poorly understood. We used randomly barcoded transposon mutagenesis sequencing (RB-TnSeq) in Pseudomonas simiae, a model root-colonizing bacterium, to establish a genome-wide map of bacterial genes required for colonization of the Arabidopsis thaliana root system. We identified 115 genes (2% of all P. simiae genes) with functions that are required for maximal competitive colonization of the root system...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937980/methanobrevibacter-attenuation-via-probiotic-intervention-reduces-flatulence-in-adult-human-a-non-randomised-paired-design-clinical-trial-of-efficacy
#5
Minseok Seo, Jaeyoung Heo, Joon Yoon, Se-Young Kim, Yoon-Mo Kang, Jihyun Yu, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
TRIAL DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate which of the gut microbes respond to probiotic intervention, as well as study whether they are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult human. For the experimental purpose, twenty-one healthy adults were recruited and received probiotic mixture, which is composed of five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacteria strains, once a day for 60 days. Defecation survey and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis were conducted pre- and post-administration to measure phenotypic differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937854/probiotics-from-isolation-to-application
#6
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Wan Ho
Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#7
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936946/genetic-tools-for-the-enhancement-of-probiotic-properties
#8
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Robert Britton
The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936944/bacterial-endosymbionts-master-modulators-of-fungal-phenotypes
#9
Sarah J Araldi-Brondolo, Joseph Spraker, Justin P Shaffer, Emma H Woytenko, David A Baltrus, Rachel E Gallery, A Elizabeth Arnold
The ecological modes of fungi are shaped not only by their intrinsic features and the environment in which they occur, but also by their interactions with diverse microbes. Here we explore the ecological and genomic features of diverse bacterial endosymbionts-endohyphal bacteria-that together are emerging as major determinants of fungal phenotypes and plant-fungi interactions. We first provide a historical perspective on the study of endohyphal bacteria. We then propose a functional classification of three main groups, providing an overview of their genomic, phylogenetic, and ecological traits...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936837/-influence-of-tobacco-chuanminshen-violaceum-rotation-on-microbe-community-in-soil
#10
Dong-Yan Zhang, Jian Zhao, Shui-Ping Yang, Jing-Jing Mo, Da-Min He, Jun Wang, Jian-Yu Gou, Xue Zhang, Wei Jiang, Ming-Xia Wen
Soil microbes are the important indicator of soil quality. For exploring Chuanminshen violaceum planting to microbial effects in tobacco soil, this paper adopted Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing to research the change of bacteria and fungi at the phylum and genus in the soil. The results showed that the Ch. violaceum planting increased the biodiversity of bacteria and fungi. The influence on fungi was greater than that on bacteria. It greatly increased the sequence of fungi, it obtained 32 978 16S rDNA and 32 229 18S rDNA sequence number...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936203/modulation-of-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function-in-experimental-colitis-treated-with-sulfasalazine
#11
Haihui Zheng, Mingyi Chen, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Lin Wei, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935871/evaluation-of-biochars-from-different-stock-materials-as-carriers-of-bacterial-strain-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil
#12
Ting Wang, Hongwen Sun, Xinhao Ren, Bing Li, Hongjun Mao
Two kinds of biochars, one derived from corn straw and one from pig manure, were studied as carriers of a mutant genotype from Bacillus subtilis (B38) for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. After amendment with biochar, the heavy metal bioavailability decreased. Moreover, the heavy metal immobilization ability of the biochar was enhanced by combining it with B38. The simultaneous application of B38 and pig manure-derived biochar exhibited a superior effect on the promotion of plant growth and the immobilization of heavy metals in soil...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935108/discovery-of-new-glycosidases-from-metagenomic-libraries
#13
Zach Armstrong, Peter Rahfeld, Stephen G Withers
Microorganisms routinely perform complex enzymatic transformations of natural material; thus, their enzymes have the potential to tackle medical and industrial challenges. However, a vast number of microbes are recalcitrant to cultivation. Functional screening of environmental DNA allows us to tap into the seemingly boundless diversity of enzymes encoded by microbial populations. In this chapter, we describe methods for the isolation of environmental DNA, generation of metagenomic libraries, and the functional screening of these libraries for new glycosidases...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934707/investigating-sources-and-sinks-of-n2o-expression-from-freshwater-microbial-communities-in-urban-watershed-sediments
#14
Christopher Weisener, Jumin Lee, Subba Rao Chaganti, Thomas Reid, Nick Falk, Ken Drouillard
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serve as point-source inputs for a variety of nutrients often dominated by nitrogenous compounds as a result of anthropogenic influence. These effluents can impact biogeochemical cycles in freshwater estuaries, influencing microbial communities in both the water and sediment compartments. To assess the impact of point source nutrients, a transect of sediment and pore water samples were collected from 4 locations in the Little River Sub-watershed including locations above and below the Little River Pollution Control Plant (LRPCP)...
September 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#15
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934294/immunopathology-of-childhood-celiac-disease-key-role-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Grzegorz Pietz, Rituparna De, Maria Hedberg, Veronika Sjöberg, Olof Sandström, Olle Hernell, Sten Hammarström, Marie-Louise Hammarström
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine mucosa due to permanent intolerance to dietary gluten. The aim was to elucidate the role of small intestinal epithelial cells in the immunopathology of celiac disease in particular the influence of celiac disease-associated bacteria. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies were collected from children with active celiac disease, treated celiac disease, and clinical controls. Intestinal epithelial cells were purified and analyzed for gene expression changes at the mRNA and protein levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934114/antimicrobial-nanomaterials-why-evolution-matters
#17
Joseph L Graves, Misty Thomas, Jude Akamu Ewunkem
Due to the widespread occurrence of multidrug resistant microbes there is increasing interest in the use of novel nanostructured materials as antimicrobials. Specifically, metallic nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and gold have been deployed due to the multiple impacts they have on bacterial physiology. From this, many have concluded that such nanomaterials represent steep obstacles against the evolution of resistance. However, we have already shown that this view is fallacious. For this reason, the significance of our initial experiments are beginning to be recognized in the antimicrobial effects of nanomaterials literature...
September 21, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933546/rational-design-of-selective-adenine-based-scaffolds-for-inactivation-of-bacterial-histidine-kinases
#18
Manibarsha Goswami, Kaelyn E Wilke, Erin E Carlson
Bacterial histidine kinases (HKs) are quintessential regulatory enzymes found ubiquitously in bacteria. Apart from regulatory roles, they are also involved in the production of virulence factors and conferring resistance to various antibiotics in pathogenic microbes. We have previously reported compounds that inhibit multiple HKs by targeting the conserved catalytic and ATP-binding (CA) domain. Herein, we conduct a detailed structure-activity relationship assessment of adenine-based inhibitors using biochemical and docking methods...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933438/lysis-lysogeny-and-virus-microbe-ratios
#19
Joshua S Weitz, Stephen J Beckett, Jennifer R Brum, B B Cael, Jonathan Dushoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933170/-pcr-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#20
Tomáš Freiberger
The practices based on microbe cultivation are the corner stone of laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases etiology. However, cultivation-independent molecular methods for microorganism detection are increasingly being used in a routine clinical setting as an important complement to the conventional procedures and, in some cases, they have already become the golden diagnostic standard. The PCR-based methods are used the most frequently.Key words: molecular genetic detection of microorganisms - polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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