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atrial fibrillation fibrosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797677/emergence-of-atrioventricular-nodal-reentry-tachycardia-after-surgical-or-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-are-we-creating-the-arrhythmia-substrate
#1
Jorge Romero, Saurabh Kumar, Fujii Akira, David F Briceño, Usha B Tedrow, Laurence Epstein, Roy John, William G Stevenson, Gregory F Michaud
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) is common in adults and often involves reentry through two or more AV nodal-atrial connections. Although AVNRT can be a trigger for atrial fibrillation (AF), we have observed new onset AVNRT after AF ablation procedures. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ablation involving the septum or proximal coronary sinus during AF ablation may create a substrate favorable for AVNRT METHODS: Cases of ablation for persistent AF who required a repeat ablation procedure between 2009 to 2016 were reviewed for diagnosis of AVNRT...
August 7, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794867/rapid-onset-of-amiodarone-induced-pulmonary-toxicity-after-lung-lobe-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-recent-literature
#2
Heiko Baumann, Phillip Fichtenkamm, Thomas Schneider, Jürgen Biscoping, Michael Henrich
Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) is a severe side effect that can lead to lung fibrosis or fatal respiratory failure. Usually APT occurs during long term therapy after administration of prolonged loading doses or high cumulative doses. We present the case of a 58 year old woman who underwent thoracic surgery with lobe resection. She developed atrial fibrillation with hemodynamic-instability on the first post-operative day. We initiated amiodarone therapy and four days later she developed respiratory failure...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752208/micrornas-in-atrial-fibrillation-from-expression-signatures-to-functional-implications
#3
REVIEW
Nicoline W E van den Berg, Makiri Kawasaki, Wouter R Berger, Jolien Neefs, Eva Meulendijks, Anke J Tijsen, Joris R de Groot
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence, expected to further increase for the forthcoming years, and associated frequent hospitalizations turn AF into a major health problem. Structural and electrical atrial remodelling underlie the substrate for AF, but the exact mechanisms driving this remodelling remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA), short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, may be involved in the pathophysiology of AF...
July 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748766/atrial-fibrillation-biomarkers-determining-prognosis
#4
Savas Mazaris, Gerasimos Siasos, Evangelos Oikonomou, Vicky Tsigkou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Eleni Kokkou, Marina Zaromitidou, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Spyridon Papaioannou, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, George Latsios, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia known to incite increased thromboembolic and mortality risks, especially among patients not under anticoagulant therapy when that is indicated. Several routine scores exist to help stratify AF patients, such as the CHAD2DS2-VASc score and upon which physicians are based to decide whether to administer anticoagulant therapy. Being that anticoagulant regimen is a double-edged situation with both benefits and risks, decision-making process demands a definite and reliable, evidence-based set of data to rely on...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748762/post-cardiovascular-surgery-atrial-fibrillation-biomarkers-determining-prognosis
#5
Olivia Manfrini, Edina Cenko, Beatrice Ricci, Raffaele Bugiardini
New onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiovascular surgery is associated with increased risk of complications and length of hospital stay. Identification of patients at high risk of post cardiovascular surgery AF may help to act with preventive strategies having clinical and economic relevance. Many factors such as cardiac remodelling, changes in atrial pressure, surgery trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, and sympathetic/parasympathetic activation have been implicated in the development of post cardiovascular surgery...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724315/persistent-atrial-fibrillation-vs-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-differences-in-management
#6
Andrei D Margulescu, Lluis Mont
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common human arrhythmia. AF is a progressive disease, initially being nonsustained and induced by trigger activity, and progressing towards persistent AF through alteration of the atrial myocardial substrate. Treatment of AF aims to decrease the risk of stroke and improve the quality of life, by preventing recurrences (rhythm control) or controlling the heart rate during AF (rate control). In the last 20 years, catheter-based and, less frequently, surgical and hybrid ablation techniques have proven more successful compared with drug therapy in achieving rhythm control in patients with AF...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721830/redox-state-in-atrial-fibrillation-pathogenesis-and-relevant-therapeutic-approaches
#7
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Athina Goliopoulou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, George Lazaros, Eleftherios Tsiamis, George Latsios, Stella Brili, Spyridon Papaioannou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Myocardial redox state is a critical determinant of myocardial biology, regulating cardiomyocytes' apoptosis, hypertrophy, ion channels function and cardiac contractility and relaxation. Data from animal models have shown that altered myocardial nitroso-redox balance and NADPH oxidases activity are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Similarly experimental animal data have demonstrated that increased reactive oxygen / nitrogen species formation in the atrial tissue is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of atrial myocytes and electrical remodeling...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718666/atrial-cardiopathy-a-mechanism-of-cryptogenic-stroke
#8
Shadi Yaghi, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
Cryptogenic stroke accounts for approximately 30% of all ischemic strokes. Recently, atrial cardiopathy diagnosed by the presence of one of its serum, imaging, or electrocardiogram biomarkers has been shown to be associated with ischemic stroke, particularly of embolic subtypes. Areas covered: This paper aims to summarize data on occult atrial fibrillation and stroke, provide an overview on mechanisms, such as inflammation and fibrosis, of stroke in atrial cardiopathy, critically review data on biomarkers of atrial cardiopathy and their association with stroke, and suggest therapeutic implications, including directions for future research...
July 27, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#9
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658680/submucosal-fibrosis-in-achalasia-patients-is-a-rare-cause-of-aborted-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-procedures
#10
Qiu-Ning Wu, Xiao-Yue Xu, Xiao-Cen Zhang, Mei-Dong Xu, Yi-Qun Zhang, Wei-Feng Chen, Ming-Yan Cai, Wen-Zheng Qin, Jian-Wei Hu, Li-Qing Yao, Quan-Lin Li, Ping-Hong Zhou
Background and aims Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is now an established treatment for esophageal achalasia. The standard protocol ensures a smooth operation in most patients, but technical challenges and failures exist and little is known about the incidence, causes, and impact of aborted procedures. Here, using a large patient cohort, we attempted to answer these questions. Methods All patients admitted for planned POEM between August 2010 and July 2015 underwent chart review. Aborted POEM was defined as the inability to finish the procedure after submucosal injection...
August 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#11
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610723/pathophysiology-of-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-rotors-foci-and-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Dennis H Lau, Dominik Linz, Ulrich Schotten, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman
Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) have further underscored the complex pathophysiological basis of the arrhythmia. It has become apparent that the current clinical classification of AF does not reflect the severity of the underlying atrial disease. Atrial fibrosis has been identified as the key structural change in different substrates that are responsible for the perpetuation of AF. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping and late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging are novel modalities that can be used to facilitate identification and quantitation of atrial fibrosis for improved delineation of the AF substrate...
May 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606607/state-of-the-art-review-atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes
#13
REVIEW
M Darragh Flannery, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, André La Gerche
Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports...
June 3, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592962/how-to-detect-atrial-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Juan Lacalzada-Almeida, Javier García-Niebla
In the last twenty years, new imaging techniques to assess atrial function and to predict the risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation after treatment have been developed. The present review deals with the role of these techniques in the detection of structural and functional changes of the atrium and diagnosis of atrial remodeling, particularly atrial fibrosis. Echocardiography allows the detection of anatomical, functional changes and deformation of the atrial wall during the phases of the cardiac cycle...
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382425/characteristics-of-pr-interval-as-predictor-for-atrial-fibrillation-association-with-biomarkers-and-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Katja Schumacher, Nikolaos Dagres, Gerhard Hindricks, Daniela Husser, Andreas Bollmann, Jelena Kornej
The PR interval may be considered as a simple and easily obtainable predictor for adverse events, including atrial fibrillation (AF), pacemaker implantation, and mortality. Interestingly, both high and low extremes of the PR duration are associated with AF risk. However, the results regarding PR prolongation as a risk factor for AF are inconsistent. Some studies have analyzed the impact of P duration (as a part of the PR interval) and demonstrated that the P-duration contributes to the length of PR interval and adverse outcomes...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#16
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274110/the-role-of-myocardial-fibrosis-in-determining-the-success-rate-of-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Subothini Selvendran, Nikhil Aggarwal, Justin Li, Gary Tse, Vassilios S Vassiliou
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and with an aging population its prevalence will increase. In addition to appropriate anticoagulation to reduce the thromboembolic risk, there has been an increasing need for a personalised approach in identifying which patients are likely to benefit more from atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. This review will discuss the role of myocardial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation, its mechanistic role, association with biomarkers and how this could potentially be of use in the development of a risk score identifying the success of maintaining sinus rhythm following an electrophysiological ablation...
March 7, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271726/molecular-mechanisms-of-atrial-fibrosis-implications-for-the-clinic
#18
REVIEW
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Dennis H Lau, Thomas Agbaedeng, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders
Recent research has unravelled an increasing list of cardiac conditions and risk factors that may be responsible for the abnormal underlying atrial substrate that predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial fibrosis has been demonstrated as the pivotal structural abnormality underpinning conduction disturbances that promote AF in different disease models. Despite the advancement in our discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in the profibrotic milieu, targeted therapeutics against atrial fibrosis remain lacking...
April 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215065/application-of-computer-models-on-atrial-fibrillation-research
#19
Michela Masè
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a multifactorial and multiscale disease, where electrical, structural, anatomical and genetic factors contribute to the emergence of a complex and dynamic macroscopic phenotype. The incomplete understanding of AF mechanisms and the diversity and multiplicity of factors promoting the arrhythmia in humans have hampered the development of effective therapeutic approaches. Computer models and simulation of atrial arrhythmias may represent an unique allied to investigate AF mechanisms and direct therapeutic strategies, being able to merge and provide interpretation for multiscale data from cellular to entire organ scale levels...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169950/update-about-atrial-fibrillation-genetics
#20
Alexandra Pérez-Serra, Oscar Campuzano, Ramon Brugada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is an important cause of morbidity in the aging population. The mechanisms responsible for the triggering and maintenance of the chaotic atrial rhythm are still poorly understood. In this review, we will focus on the genetic aspects of atrial fibrillation, to understand causality, with special emphasis on recent studies published in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure may induce atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of stroke and sudden cardiac death...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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